However, historical records about its origin remain uncertain. The charism of the Carmelite Order is contemplation, Carmelites understand contemplation in a broad sense encompassing prayer and service. These three elements are at the heart of the Carmelite charism, the most recent statement about the charism of Carmel was in the 1995 Constitutions of the Order, in which Chapter 2 is entirely devoted to the idea of charism. Carmel understands contemplation and action to be complementary, not contradictory, the Order is considered by the Church to be under the special protection of the Blessed Virgin Mary, and thus has a strong Marian devotion to Our Lady of Mount Carmel. There are such as active Carmelite sisters. Carmelite tradition traces the origin of the order to a community of hermits on Mount Carmel, There are no certain records of hermits on this mountain before the 1190s. By this date a group of men had gathered at the well of Elijah on Mount Carmel and these men, who had gone to Palestine from Europe either as pilgrims or as crusaders, chose Mount Carmel in part because it was the traditional home of Elijah.
The foundation is believed to have dedicated to the Blessed Virgin Mary. Some time between 1206 and 1214 the hermits, about very little is known, approached St. Albert of Jerusalem. The Rule of St. Albert addresses a prior name is only listed as B. When required to name their founders, the Brothers referred to both Elijah and the Blessed Virgin as early models of the community. Later, under pressure from other European Mendicant orders to be more specific, virtually nothing is known of the Carmelites from 1214, when Albert died, until 1238. The Rule of St. Albert was approved by Pope Honorius III in 1226, the Carmelites next appear in the historical record, in 1238, when with the increasing cleavage between the West and the East, the Carmelites found it advisable to leave the Near East. Many moved to Cyprus and Sicily, in 1242, the Carmelites migrated west, establishing a settlement at Aylesford, Kent and Hulne, near Alnwick in Northumberland. Two years later, they established a chapter in southern France, settlements were established at Losenham and Bradmer, on the north Norfolk coast, before 1247.
By 1245 the Carmelites were so numerous in England that they were able to hold their first general chapter at Aylesford, where Saint Simon Stock, eighty years old, was chosen general. During his rule of twenty years the order prospered, foundations were made at London and Cambridge, Cologne, Monpellier, Norwich and Bristol, and elsewhere. By 1274, there were 22 Carmelite houses in England, about the number in France, eleven in Catalonia
Utrecht is a province of the Netherlands. With an area of approximately 1,400 square kilometres, it is the smallest of the twelve provinces, apart from its eponymous capital, major cities in the province are Amersfoort, Nieuwegein, Veenendaal, IJsselstein and Zeist. In the International Organization for Standardization world region code system Utrecht makes up one region with code ISO 3166-2, the Bishopric of Utrecht was established in 695 when Saint Willibrord was consecrated bishop of the Frisians at Rome by Pope Sergius I. With the consent of the Frankish ruler, Pippin of Herstal, after Willibrords death the diocese suffered greatly from the incursions of the Vikings. Better times appeared during the reign of the Saxon emperors, who summoned the Bishops of Utrecht to attend the imperial councils. In 1024 the bishops were made Princes of the Holy Roman Empire, in 1122, with the Concordat of Worms, the Emperors right of investiture was annulled, and the cathedral chapter received the right to elect the bishop.
It was, soon obligated to share this right with the four other chapters in the city. The Counts of Holland and Guelders, between whose territories the lands of the Bishops of Utrecht lay, sought to acquire influence over the filling of the episcopal see and this often led to disputes and consequently the Holy See frequently interfered in the election. After the middle of the 14th century the popes repeatedly appointed the bishop directly without regard to the five chapters, during the Hook and Cod Wars, Utrecht was fought over by forces of the Duke of Burgundy leading to the First Utrecht Civil War and Second Utrecht Civil War. The chapters transferred their right of electing the bishop to Charles V and his government, the Habsburg rule did not last long, as Utrecht joined in the Dutch Revolt against Charles successor Philip II in 1579, becoming a part of the Dutch Republic. In World War II, Utrecht was held by German forces until the capitulation of the Germans in the Netherlands on May 5,1945.
It was occupied by Canadian Allied forces on May 7,1945, the towns of Oudewater and Vianen were transferred from the province of South Holland to Utrecht in 1970,1989 and 2002 respectively. In February 2011, together with the provinces of North Holland and Flevoland and this has been positively received by the Dutch cabinet, for the desire to create one Randstad province has already been mentioned in the coalition agreement. The province of South Holland, part of the Randstad urban area, visioned to be part of the Randstad province, with or without South Holland, if created, the new province would be the largest in the Netherlands in both area and population. In the east of Utrecht lies the Utrecht Hill Ridge, a chain of left as lateral moraine by tongues of glacial ice after the Saline glaciation that preceded the last ice age. Because of the scarcity of nutrients in the sandy soil. The south of the province is a river landscape, the west consists mostly of meadows. In the north are big lakes formed by the digging of peat bogs formed after the last ice age
The Louvre or the Louvre Museum is the worlds largest museum and a historic monument in Paris, France. A central landmark of the city, it is located on the Right Bank of the Seine in the citys 1st arrondissement, approximately 38,000 objects from prehistory to the 21st century are exhibited over an area of 72,735 square metres. The Louvre is the second most visited museum after the Palace Museum in China. The museum is housed in the Louvre Palace, originally built as a fortress in the late 12th century under Philip II, remnants of the fortress are visible in the basement of the museum. Due to the expansion of the city, the fortress eventually lost its defensive function and. The building was extended many times to form the present Louvre Palace, in 1692, the building was occupied by the Académie des Inscriptions et Belles Lettres and the Académie Royale de Peinture et de Sculpture, which in 1699 held the first of a series of salons. The Académie remained at the Louvre for 100 years, during the French Revolution, the National Assembly decreed that the Louvre should be used as a museum to display the nations masterpieces.
The museum opened on 10 August 1793 with an exhibition of 537 paintings, because of structural problems with the building, the museum was closed in 1796 until 1801. The collection was increased under Napoleon and the museum renamed Musée Napoléon, the collection was further increased during the reigns of Louis XVIII and Charles X, and during the Second French Empire the museum gained 20,000 pieces. Holdings have grown steadily through donations and bequests since the Third Republic, whether this was the first building on that spot is not known, it is possible that Philip modified an existing tower. According to the authoritative Grand Larousse encyclopédique, the name derives from an association with wolf hunting den, in the 7th century, St. Fare, an abbess in Meaux, left part of her Villa called Luvra situated in the region of Paris to a monastery. This territory probably did not correspond exactly to the modern site, the Louvre Palace was altered frequently throughout the Middle Ages. In the 14th century, Charles V converted the building into a residence and in 1546, Francis acquired what would become the nucleus of the Louvres holdings, his acquisitions including Leonardo da Vincis Mona Lisa.
After Louis XIV chose Versailles as his residence in 1682, constructions slowed, however, on 14 October 1750, Louis XV agreed and sanctioned a display of 96 pieces from the royal collection, mounted in the Galerie royale de peinture of the Luxembourg Palace. Under Louis XVI, the museum idea became policy. The comte dAngiviller broadened the collection and in 1776 proposed conversion of the Grande Galerie of the Louvre – which contained maps – into the French Museum, many proposals were offered for the Louvres renovation into a museum, none was agreed on. Hence the museum remained incomplete until the French Revolution, during the French Revolution the Louvre was transformed into a public museum. In May 1791, the Assembly declared that the Louvre would be a place for bringing together monuments of all the sciences, on 10 August 1792, Louis XVI was imprisoned and the royal collection in the Louvre became national property
Morgan Library & Museum
It was founded to house the private library of J. P. Morgan in 1906, which included manuscripts and printed books, some of them in rare bindings, as well as his collection of prints and drawings. The library was designed by Charles McKim of the firm of McKim and White and it was made a public institution in 1924 by J. P. Morgans son John Pierpont Morgan, Jr. in accordance with his fathers will. The building was designated a New York City landmark in 1966 and was declared a National Historic Landmark that same year, today the library is a complex of buildings which serve as a museum and scholarly research center. Her successor Frederick Baldwin Adams, Jr. managed the Library until 1969 and was world-renowned for his own personal collections. Among the more famous manuscripts are the Morgan Bible, Morgan Beatus, Hours of Catherine of Cleves, Farnese Hours, Morgan Black Hours, and Codex Glazier. Other notable artists of the Morgan Library and Museum are Jean de Brunhoff, Paul Cézanne, Vincent van Gogh, John Leech, Gaston Phoebus, Rembrandt van Rijn, and John Ruskin.
The Morgan has one of the worlds greatest collections of ancient Near Eastern cylinder seals and it contains many music manuscripts and a considerable collection of Victoriana, including one of the most important collections of Gilbert and Sullivan manuscripts and related artifacts. Of interest to Australians is a copy of the written by Andrea Corsali from India in 1516. This letter, one of five in existence, contains the first description of the Southern Cross which is illustrated by Corsali in this letter. One other copy of the letter is in the British Museum, the fifth is in the Library of Princeton University. The letter is available in Ramusios Viaggi, a compendium of letters of exploration. The first building constructed to house Morgans library – the McKim Building – was designed in the Classical Revival style by Charles Follen McKim of the firm of McKim. Morgan commissioned a house to be built for his daughter a block away at the same time and it is located at 33 East 36th Street, which was at the time just to the east of Morgans residence, a brownstone house at 219 Madison Avenue built in 1880.
McKim took his inspiration from the Villa Giulia and its Nymphaeum, in the entrance are roundels and panels by Andrew OConnor and Adolph Weinman. The rotunda itself has a ceiling with murals and plasterwork inspired by Raphael. Morgans study, now the West Library, has called one of the greatest achievements of American interior decoration. The remaining Italianate brownstone house in the complex is 231 Madison Avenue. This house was built by Isaac Newton Phelps who bequeathed it to his daughter, Helen Stokes and she extended the building, doubling the size and adding an additional attic floor
The Rothschild Prayerbook or Rothschild Hours, is an important Flemish illuminated manuscript book of hours, compiled c. 1500–20 by a number of artists and it has 254 folios, with a page size of 228 ×160 mm. It was once in the Austrian National Library in Vienna as Codex Vindobonensis S. N, since its sale in 1999 it has held the world record price at auction for an illuminated manuscript. In 2014 it was purchased by Australian businessman Kerry Stokes from Christies New York and is on display in the National Library of Australia. Most of the large miniatures are by the Master of the First Prayerbook of Maximilian, an older artist. Other miniatures are by Gerard David, better known as a painter, or a pupil working in his style. There are wide borders, many flowers and other objects and drolleries. Other borders frame the miniature with illusionistically painted wooden tracery, some pages follow the fashion of showing one scene as a framed inset within another larger one, In total 140 pages, over half of the whole book, have significant decoration outside the text.
The calendar has scenes of the Labours of the Months at the bottom of the pages, as with other very lavishly illuminated manuscripts, it was probably worked on over a long period. The early history of the book is obscure, and the owner is unknown. This is a feature shared by several important manuscripts of the late Ghent-Bruges school, where typically the heraldry and portraits of the owners of most luxury manuscripts are not found. The contents of the book, which has extra mass texts and prayers beyond those found in a book of hours, contain distinctive elements that relate it to the Chartreuse des Dunes. By 1500 the printed book of hours had largely replaced manuscript ones, except for books like this. The manuscript belonged to the princely Wittelsbach family in the 16th century and its history is unknown until it reappeared in the collection of the Viennese branch of the Rothschild family in the late 19th century. It was confiscated from Louis Nathaniel von Rothschild immediately after the March 1938 German annexation of Austria, in exchange the family was allowed to export other works.
Under international pressure over this and similar disputes, the government of Austria returned the book, the book was sold for them by Christies auction house in London on July 8,1999 for £8,580,000, still the world record auction price for an illuminated manuscript. The prayerbook was offered for sale again at Christies, New York,29 January 2014 when it fetched £8,195,783, the Prayerbook is part of Stokes collection in Perth and was loaned to the National Library of Australia in Canberra for display. A full facsimile has been published, E. Trenkier, Rothschild Gebetbuch, facsimile und comentarium, archived from the original on 14 February 2014
Oudewater is a municipality and a town in the Netherlands. The origin of the town of Oudewater is obscure and no information has been concerning the first settlement of citizens. It is difficult to recover the name of Oudewater, one explanation is that the name is a corruption of old water-meadow. Oudewater was an important border city between Holland and Utrecht, Oudewater was of great strategic importance. The town was granted city rights in 1265 by Hendrik van Vianden, Oudewater took place in the First Free States council in Dordrecht on 19 July 1572, Oudewater was one of the twelve cities taking part in the first free convention of the States General in Dordrecht. This was a meeting that laid down the origin of the State of the Netherlands, as we know it now and this happened at the beginning of the Eighty Years War when the Netherlands were still part of the Spanish Empire. In the 16th and 17th century, Oudewater was an important producer of rope, in the surrounding area, hemp was cultivated.
There still is a manufacturing plant and a rope museum in the town. Oudewater is the setting for the 1975 novel Das Geheimnis des Baron Oudewater set in the 16th century, written by the German author Alberta Rommel, it has been described as a romantic historical novel. Oudewater is located at 52°1′N 4°52′E in the southwest of the province of Utrecht in the center of the Netherlands and it is situated where the Linschoten river flows out in the Hollandse IJssel. Oudewater is bordered by the municipalities of Montfoort, Krimpenerwaard, the municipality of Oudewater consists of the following cities, villages and/or districts, Oudewater, Snelrewaard. Oudewater is famous for the Heksenwaag and this Weighing house, an official town building, became famous during the 16th century because people accused of witchcraft were offered an honest chance of proving their innocence. In many cities and countries such trials were usually rigged, resulting in the burning or drowning of hundreds of innocent people, many people accused of witchcraft from all over Europe made a head-over-heels trip to Oudewater to avoid being burned at a stake.
After the weighing, they received a certificate proclaiming them not a witch. Although nobody was found to be an actual witch in Oudewater. Even today you can get a certificate that your body weight is in proportion to your build. The reasoning behind this is the old belief that a witch has no soul and therefore significantly less than an ordinary person. So in medieval times when accusations of witchcraft were prevalent, the town of Oudewater offered the accused a chance of proving his or her innocence and this was more special than it sounds
The National Gallery is an art museum in Trafalgar Square in the City of Westminster, in Central London. Founded in 1824, it houses a collection of over 2,300 paintings dating from the century to 1900. The Gallery is a charity, and a non-departmental public body of the Department for Culture, Media. Its collection belongs to the public of the United Kingdom and entry to the collection is free of charge. It is among the most visited art museums in the world, after the Musée du Louvre, the British Museum, unlike comparable museums in continental Europe, the National Gallery was not formed by nationalising an existing royal or princely art collection. It came into being when the British government bought 38 paintings from the heirs of John Julius Angerstein, after that initial purchase the Gallery was shaped mainly by its early directors, notably Sir Charles Lock Eastlake, and by private donations, which comprise two-thirds of the collection. It used to be claimed that this was one of the few national galleries that had all its works on permanent exhibition, the present building, the third to house the National Gallery, was designed by William Wilkins from 1832 to 1838.
Only the façade onto Trafalgar Square remains essentially unchanged from this time, wilkinss building was often criticised for the perceived weaknesses of its design and for its lack of space, the latter problem led to the establishment of the Tate Gallery for British art in 1897. The Sainsbury Wing, an extension to the west by Robert Venturi, the current Director of the National Gallery is Gabriele Finaldi. The late 18th century saw the nationalisation of royal or princely art collections across mainland Europe, great Britain, did not emulate the continental model, and the British Royal Collection remains in the sovereigns possession today. In 1777 the British government had the opportunity to buy an art collection of international stature, the MP John Wilkes argued for the government to buy this invaluable treasure and suggested that it be housed in a noble gallery. The twenty-five paintings from that now in the Gallery, including NG1, have arrived by a variety of routes. This offer was declined and Bourgeois bequeathed the collection to his old school, Dulwich College, the collection opened in Britains first purpose-built public gallery, the Dulwich Picture Gallery, in 1814.
The British Institution, founded in 1805 by a group of aristocratic connoisseurs, the members lent works to exhibitions that changed annually, while an art school was held in the summer months. However, as the paintings that were lent were often mediocre, some resented the Institution. One of the Institutions founding members, Sir George Beaumont, Bt, in 1823 another major art collection came on the market, which had been assembled by the recently deceased John Julius Angerstein. Angerstein was a Russian-born émigré banker based in London, his collection numbered 38 paintings, including works by Raphael, on 1 July 1823 George Agar Ellis, a Whig politician, proposed to the House of Commons that it purchase the collection. The appeal was given added impetus by Beaumonts offer, which came with two conditions, that the government buy Angersteins collection, and that a building was to be found
Haarlem is a city and municipality in the Netherlands. It is the capital of the province of North Holland and is situated at the edge of the Randstad. Haarlem had a population of 155,758 in 2014 and it is a 15-minute train ride from Amsterdam, and many residents commute to the countrys capital for work. Haarlem was granted city status or stadsrechten in 1245, although the first city walls were not built until 1270, the modern city encompasses the former municipality of Schoten as well as parts that previously belonged to Bloemendaal and Heemstede. Apart from the city, the municipality of Haarlem includes the part of the village of Spaarndam. Newer sections of Spaarndam lie within the municipality of Haarlemmerliede en Spaarnwoude. The city is located on the river Spaarne, about 20 km west of Amsterdam and it has been the historical centre of the tulip bulb-growing district for centuries and bears the nickname Bloemenstad, for this reason. Haarlem has a history dating back to pre-medieval times, as it lies on a thin strip of land above sea level known as the strandwal.
The people on this strip of land struggled against the waters of the North Sea from the west, and the waters of the IJ. Haarlem became wealthy with toll revenues that it collected from ships, however, as shipping became increasingly important economically, the city of Amsterdam became the main Dutch city of North Holland during the Dutch Golden Age. The town of Halfweg became a suburb, and Haarlem became a bedroom community. Nowadays many of them are on the Dutch Heritage register known as Rijksmonuments, the list of Rijksmonuments in Haarlem gives an overview of these per neighbourhood, with the majority in the old city centre. The oldest mentioning of Haarlem dates from the 10th century, the name probably comes from Haarlo-heim. This name is composed of three elements, haar, lo and heim, there is not much dispute about the meaning of lo and heim, in Old Dutch toponyms lo always refers to forest and heim to home or house. Haar, has several meanings, one of them corresponding with the location of Haarlem on a sand dune, the name Haarlem or Haarloheim would therefore mean home on a forested dune.
There was a stream called De Beek, dug from the peat grounds west of the river Spaarne as a drainage canal, over the centuries the Beek was turned into an underground canal, as the city grew larger and the space was needed for construction. Over time it began to silt up and in the 19th century it was filled in, the location of the village was a good one, by the river Spaarne, and by a major road going south to north. By the 12th century it was a town, and Haarlem became the residence of the Counts of Holland
Lamentation (Gerard David)
The Lamentation of Christ is a painting by the painter and manuscript illuminator Gerard David, originally a wing of a now dismantled and lost altarpiece. It portrays the body of Christ wrapped in his shroud and being anointed, Mary Magdalene is at his feet, as the Virgin Mary holds him in her arms, weeping for his death watched over by Saint John. Four other grieving figures are present, they may be Saint Anne, the mother of the Virgin, while its exact dating is debated, it seems likely that it was completed between 1515 and 1523. This painting and Davids Adoration of the Kings, in the National Gallery, were two wings from a single altarpiece. The theme of the Lamentation of Christ was common in medieval and Renaissance art, although this treatment, David was influenced by Jan van Eycks approach to realism. David was innovative in his depiction of subjects, which he represented not as icons. Additionally, David was known for the originality of his treatment of color, for all the known history of the painting it has been together with the NG1079 Adoration, but this goes no further back than early 19th-century London.
Whether the two formed part of the same polytych is not quite certain, but it seems most likely. The Lamentation is some 3 cm larger in dimensions, and its underdrawing is inconsistent in style and some parts can be reconciled with the underdrawing of the Adoration. In the two panels the figures are about the size, and the horizons at the same level. The Lamentation was merely described as Flemish and they fetched £4 and £4,12 shillings respectively, but different buyers are recorded. Both paintings have a paper label inscribed King 157 pasted on their reverses. If they were separated at this point, they were reunited by 1831, when their certain history begins, in the collection of Karl Aders, a German merchant resident in London. Both were auctioned again in August 1835 and bought by a Dr Willis, passing to a surgeon, Joseph Henry Green, who lived in Monken Hadley, both paintings were exhibited in the huge and important Art Treasures Exhibition, held in Manchester in 1857. Green died in 1863 and his widow bequeathed all the Dutch and Flemish paintings in the collection to the National Gallery, no loans to outside exhibitions are recorded since
Joachim Patinir, called Patenier, was a Flemish Renaissance painter of history and landscape subjects. He was Flemish, from the area of modern Wallonia, but worked in Antwerp, Patinir was a pioneer of landscape as an independent genre and he was the first Flemish painter to regard himself primarily as a landscape painter. He effectively invented the world landscape, a style of panoramic northern Renaissance landscapes which is Patinirs important contribution to Western art. There are only five paintings signed by Patinir, but many works have been attributed to him or his workshop with varying degrees of probability. The ones that are signed read, Joachim D. Patinier, the 2007 exhibition at the Museo del Prado in Madrid contained 21 pictures listed as by Patinir or his workshop, and catalogued a further 8 which were not in the exhibition. Patinir was the friend of not only Dürer, but with Quentin Metsys as well, the Temptation of St Anthony was done in collaboration with Metsys, who added the figures to Patinirs landscape.
His career was contemporary with that of the other major pioneer of paintings dominated by landscape, Albrecht Altdorfer. He was probably the uncle of Herri met de Bles, who was his follower in establishing the world landscape and he may have studied with Gerard David at Bruges, who had been registered as a guild member in the same year as Patinir. In 1511, Patinir is believed to have travelled to Genoa with David, in 1521, Patinirs friend Albrecht Dürer attended his second wedding and painted his portrait. Dürer called Patinir der gute Landschaftsmaler, thus creating a neologism translated into the French, Patinir often let his landscapes dwarf his figures, which are of very variable quality. The larger ones were at least sometimes painted by other artists, such specialisation had become common in the Low Countries at the time. Many of his works are large for Netherlandish panel paintings of the time, as are those of Hieronymus Bosch, another painter of large landscapes. Patinirs immense vistas combine observation of detail with lyrical fantasy.
His landscapes use a high viewpoint with a horizon. He uses a consistent and effective colour scheme in his landscapes, examples of his work include The Rest on the Flight into Egypt, The Baptism of Christ, St. John at Patmos, Landscape with the Shepherds, and the Rest on the Flight to Egypt. There is a triptych attributed to him called The Penitence of St. Jerome, Patinir died in Antwerp in 1524, and Quentin Metsys became the guardian of his children. Early Renaissance painting Renaissance in the Netherlands Grove, Hans Devisscher, subscription required Koch, Robert A. Joachim Patinir. Symbols & Allegories in Art, The Hereafter, los Angeles, The J. Paul Getty Museum,2005