James Gandon is today recognised as one of the leading architects to have worked in Ireland in the late 18th century and early 19th century. His better known works include The Custom House, the Four Courts, Kings Inns in Dublin, Gandon was an English architect, born on 20 February 1742 in New Bond Street, London, at the house of his grandfather Peter Gandon, a French Huguenot refugee. He was the son of Peter Gandon, a gunmaker. From 1749 he was educated at Shipleys Drawing Academy where he studied the classics, arts, on leaving the drawing academy he was articled to study architecture in the office of Sir William Chambers. Chambers was an advocate of the evolution of Palladian architecture. However, it was Chamberss palladian and neoclassical concepts which most influenced the young Gandon, in 1765, Gandon left William Chambers to begin practice on his own. His first commission was on Sir Samuel Helliers estate at the Wodehouse, Gandons new practice, whilst successful, always remained small.
In about 1769 he entered an competition to design the new Royal Exchange in Dublin. The plan eventually chosen was by Thomas Cooley, Gandons design came second and brought him to the attention of the politicians who were overseeing the large-scale redevelopment of Dublin, one of the largest cities in Europe at the time. During the following years in England, Gandon was responsible for the design of the County Hall in Nottingham, during his English career he was awarded the Gold medal for architecture by the Royal Academy, London in 1768. Thomas Cooley, the architect on that project, had died. The project was completed at a cost of £200,000. This conspicuous commission proved to be the point in Gandons career and Dublin was to become Gandons home. He took a house in Mecklenburgh Street, that he might be near the residence of John Beresford, the newly formed Wide Streets Commission employed Gandon to design a new aristocratic enclave in the vicinity of Mountjoy Square and Gardiner Street. The new classical terraces of large residences became the Town houses of members of the newly built, Gandon designed Carlisle Bridge over the River Liffey to join the north and south areas of the city.
Gandons least well known building in Dublin is his Royal Military Infirmary of 1787 on Infirmary Road and he worked for the Wide Street Commissioners and designed the facades for the shops at ground floor of DOlier Street, Burgh Quay and some surrounding streets. This building is now the Bank of Ireland and his work in Ireland was not confined to Dublin, nor to civic and municipal commissions. J. Woodmason of 1794, and Sandymount Park for the painter William Ashford, in County Laois, he designed Emo Court, County Laois in 1790–96 for the Earl of Portarlington, and Coolbanagher Church of Ireland Church just outside Emo village
Edward Lovett Pearce
Sir Edward Lovett Pearce was an Irish architect, and the chief exponent of palladianism in Ireland. He is thought to have studied as an architect under his fathers first cousin. He is best known for the Irish Houses of Parliament in Dublin, the architectural concepts he employed on both civic and private buildings were to change the face of architecture in Ireland. He could be described as the father of Irish Palladian architecture, following his time in the army, he decided circa 1722, to return to his first career and again began to study architecture, he did this by studying the architectural masterpieces of France and Italy. However it was in the Veneto that he found the style of architecture which was to him most. He made detailed drawings of many of the great villas designed by Palladio which were to serve as the inspiration for his work and he met in Italy the Florentine architect Alessandro Galilei, who was working from afar on a vast grandiose mansion near Dublin – Castletown. About 1725 Edward married Ann, his own first-cousin, daughter of General Thomas Pearce and they were to have four daughters who inherited great-grandfather Pearces manor of Whitlingham by Norwich, Norfolk.
Mary, Mrs Lewis Thomas Mrs James Slator but mother of Major-General Lewis Thomas, Mrs Chambre Hallowes, Mrs Benjamin Lake and Henrietta and he remained a Captain in Colonel Clement Nevilles Dragoons. Castletown House is the largest and one of the most important country houses in Ireland, the mansion was commissioned by William Conolly, a self-made man who had risen from humble origins through astute property dealings to become one of the wealthiest and influential men in Ireland. The original plans were drawn by Alessandro Galilei circa 1718, the new mansion was intended to reflect Connolys political power as Lord Justice of Ireland, Galilei though returned to Italy in 1719, having drawn the plans, but not waiting to see building on the Castletown site commence. In fact work was not to start until 1722, for two years, the project seems to have continued unsupervised, until in 1724, it was taken over by the twenty-five-year-old Edward Lovett Pearce. Just returned to Ireland from Italy, it is likely that Pearce had been working on the plans with Galilei there, hence Pierces connection with Castletown probably predates his return to Ireland.
It is possible that it was to oversee the building of Castletown that provided Pearce with the impetus to return home to Ireland, building at Castletown was to continue for the rest of Pearces life. It is not known precisely how much of Castletown is Galileis work, if in Italy Pearce had been employed by Galilei and worked on the plans, then, as was the custom of the time, Pearces work as an employee would have been credited to his master. Galilei was certainly responsible for devising the overall scheme of a principal centre mansion, Castletown was the first house in Ireland designed with this layout. The rigid symmetry of Castletowns classical facades, designed by Galilei was to be typical too of Pearces work. The interiors and final plans are believed to be the work of Pearce. Such a mansion as Castletown, in Italy, would have been a town Palazzo rather than a country villa
Merrion Square is a Georgian garden square on the southside of Dublin city centre. The square was laid out after 1762 and was complete by the beginning of the 19th century. The demand for such Georgian townhouse residences south of the River Liffey had been fuelled by the decision of the Earl of Kildare to build his Dublin home on the undeveloped southside. He constructed the largest aristocratic residence in Dublin, Leinster House, aristocrats and the wealthy sold their northside townhouses and migrated to the new southside developments. Merrion Square is considered one of the citys finest surviving squares, three sides are lined with Georgian redbrick townhouses, the West side abuts the grounds of Leinster House, Government Buildings, the Natural History Museum and the National Gallery. The central railed-off garden is now a public park, the Wellington Testimonial to commemorate the victories of Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington, was originally planned to be located in Merrion Square.
However it was built in the Phoenix Park after opposition from the squares residents, until about the 1950s, the houses in the square were largely residential, but today most of them are used for office accommodation. The Irish Red Cross and the Irish Georgian Society have their headquarters on the square, the poet and satirist Oscar Wilde lived at No. 82, and Daniel OConnell at No,58, the latter of which is now known as the OConnell House, home to the Keough Naughton Centre of the University of Notre Dame, an American college. The National Maternity Hospital is on the North terrace, a number of houses in the square have plaques with historical information on former notable residents, including A. E. and Sheridan Le Fanu. Currently, the Embassies of France and Slovakia are based on the side of the square. The earliest plan of the shows a double line of trees around the perimeter which was enclosed by railings in the early years of the 19th century. A Jardin Anglaise approach was adopted for the layout of the park with contoured grass areas, informal tree clumps, sunken curved paths, up until the 1960s the park was only open to residents in possession of a private key.
Now managed by Dublin City Council, the contains a statue of Oscar Wilde. 1, Merrion Square from 1855 to 1876, many other sculptures, the Irish American sculptor Jerome Connor, best known for his work Nuns of the Battlefield in Washington DC, designed the public art piece, Eire. The park contains a sculpture of a Jesters Chair in memory of Father Ted star Dermot Morgan, the park in the square was called Archbishop Ryan Park, after Dermot Ryan, the Catholic archbishop who transferred ownership to the city. In 2009, Dermot Ryan was criticised in the Murphy Report, in January 2010, in September 2010, the City Council voted to rename the park as Merrion Square Park. The park was used by the St John Ambulance Brigade for annual events such as review
Charles Stewart Parnell
Charles Stewart Parnell was an Irish nationalist politician and one of the most powerful figures in the British House of Commons in the 1880s. Born into a wealthy and powerful Anglo-Irish Protestant landowning family, he entered the House of Commons in 1875 and he was imprisoned in Kilmainham Gaol in 1882 but, a very capable negotiator, was released when he renounced violent extra-Parliamentary action. That same year he reformed the Home Rule League as the Irish Parliamentary Party, the hung Parliament of 1885 saw him hold the balance of power between William Gladstones Liberals and Lord Salisburys Conservatives. His power was one factor in Gladstones adoption of Home Rule as the central tenet of the Liberal Party and his reputation peaked in 1889-90 when letters published in The Times linking him to the Phoenix Park murders of 1882 were shown to have been forged by Richard Pigott. He headed a minority faction until his death in 1891. Gladstone described him as, I do not say the ablest man, I say the most remarkable and the most interesting.
Liberal leader H. H. Asquith called him as one of the three or four greatest men of the 19th century, while Lord Haldane described him as the strongest man the House of Commons had seen in 150 years. Taylor says, More than any man he gave Ireland the sense of being an independent nation. There were eleven children in all, five boys and six girls, admiral Stewarts mother, Parnells great-grandmother, belonged to the Tudor family, so Parnell had a distant relationship with the British Royal Family. The family produced a number of figures, including Thomas Parnell. Parnells grandfather William Parnell, who inherited the Avondale Estate in 1795, was a liberal Irish MP for Wicklow from 1817–1820, yet it was as a leader of Irish Nationalism that Parnell established his fame. Parnells parents separated when he was six, and as a boy he was sent to different schools in England and his father died in 1859 and he inherited the Avondale estate, while his older brother John inherited another estate in Armagh.
The young Parnell studied at Magdalene College, Cambridge but, due to the financial circumstances of the estate he inherited, he was absent a great deal. In 1871, he joined his elder brother John Howard Parnell and their travels took them mostly through the South and apparently the brothers neither spent much time in centres of Irish immigration nor sought out Irish-Americans. In 1874, he became High Sheriff of Wicklow, his county in which he was an officer in the Wicklow militia. He was noted as a landowner who played an important part in opening the south Wicklow area to industrialisation. His attention was drawn to the theme dominating the Irish political scene of the mid-1870s and it was in support of this movement that Parnell first tried to stand for election in Wicklow, but as high sheriff was disqualified. He failed again in 1874 as home rule candidate in a County Dublin by-election, historian Kevin Flynn reports, When Gladstone came to know him in years, he was astonished to find that Parnell was ignorant even of the basic facts of Irish history
Lord Lieutenant of Ireland
Lord Lieutenant was the title of the chief governor of Ireland from the Williamite Wars of 1690 till the Partition of Ireland in 1922. This spanned the Kingdom of Ireland and the United Kingdom of Great Britain, the office, under its various names, was often more generally known as the viceroy, from the French vice roi or deputy king, and his wife was known as the vicereine. The government of Ireland in practice was usually in the hands of the Lord Deputy up to the 17th century, although in the Middle Ages some Lords Deputy were Irish noblemen, only men from Great Britain, usually peers, were appointed to the office of Lord Lieutenant. The Kings representative possessed a number of overlapping roles and he was the representative of the King, the head of the executive in Ireland, a member of the English or British Cabinet, the font of mercy and patronage, commander-in-chief in Ireland. His Government exercised effective control of parliament through the exercise of the powers of patronage, namely the awarding of peerages, baronetcies.
Critics accused successive viceroys of using their power as a corrupt means of controlling parliament. On one day in July 1777, Lord Buckinghamshire as Lord Lieutenant promoted 5 viscounts to earls,7 barons to viscounts, under-Secretary for Ireland, The head of the civil service in Ireland. Lord Justices, Three office-holders who acted in the Lord Lieutenants stead during his absence, the Lord Justices were before 1800 the Lord Chancellor of Ireland, the Speaker of the Irish House of Commons, and the Church of Ireland Archbishop of Armagh as Primate of All Ireland. Lords Lieutenant were appointed for no set term but served for His/Her Majestys pleasure, in reality that meant for as long as wished by the British Government. Where a ministry fell, the Lord Lieutenant was usually replaced by a supporter of the new ministry, until the 16th century, Irish or Anglo-Irish noblemen such as the 8th Earl of Kildare and the 9th Earl of Kildare traditionally held the post of Justiciar or Lord Deputy. Following the plantations, noblemen from Great Britain were given the post, the last Irish Catholic to hold the position was Lord Tyrconnell from 1685–91, during the brief Catholic Ascendancy in the reign of James II that was ended by the Williamite war in Ireland.
Until 1767 none of the latter lived full-time in Ireland, instead they resided in Ireland during meetings of the Irish Parliament. However the British cabinet decided in 1765 that full-time residency should be required to enable the Lord Lieutenant to keep a eye on public affairs in Ireland. The office was restricted to members of the Anglican faith, the first Catholic appointed to the post since the reign of the Catholic King James II was in fact the last viceroy, Lord FitzAlan of Derwent, in April 1921. His appointment was possible because the Government of Ireland Act 1920 ended the prohibition on Catholics being appointed to the position, FitzAlan was the only Lord Lieutenant of Ireland ever to hold office when the former Ireland was partitioned into Southern Ireland and Northern Ireland. The post ebbed and flowed in importance, being used on occasion as a form of exile for prominent British politicians who had fallen foul of the Court of St. Jamess or Westminster, on other occasions it was a stepping stone to a future career.
Two Lords Lieutenant, Lord Hartington and the Duke of Portland, instead it was the Chief Secretary for Ireland who became central, with he, not the Lord Lieutenant, sitting on occasion in the British cabinet. The official residence of the Lord Lieutenant was the Viceregal Apartments in Dublin Castle, the Geraldine Lords Deputy, the 8th Earl of Kildare and the 9th Earl of Kildare, being native Irish, both lived in, among other locations, their castle in Maynooth, County Kildare
Christ Church Cathedral, Dublin
It is situated in Dublin, and is the elder of the capital citys two medieval cathedrals, the other being St Patricks Cathedral. Christ Church is officially claimed as the seat of both the Church of Ireland and Roman Catholic archbishops of Dublin, in law, and in fact it has been the cathedral of only the Church of Irelands Archbishop of Dublin, since the English Reformation. Though nominally claimed as his cathedral, the Roman Catholic Archbishop of Dublin uses St Marys in Marlborough Street in Dublin as his pro-cathedral, Christ Church Cathedral is located in the former heart of medieval Dublin, next to Wood Quay at the end of Lord Edward Street. As a result, the cathedral now appears dominant in isolation behind new civil offices along the quays, in recent years the Cathedral has offered a great set for Medieval Dramas such as the CWs hit drama Reign. The Main Building of Christchurch Cathedral was used to film pivotal moments in the dramas pilot, Christ Church is the only one of the three cathedrals or acting cathedrals which can be seen clearly from the River Liffey.
The cathedral was founded sometime after 1028 when King Sitric Silkenbeard. The church was built on the ground overlooking the Viking settlement at Wood Quay and Sitric gave the lands of Baldoyle, Raheny. The cathedral was staffed by secular clergy. The second Bishop of Dublin introduced the Benedictines, Henry II attended the Christmas service at the cathedral in 1171. According to the cathedral guidebook this was the first time Henry received Holy Communion following the murder of Thomas Beckett by Henrys knights in Canterbury, Edmund and St. Mary and St. Lô. A chapel to St Laurence OToole was added in the 13th century and its design was inspired by the architecture of the English western school of Gothic, and its wrought stones- of a Somersetshire oolite- were sculpted and laid by craftsmen from the same area. In the 1350s a major extension was undertaken by John de St Paul, by 1358, the nave of the cathedral was partly in use for secular purposes and a long quire was added, extending the old choir area by around 10 metres.
St Paul installed an organ and his works were destroyed by the major rebuilding project in the 1870s. In 1480 the wealthy judge William Sutton bequeathed all his lands, the cathedral was the location of the purported coronation, in 1487, of Lambert Simnel, a boy pretender who sought unsuccessfully to depose Henry VII of England, as King Edward VI. In 1493, the school was founded. In 1539, King Henry VIII converted the priory to a cathedral with a dean and chapter and his immediate successor, Edward VI of England, in 1547, provided funds for an increase in cathedral staffing and annual royal funding for the choir school. King Edward VI formally suppressed St Patricks Cathedral and, on 25 April 1547, its silver and ornaments were transferred to the dean, belonging to that cathedral and which had been in the possession of the dean and chapter of Christ Church. Queen Mary I of England, and James I of England, meanwhile, in 1551, divine service was sung for the first time in Ireland in English instead of Latin
Victoria was Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 20 June 1837 until her death. From 1 May 1876, she adopted the title of Empress of India. Victoria was the daughter of Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, both the Duke of Kent and King George III died in 1820, and Victoria was raised under close supervision by her German-born mother Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld. She inherited the throne aged 18, after her fathers three brothers had all died, leaving no surviving legitimate children. The United Kingdom was already a constitutional monarchy, in which the sovereign held relatively little direct political power. Privately, Victoria attempted to influence government policy and ministerial appointments, Victoria married her first cousin, Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, in 1840. Their nine children married into royal and noble families across the continent, tying them together, after Alberts death in 1861, Victoria plunged into deep mourning and avoided public appearances.
As a result of her seclusion, republicanism temporarily gained strength and her Golden and Diamond Jubilees were times of public celebration. Her reign of 63 years and seven months is known as the Victorian era and it was a period of industrial, political and military change within the United Kingdom, and was marked by a great expansion of the British Empire. She was the last British monarch of the House of Hanover and her son and successor, Edward VII, belonged to the House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, the line of his father. Victorias father was Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, until 1817, Edwards niece, Princess Charlotte of Wales, was the only legitimate grandchild of George III. Her death in 1817 precipitated a crisis that brought pressure on the Duke of Kent. In 1818 he married Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, a widowed German princess with two children—Carl and Feodora —by her first marriage to the Prince of Leiningen and her brother Leopold was Princess Charlottes widower.
The Duke and Duchess of Kents only child, was born at 4.15 a. m. on 24 May 1819 at Kensington Palace in London. Victoria was christened privately by the Archbishop of Canterbury, Charles Manners-Sutton, on 24 June 1819 in the Cupola Room at Kensington Palace and she was baptised Alexandrina, after one of her godparents, Emperor Alexander I of Russia, and Victoria, after her mother. Additional names proposed by her parents—Georgina and Augusta—were dropped on the instructions of the Dukes eldest brother, the Duke of Clarence and the Duke of Kent married on the same day in 1818, but both of Clarences daughters died as infants. Victorias father died in January 1820, when Victoria was less than a year old, a week her grandfather died and was succeeded by his eldest son, George IV. The Duke of York died in 1827, when George IV died in 1830, he was succeeded by his next surviving brother, William IV, and Victoria became heir presumptive
City Hall, Dublin
The City Hall, originally the Royal Exchange, is a civic building in Dublin, Ireland. It was built between 1769 and 1779 to the designs of architect Thomas Cooley and is an example of 18th-century architecture in the city. Located at the top of Parliament Street on the southern side, it stands next to Dublin Castle. The street had been built in 1753, providing a continuation of Capel Street on the bank of the Liffey, across the newly widened Essex Bridge. The external structure is made out of white Portland stone from a quarry in Dorset. The function of the building was to provide a place for Dublins businessmen. It was close to the Customs House that stood on the site of todays Clarence Hotel, in the 18th century, meetings were held in South William Street. In 1815 the metal balustrade of the fell, owing to the pressure against it by a crowd. This led to restrictions in the building. In the 1850s, the City Corporation bought the Royal Exchange, the changes included partitions around the ambulatory, the construction of a new staircase from the Rotunda to the upper floors and the sub-division of the vaults for storage.
On 30 September 1852, the Royal Exchange was renamed City Hall at the first meeting of Dublin City Council held there, a series of frescos were added, representing the regions of Ireland. During the 1916 Easter Rising, the City Hall was used as a garrison for the Irish Citizen Army, Sean Connolly seized the building using a key which he obtained as he worked in the motor department and had access to the building. There were 35 people based here, mostly women and it was in this area where the first casualty of the rising, a guard named James O’Brien, occurred at Dublin Castle and he was shot by Sean Connolly while on duty. In total, the siege lasted about 12 hours. The building was restored to its 18th-century appearance at the beginning of the 21st century, most Dublin City Council staff are located in the relatively new and controversial Civic Offices, built from 1979 on the site of a national monument, the Viking city foundations on Wood Quay. Dublin Corporation itself was renamed in the early 21st century as Dublin City Council.
Council meetings take place in City Hall, there is an exhibition on the history of Dublin City, called Dublin City Hall, The Story of the Capital, located in the vaults. There is currently little opportunity to see the City Council at work, though the website has raised the questions of greater public access
James Butler, 1st Duke of Ormond
Following the failure of the senior line of the Butler family, he was the second of the Kilcash branch to inherit the earldom. His friend, the 1st Earl of Strafford, caused him to be appointed the commander of the Cavalier forces in Ireland, from 1641 to 1647, he led the fighting against the Irish Catholic Confederation. From 1649 to 1650 he was the commander of the Royalist forces in the fight against the Cromwellian conquest of Ireland. In the 1650s he lived in exile in Europe with King Charles II of England, upon the restoration of Charles to the throne in 1660, Ormonde became a major figure in English and Irish politics, holding many high government offices. James Butler was the eldest son of Thomas Butler, Viscount Thurles and of Elizabeth, Lady Thurles and his sister Elizabeth married Nicholas Purcell, 13th Baron of Loughmoe. Jamess paternal grandfather was Walter Butler, 11th Earl of Ormond and he was born at Clerkenwell, London,19 October 1610, in the house of his maternal grandfather, Sir John Poyntz.
Shortly after his birth, his parents returned to Ireland, the Butlers of Ormonde were an Old English dynasty who had dominated the southeast of Ireland since the Middle Ages. Upon the shipwreck and death of his father in 1619, the lad was by courtesy styled Viscount Thurles. It was not long before James I of England, anxious that the heir of the Butlers should be brought up a Protestant, placed him at Lambeth, under the care of George Abbot, archbishop of Canterbury. The Ormond estates being under sequestration the young Lord had but £40 a year for his own and his servants clothing and he appears to have been entirely neglected by the Archbishop — he was not instructed even in humanity, nor so much as taught to understand Latin. When fifteen he went to live with his grandfather at Drury-lane who through length of his confinement and his age, was grown very infirm. This was very important for Butlers future life, as it meant that, unlike almost all his relatives in the Butler dynasty, having now more means at command, he entered into all the gaieties of the court and town.
It was during his London residence that he set himself to learn Irish, Charles I gave his consent by letters patent, on 8 September 1629. At Christmas 1629, they married putting an end to the quarrel between the families and united their estates. In 1634, on the death of his grandfather, he succeeded to the earldom, ormonds active career began in 1633 with the appointment as head of government in Ireland of Thomas Wentworth, 1st Earl of Strafford, by whom Ormonde was treated with great favour. Writing to Charles I, Wentworth described Ormonde as young, but take it from me, Ormonde became Wentworths chief friend and supporter. Wentworth planned large scale confiscations of Catholic-owned land, both to money for the crown and to break the political power of the Irish Catholic gentry. Yet, it infuriated his relatives, and drove many of them into opposition to Wentworth, in 1640, with Wentworth having been recalled to attend to the Second Bishops War in England, Ormonde was made commander-in-chief of the forces in Ireland
Parnell Square is a Georgian square sited at the northern end of OConnell Street, and west of Mountjoy Square, in the city of Dublin, Ireland. Formerly named Rutland Square, it was renamed after Charles Stewart Parnell, as was Parnell Street, surrounded on three sides by terraces of original intact Georgian houses, much of the southern part of the square and its centre is taken up by extensions of the Rotunda Hospital. The Garden of Remembrance is located along the side of this area. Its main entrance is on the side of the square. In the south corner of the square, where it meets with OConnell Street, is sited the Gate Theatre. Extensive pleasure gardens, subsequently forming the body of the square, were located to the rear of the hospital in the original development, the Hugh Lane Gallery is on the north side of the square. It was erected in cut stone by Lord Charlemont to a design by William Chambers during the Georgian period, on this side is the Dublin Writers Museum and the Irish Writers Centre.
One of Dublins most acclaimed restaurants, Michelin Star since 2007, on the south side of the square is Conways bar, outside of which Pearse surrendered to the British Army after the 1916 Easter Rising. The political party Sinn Féin has its Dublin head office and shop on the side of the square. The western side is known for offices of a number of trades unions, on the western side is the St. Martins Apostolate office, which includes a small basement chapel. The St. Martins Apostolate office is known in Dublin for its moving crib that is open to the public each Christmas. No 5 – Birthplace of Oliver St John Gogarty, surgeon, a friend of Michael Collins and the writers WB Yeats and James Joyce, Gogarty was unwillingly immortalised as Buck Mulligan in the Ulysses. From the early 1920s until the early 1930s No 5 served as headquarters of Cumann na nGaedheal, No 9 Cavendish Row – Dr Bartholomew Mosse and surgeon. Mosse lived here, having originally hailed from Portlaoise and he founded the Rotunda Hospital, located in the square and which was built to designs of Richard Cassels between 1751 and 1757.
The emergence of Parnell Square as a square is largely attributable to the pleasure gardens him as he laid out pleasure gardens to pay for the hospital, No.14 Parnell Square was the headquarters of Conradh na Gaeilge in the 1940s and 1950s and perhaps into the 1960s. The Ard-chraobh of the Gaelic League was in this building, No 25 Parnell Square, Gaelic League building. No 29 –30 Parnell Square – Formerly Vaughans Hotel, a hiding and meeting place for Michael Collins. No 41 Parnell Square – this building was formerly the Irish National Foresters Hall, prior to 1916 it was used for drilling both by the Irish Republican Brotherhood and the Volunteers, on the eve of the outbreak of the Easter Rising Éamon de Valera assembled the 3rd Battalion here
Henrietta Street, Dublin
Henrietta Street is a Dublin street, to the north of Bolton Street on the north side of the city, first laid out and developed by Luke Gardiner during the 1720s. A very wide relative to streets in other 18th-century cities. The nearby Bolton Street is named after Paulet, henrietta Street is the earliest Georgian Street in Dublin, and at the forefront Dublins Georgian streetscapes. Construction on the street started in the mid-1720s, on land bought by the Gardiner family in 1721, Construction was still taking place in the 1750s. Gardiner had a mansion, designed by Richard Cassels, built for his own use around 1730, the street fell into disrepair during the 19th and 20th centuries, with the houses being used as tenements. A number of houses on the street remained in use as tenements until the 1970s, in the late 20th and early 21st centuries, the street has been subject to restoration efforts. As of 2017, there are 13 houses on the street, the street is a cul-de-sac, with the Law Library of Kings Inns facing onto its western end.
The street is somewhat popular period-location for film and TV companies, with productions filmed including Albert Nobbs, Inspector George Gently, some of these houses have suffered further deterioration following the slowing of the Irish economy from 2008. The street was popular with landed and merchant families. The houses were built to have gardens and mews. No.3 Resident, Owen Wynne No.4 Construction, Built after 1755 Resident, John Maxwell, 1st Baron Farnham from 1757 and this house remained in the possession of the same family until 1852. No.5 Construction, Built by Nathaniel Clements about 1741 for Henry OBrien Resident, Henry O’Brien, 8th Earl of Thomond
St Stephen's Green
St Stephens Green is a city centre public park in Dublin, Ireland. The current landscape of the park was designed by William Sheppard and it is often informally called Stephens Green. At 22 acres, it is the largest of the parks in Dublins main Georgian garden squares, others include nearby Merrion Square and Fitzwilliam Square. These four bordering streets are called, respectively, St Stephens Green North, St Stephens Green South, St Stephens Green East, until 1663 St Stephens Green was a marshy common on the edge of Dublin, used for grazing. In that year Dublin Corporation, seeing an opportunity to raise much needed revenue, decided to enclose the centre of the common, the park was enclosed with a wall in 1664. The houses built around the Green were rapidly replaced by new buildings in the Georgian style, much of the present-day landscape of the square comprises modern buildings, some in a replica Georgian style, and relatively little survives from the 18th and 19th centuries. In 1814 control of St Stephens Green passed to Commissioners for the local householders and he paid for the laying out of the Green in approximately its current form, which took place in 1880, and gave it to the Corporation, as representatives of the people.
By way of thanks the city commissioned a statue of him and his brother Edward lived at Iveagh House, which his descendants gave in 1939 to the Department of External Affairs. They numbered between 200 and 250 and they confiscated motor vehicles to establish road blocks on the streets that surround the park, and dug defensive positions in the park itself. This approach differed from that of taking up positions in buildings, finding themselves in a weak position, the Volunteers withdrew to the Royal College of Surgeons on the west side of the Green. During the Rising, fire was halted to allow the parks groundsman to feed the local ducks. The park is now operated by the Office of Public Works on behalf of the Irish state, the landscaping of the park has undergone three major changes since its inception. Its first major change occurred in 1670, two rows of trees were planted around the perimeter, functioning as its first enclosure. At this time, the park was accessible to the wealthy residents who owned plots around the park.
In 1815 the park was redesigned by the Dublin city surveyor Arthur Neville, in his redesign, he added winding pathways and iron fences. At this time, the park was closed to the public. This included creating four gates at each corner of the park that would be linked by the extant pathways designed by Neville and this plan was eventually abandoned, most likely due to the fact that Hemans was employed by Dublin Corporation. L. Ardilaun played a significant role in the planning and importing of the exotic trees, while the central park of St Stephens Green is one of three ancient commons in the city, its current layout owes much to the restorations of the 1800s