Integrated Authority File
The Integrated Authority File or GND is an international authority file for the organisation of personal names, subject headings and corporate bodies from catalogues. It is used for documentation in libraries and also by archives and museums; the GND is managed by the German National Library in cooperation with various regional library networks in German-speaking Europe and other partners. The GND falls under the Creative Commons Zero licence; the GND specification provides a hierarchy of high-level entities and sub-classes, useful in library classification, an approach to unambiguous identification of single elements. It comprises an ontology intended for knowledge representation in the semantic web, available in the RDF format; the Integrated Authority File became operational in April 2012 and integrates the content of the following authority files, which have since been discontinued: Name Authority File Corporate Bodies Authority File Subject Headings Authority File Uniform Title File of the Deutsches Musikarchiv At the time of its introduction on 5 April 2012, the GND held 9,493,860 files, including 2,650,000 personalised names.
There are seven main types of GND entities: LIBRIS Virtual International Authority File Information pages about the GND from the German National Library Search via OGND Bereitstellung des ersten GND-Grundbestandes DNB, 19 April 2012 From Authority Control to Linked Authority Data Presentation given by Reinhold Heuvelmann to the ALA MARC Formats Interest Group, June 2012
Saint Petersburg State University
Saint Petersburg State University is a Russian federal state-owned higher education institution based in Saint Petersburg. It is one of the largest universities in Russia. Founded in 1724 by a decree of Peter the Great, the University from the beginning has had a strong focus on fundamental research in science and humanities, equipped its graduates with what it takes to contribute to Russia’s success, it is made up of 24 specialized faculties and institutes,the Academic Gymnasium, the Medical College, the College of Physical culture and Sports and Technology. The university has the other in Peterhof. During the Soviet period, it was known as Leningrad State University, it was named after Andrei Zhdanov in 1948. Saint Petersburg State University is the second best multi-faculty university in Russia after Moscow State University. In international rankings, the university was ranked 240th in 2013/2014, by the QS World University Rankings, it was placed 351–400th by the Times Higher Education World University Rankings and 301–400th by the Academic Ranking of World Universities outperforming the rest of universities in Russia excluding Moscow State University.
The university has a reputation for having educated the majority of Russia's political elite. The university is Russia's oldest university, founded in 1724 by Peter the Great, which predates the foundation of Moscow State University in 1755. Saint Petersburg state university is included in all ratings and lists of the best universities in the world and is one of the leaders in all indicators in Russia; the university was the first from Russian universities to join The Coimbra Group, it now represents Russia. It is disputed by the university administration whether Saint Petersburg State University or Moscow State University is the oldest higher education institution in Russia. While the latter was established in 1755, the former, in continuous operation since 1819, claims to be the successor of the university established along with the Academic Gymnasium and the Saint Petersburg Academy of Sciences on January 24, 1724, by a decree of Peter the Great. In the period between 1804 and 1819, Saint Petersburg University did not exist.
The Petersburg Pedagogical Institute, renamed the Main Pedagogical Institute in 1814, was established in 1804 and occupied a part of the Twelve Collegia building. On February 8, 1819, Alexander I of Russia reorganized the Main Pedagogical Institute into Saint Petersburg University, which at that time consisted of three faculties: Faculty of Philosophy and Law, Faculty of History and Philology and Faculty of Physics and Mathematics; the Main Pedagogical Institute was restored in 1828 as an educational institution independent of Saint Petersburg University, trained teachers until it was closed in 1859. In 1821, the university was renamed Saint Petersburg Imperial University. In 1823, most of the university moved from the Twelve Collegia to the southern part of the city beyond the Fontanka. In 1824, a modified version of the charter of Moscow University was adopted as the first charter of the Saint Petersburg Imperial University. In 1829, there were 19 full 169 full-time and part-time students at the university.
In 1830, Tsar Nicholas returned the entire building of the Twelve Collegia back to the university, courses resumed there. In 1835, a new Charter of the Imperial Universities of Russia was approved, it provided for the establishment of the Faculty of Law, the Faculty of History and Philology, the Faculties of Physics and Mathematics, which were merged into the Faculty of Philosophy as the 1st and 2nd Departments, respectively. In 1849, after the Spring of Nations, the Senate of the Russian Empire decreed that the Rector should be appointed by the Minister of National Enlightenment rather than elected by the Assembly of the university. However, Pyotr Pletnyov was reappointed Rector and became the longest-serving rector of Saint Petersburg University. In 1855, Oriental studies were separated from the Faculty of History and Philology, the fourth faculty, Faculty of Oriental Languages, was formally inaugurated on August 27, 1855. In 1859–1861, female part-time students could attend lectures in the university.
In 1861, there were 1,270 full-time and 167 part-time students in the university, of them 498 were in the Faculty of Law, the largest subdivision. But this subdivision had the cameral studies department, where students learnt safety, occupational health and environmental engineering management and science, including chemistry, agronomy along with law and philosophy. Many Russian, Georgian etc. managers and scientists studied at the Faculty of law therefore. During 1861–1862, there was student unrest in the university, it was temporarily closed twice during the year; the students were denied freedom of assembly and placed under police surveillance, public lectures were forbidden. Many students were expelled. After the unrest, in 1865, only 524 students remained. A decree of the Emperor Alexander II of Russia adopted on February 18, 1863, restored the right of the university assembly to elect the rector, it formed the new faculty of the theory and history of art as part of the faculty of
The hryvnia, sometimes hryvnya. The hryvnia is subdivided into 100 kopiyky, it is named after a measure of weight used in medieval Kievan Rus'. The currency of Kievan Rus' in the eleventh century was called grivna; the word is thought to derive from the Slavic griva. Ukrainian, Russian and Serbo-Croatian грива / griva, meaning "mane", it might have indicated something valuable worn around the neck made of silver or gold. Bulgarian and Serbian grivna; the word was used to describe silver or gold ingots of a certain weight. Ukrainian hryvenyk, Russian grivennik; the modern Ukrainian hryvnia is sometimes transliterated as hryvna, gryvna or grivna, due to its Russian language counterpart, гри́вна, pronounced grívna. However, the standard English name for the currency is hryvnia; the National Bank of Ukraine has recommended that a distinction be made between hryvnia and grívna in both historical and practical means. The nominative plural of hryvnia is hryvni, while the genitive plural is hryven’. In Ukrainian, the nominative plural form is used for numbers ending with 2, 3, or 4, as in dvi hryvni, the genitive plural is used for numbers ending with 5 to 9 and 0, for example sto hryven’.
An exception for this rule is numbers ending in 11, 12, 13 and 14 for which the genitive plural is used, for example, dvanadciat’ hryven’. The singular for the subdivision is копійка, the nominative plural is копійки and the genitive is копійок; the hryvnia sign is a cursive Ukrainian letter He, with a double horizontal stroke, symbolizing stability, similar to that used in other currency symbols such as the yen, euro or Indian rupee. The sign was encoded as U+20B4 in Unicode 4.1 and released in 2005. It is now supported by most systems. In Ukraine, if the hryvnia sign is unavailable, the Cyrillic abbreviation "грн." is used. A currency called hryvna was used in Kievan Rus'. In 1917, after the Ukrainian National Republic declared independence from the Russian Empire, the name of the new Ukrainian currency became hryvnia, a revised version of the Kievan Rus' hryvna; the designer was Heorhiy Narbut. The hryvnia replaced the karbovanets during the period 2–16 September 1996, at a rate of 1 hryvnia = 100,000 karbovantsiv.
The karbovanets was subject to hyperinflation in the early 1990s following the collapse of the USSR. To a large extent, the introduction of hryvnia was secretive. Hryvnia was introduced according to President's Decree dated 26 August 1996, published on August 29. During the transition period, September 2–16, both hryvnia and karbovanets were used in circulation, but merchants were required to give change only in hryvnias. All bank accounts were converted to hryvnia automatically. During the transition period, 97% of karbovanets were taken out of circulation, including 56% in the first 5 days of the currency reform. After 16 September 1996, the remaining karbovanets were allowed to be exchanged to hryvnias in banks; the hryvnia was introduced during the period when Victor Yushchenko was the chairman of National Bank of Ukraine. However, the first banknotes issued bore the signature of the previous National Bank chairman, Vadym Hetman, who resigned back in 1993, because the first notes had been printed as early as 1992 by the Canadian Bank Note Company, but it was decided to delay their circulation until the hyperinflation in Ukraine was brought under control.
On 18 March 2014, following its annexation by Russia, the new Republic of Crimea announced that the Ukrainian hryvina was to be dropped as the region's currency in April 2014. The Russian rouble became an "official" currency in annexed Crimea on 21 March 2014; until 1 June 2014, the hryvnia could be used for cash payments only. By contrast, the hryvnia remains the predominant currency in the conflicted raions of Donbass, i. e. in the secessionist areas of Donetsk and Lugansk. No coins were issued for the first hryvnia. Coins were first struck in 1992 for the new currency but were not introduced until September 1996. Coins valued between 1 and 50 kopecks were issued. In March 1997, 1 hryvnia coins were added. Since 2004 several commemorative 1 hryvnia coins have been struck. In October 2012 the National Bank of Ukraine announced that it is examining the possibility of withdrawing the 1- and 2-kopeck coins from circulation; the coins had become too expensive to produce compared to their nominal value.
Due to actual reports 1- and 2-kopek coins are not produced anymore since 2013, but will remain in circulation. On 26 October 2012, the National Bank of Ukraine announced it is considering the introduction of a 2-hryvnia coin. Per July 1, 2016 12.4 billion coins with a face value of 1.4 billion UAH were in circulation. In 1996, the first series of hryvnia banknotes was introduced into circulation by the National Bank of Ukraine, they were dated 1992 and were in denominations of 1, 2, 5, 10 and 20 hryven'. The design of the banknotes was developed by Ukrainian artists Vasyl Borys Maksymov. One hryvnya banknotes were printed by the Canadian Bank Note Company in 1992. Two and ten hryvnya banknotes were printed two years later; until introduction into circulation the banknotes were kept in Canada. Banknotes of the first series in denominations of 50 and 100 hryven existed but were not introduced because
Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv
Shevchenko University or the Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv, colloquially known in Ukrainian as KNU is located in Kiev, the capital of Ukraine. KNU is ranked within top 500 Universities in the world, it is the third oldest university in Ukraine after the University of University of Kharkiv. Its structure consists of fifteen faculties and five institutes, it was founded in 1834 as the Kiev Imperial University of Saint Vladimir, since it has changed its name several times. During the Soviet Union era, Taras Shevchenko University was one of the top-three universities in the USSR, along with Moscow State University and Leningrad State University, it is ranked as the best university in Ukraine in many rankings. Throughout history, the university has produced many famous alumni including Nikolay Bunge, Mykhailo Drahomanov, Mykhailo Hrushevskyi, Nikolai Berdyaev, Mikhail Bulgakov, Viacheslav Chornovil, Leonid Kravchuk, many others. Taras Shevchenko himself, banned from educational activities for political reasons, worked for the Kyiv University as a field researcher.
Taras Shevchenko University is named after Taras Shevchenko, a major figure in Ukrainian literature and art. It is an institution of higher education that trains specialists in many fields of knowledge and carries out research, it is considered the most prestigious university in Ukraine and a major centre of advanced learning and progressive thinking. It consists of more faculties and departments, trains specialists in a greater number of academic fields, than any other Ukrainian educational institution. Nowadays, as it has done throughout its history, the University retains its role of a major center of learning and research as well as an important cultural center, its academics and students follow the long-standing traditions of the highest academic standards and democratic ideals. At present, the student body of Taras Shevchenko University totals about <30,000 students. As training qualified specialists has always been the main goal, the faculties and departments revise their curricula and introduce new programs.
A number of faculties offer 4-year Bachelor's and 2-year master's degree programs, together with traditional 5-year Specialist Degree programs. The stress is on student's ability to work independently and meet employer's requirements, thus practical experience in the field being of foremost importance; the curricula of all Taras Shevchenko University faculties are based on the combination of academic instruction with student's research work and the combination of thorough theoretical knowledge with specific skills. Having acquired theoretical knowledge in the first and the second year, in their third year undergraduates choose an area to specialize in. At the same time they choose a field for their independent study; the University was founded in 1834, when the Emperor Nicholas I of Russia signed the Charter about the creation of the University named after Saint Vladimir, the ruler who Christianized the Kievan Rus'. This name was chosen by the authorities of the Russian Empire, where the role of Orthodox Christianity was immense, may have reflected the ongoing importance of Kiev as the cradle of Eastern Christianity for the entire Empire.
The university benefited from assets transferred from Vilnius University, closed in the aftermath of the November Uprising of 1831. The first 62 students started their studies at the university in 1834, in its one faculty, the Faculty of Philosophy, which had two Departments: The Department of History and Philology and The Department of Physics and Mathematics. There were new additions to the original department in 1835 and 1847: the Faculty of Law and the Faculty of Medicine. On, the original Faculty of Philosophy was divided into two separate units: the Faculty of History and Philology and the Faculty of Natural Sciences. There were no more additions to the number of departments until the 1920s; the walls of the main building are painted in red while the tops and bottoms of its columns are painted black. Ukrainian composer Mykola Leontovych's Shchedryk was premiered at the Kyiv University on December 26, 1916 by the university's choir directed by Oleksandr Koshyts. In 1920, Saint Vladimir University was renamed as Mykhailo Drahomanov University.
In 1939, Saint Vladimir University was renamed after Taras Shevchenko. Since 1960, when the first international students were admitted, over 20,000 qualified specialists have been trained at Taras Shevchenko University for 120 countries; the first foreign students of the Taras Shevchenko University came from Cuba, Indonesia, Togo, Cameroon, Zanzibar, Yemen and Afghanistan. They continued on to become doctors, agriculturists, diplomats and statesmen in their respective countries. During the Soviet period, the Taras Shevchenko University received one Order of Lenin and one Order of the October Revolution. Additionally, in 2002 the asteroid 4868 Knushevia was named in honour of K
The Russian Empire known as Imperial Russia or Russia, was an empire that existed across Eurasia and North America from 1721, following the end of the Great Northern War, until the Republic was proclaimed by the Provisional Government that took power after the February Revolution of 1917. The third largest empire in world history, at its greatest extent stretching over three continents, Europe and North America, the Russian Empire was surpassed in landmass only by the British and Mongol empires; the rise of the Russian Empire coincided with the decline of neighboring rival powers: the Golden Horde, the Swedish Empire, the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth and the Ottoman Empire. It played a major role in 1812–1814 in defeating Napoleon's ambitions to control Europe and expanded to the west and south; the House of Romanov ruled the Russian Empire from 1721 until 1762, its matrilineal branch of patrilineal German descent the House of Holstein-Gottorp-Romanov ruled from 1762. At the beginning of the 19th century, the Russian Empire extended from the Arctic Ocean in the north to the Black Sea in the south, from the Baltic Sea on the west to the Pacific Ocean, into Alaska and Northern California in America on the east.
With 125.6 million subjects registered by the 1897 census, it had the third-largest population in the world at the time, after Qing China and India. Like all empires, it included a large disparity in terms of economics and religion. There were numerous dissident elements. Economically, the empire had a predominantly agricultural base, with low productivity on large estates worked by serfs, Russian peasants; the economy industrialized with the help of foreign investments in railways and factories. The land was ruled by a nobility from the 10th through the 17th centuries, subsequently by an emperor. Tsar Ivan III laid the groundwork for the empire that emerged, he tripled the territory of his state, ended the dominance of the Golden Horde, renovated the Moscow Kremlin, laid the foundations of the Russian state. Emperor Peter the Great fought numerous wars and expanded an huge empire into a major European power, he moved the capital from Moscow to the new model city of St. Petersburg, led a cultural revolution that replaced some of the traditionalist and medieval social and political mores with a modern, Europe-oriented, rationalist system.
Empress Catherine the Great presided over a golden age. Emperor Alexander II promoted numerous reforms, most the emancipation of all 23 million serfs in 1861, his policy in Eastern Europe involved protecting the Orthodox Christians under the rule of the Ottoman Empire. That connection by 1914 led to Russia's entry into the First World War on the side of France, the United Kingdom, Serbia, against the German and Ottoman empires; the Russian Empire functioned as an absolute monarchy on principles of Orthodoxy and Nationality until the Revolution of 1905 and became a de jure constitutional monarchy. The empire collapsed during the February Revolution of 1917 as a result of massive failures in its participation in the First World War. Though the Empire was only proclaimed by Tsar Peter I following the Treaty of Nystad, some historians would argue that it was born either when Ivan III of Russia conquered Veliky Novgorod in 1478, or when Ivan the Terrible conquered the Khanate of Kazan in 1552. According to another point of view, the term Tsardom, used after the coronation of Ivan IV in 1547, was a contemporary Russian word for empire.
Much of Russia's expansion occurred in the 17th century, culminating in the first Russian colonization of the Pacific in the mid-17th century, the Russo-Polish War that incorporated left-bank Ukraine, the Russian conquest of Siberia. Poland was divided in the 1790 -- 1815 era, with much of the population going to Russia. Most of the 19th-century growth came from adding territory in Asia, south of Siberia. Peter I the Great played a major role in introducing Russia to the European state system. While the vast land had a population of 14 million, grain yields trailed behind those of agriculture in the West, compelling nearly the entire population to farm. Only a small percentage lived in towns; the class of kholops, close in status to slavery, remained a major institution in Russia until 1723, when Peter converted household kholops into house serfs, thus including them in poll taxation. Russian agricultural kholops were formally converted into serfs earlier in 1679. Peter's first military efforts were directed against the Ottoman Turks.
His attention turned to the North. Peter still lacked a secure northern seaport, except at Archangel on the White Sea, where the harbor was frozen for nine months a year. Access to the Baltic was blocked by Sweden. Peter's ambitions for a "window to the sea" led him to make a secret alliance in 1699 with Saxony, the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth and Denmark against Sweden, resulting in the Great Northern War; the war ended in 1721. Peter acquired four provinces situated east of the Gulf of Finland; the coveted access to the sea was now secured. There he built Russia's new capital, Saint Petersburg, to replace Moscow, which had long been Russia's cultural center. In 1722, he tur
Boris Nikolaevich Delaunay or Delone was one of the first Russian mountain climbers and a Soviet/Russian mathematician, the father of physicist Nikolai Borisovich Delone. The spelling Delone is a straightforward transliteration from Cyrillic he used in publications, while Delaunay is the French version he used in the early French and German publications. Boris Delone got his surname from his ancestor French Army officer De Launay, captured in Russia during Napoleon's invasion of 1812. De Launay was a nephew of the Bastille governor marquis de Launay, he stayed in Russia. When Boris was a young boy his family spent summers in the Alps. By 1913, he became one of the top three Russian mountain climbers. After the Russian revolution, he climbed mountains in the Altai. One of the mountains near Belukha is named after him. In the 1930s, he was among the first to receive a qualification of Master of mountain climbing of the USSR. Future Nobel laureate in physics Igor Tamm was his associate in setting tourist camps in the mountains.
Boris Delaunay worked in the fields of the geometry of numbers. He used the results of Evgraf Fedorov, Hermann Minkowski, Georgy Voronoy, others in his development of modern mathematical crystallography and general mathematical model of crystals, he invented what is now called Delaunay triangulation in 1934. Among his best students are the mathematicians Aleksandr Aleksandrov and Igor Shafarevich. Delaunay was elected the corresponding member of the USSR Academy of Sciences in 1929. Delaunay is credited as being an organizer, in Leningrad in 1934, of the first mathematical olympiad for high school students in the Soviet Union. Delone, B. N.. A.. Analytic Geometry. State Technical Press. Kolmogorov, Andrey Nikolaevich et al.. Mathematics: Its Content and Meaning, chapter Analytic Geometry, by B. N. Delone. MIT Press. Biography on the website of the Moscow State University O'Connor, John J.. Boris Delaunay at the Mathematics Genealogy Project Boris Nikolaevich Delone 80th Birthday - Reproduction of an article in Russian Mathematical Surveys 26 199-203, with the kind permission of the London Mathematical Society Pages 199, 200, 201, 202, 203.
N. P. Dolbilin; the Delone Peak