Chicago the City of Chicago, is the most populous city in Illinois, as well as the third most populous city in the United States. With an estimated population of 2,716,450, it is the most populous city in the Midwest. Chicago is the principal city of the Chicago metropolitan area referred to as Chicagoland, the county seat of Cook County, the second most populous county in the United States; the metropolitan area, at nearly 10 million people, is the third-largest in the United States, the fourth largest in North America and the third largest metropolitan area in the world by land area. Located on the shores of freshwater Lake Michigan, Chicago was incorporated as a city in 1837 near a portage between the Great Lakes and the Mississippi River watershed and grew in the mid-nineteenth century. After the Great Chicago Fire of 1871, which destroyed several square miles and left more than 100,000 homeless, the city made a concerted effort to rebuild; the construction boom accelerated population growth throughout the following decades, by 1900 Chicago was the fifth largest city in the world.
Chicago made noted contributions to urban planning and zoning standards, including new construction styles, the development of the City Beautiful Movement, the steel-framed skyscraper. Chicago is an international hub for finance, commerce, technology, telecommunications, transportation, it is the site of the creation of the first standardized futures contracts at the Chicago Board of Trade, which today is the largest and most diverse derivatives market gobally, generating 20% of all volume in commodities and financial futures. O'Hare International Airport is the one of the busiest airports in the world, the region has the largest number of U. S. highways and greatest amount of railroad freight. In 2012, Chicago was listed as an alpha global city by the Globalization and World Cities Research Network, it ranked seventh in the entire world in the 2017 Global Cities Index; the Chicago area has one of the highest gross domestic products in the world, generating $680 billion in 2017. In addition, the city has one of the world's most diversified and balanced economies, not being dependent on any one industry, with no single industry employing more than 14% of the workforce.
Chicago's 58 million domestic and international visitors in 2018, made it the second most visited city in the nation, behind New York City's approximate 65 million visitors. The city ranked first place in the 2018 Time Out City Life Index, a global quality of life survey of 15,000 people in 32 cities. Landmarks in the city include Millennium Park, Navy Pier, the Magnificent Mile, the Art Institute of Chicago, Museum Campus, the Willis Tower, Grant Park, the Museum of Science and Industry, Lincoln Park Zoo. Chicago's culture includes the visual arts, film, comedy and music jazz, soul, hip-hop and electronic dance music including house music. Of the area's many colleges and universities, the University of Chicago, Northwestern University, the University of Illinois at Chicago are classified as "highest research" doctoral universities. Chicago has professional sports teams in each of the major professional leagues, including two Major League Baseball teams; the name "Chicago" is derived from a French rendering of the indigenous Miami-Illinois word shikaakwa for a wild relative of the onion, known to botanists as Allium tricoccum and known more as ramps.
The first known reference to the site of the current city of Chicago as "Checagou" was by Robert de LaSalle around 1679 in a memoir. Henri Joutel, in his journal of 1688, noted that the eponymous wild "garlic" grew abundantly in the area. According to his diary of late September 1687:...when we arrived at the said place called "Chicagou" which, according to what we were able to learn of it, has taken this name because of the quantity of garlic which grows in the forests in this region. The city has had several nicknames throughout its history such as the Windy City, Chi-Town, Second City, the City of the Big Shoulders, which refers to the city's numerous skyscrapers and high-rises. In the mid-18th century, the area was inhabited by a Native American tribe known as the Potawatomi, who had taken the place of the Miami and Sauk and Fox peoples; the first known non-indigenous permanent settler in Chicago was Jean Baptiste Point du Sable. Du Sable arrived in the 1780s, he is known as the "Founder of Chicago".
In 1795, following the Northwest Indian War, an area, to be part of Chicago was turned over to the United States for a military post by native tribes in accordance with the Treaty of Greenville. In 1803, the United States Army built Fort Dearborn, destroyed in 1812 in the Battle of Fort Dearborn and rebuilt; the Ottawa and Potawatomi tribes had ceded additional land to the United States in the 1816 Treaty of St. Louis; the Potawatomi were forcibly removed from their land after the Treaty of Chicago in 1833. On August 12, 1833, the Town of Chicago was organized with a population of about 200. Within seven years it grew to more than 4,000 people. On June 15, 1835, the first public land sales began with Edmund Dick Taylor as U. S. Receiver of Public Monies; the City of Chicago was incorporated on Saturday, March 4, 1837, for several decades was the world's fastest-growing city. As the site of the Chicago Portage, the city became an important transportation hub between the eastern and western United States.
Chicago's first railway and Chicago Union Railroad, the Illi
The National Railroad Passenger Corporation, doing business as Amtrak, is a passenger railroad service that provides medium- and long-distance intercity service in the contiguous United States and to nine Canadian cities. Founded in 1971 as a quasi-public corporation to operate many U. S. passenger rail services, it receives a combination of state and federal subsidies but is managed as a for-profit organization. Amtrak's headquarters is located one block west of Union Station in Washington, D. C. Amtrak serves more than 500 destinations in 46 states and three Canadian provinces, operating more than 300 trains daily over 21,400 miles of track. Amtrak owns 623 miles of this track and operates an additional 132 miles of track; some track sections allow trains to run as fast as 150 mph. In fiscal year 2018, Amtrak served 31.7 million passengers and had $3.4 billion in revenue, while employing more than 20,000 people. Nearly 87,000 passengers ride more than 300 Amtrak trains on a daily basis. Nearly two-thirds of passengers come from the 10 largest metropolitan areas.
The name Amtrak is a portmanteau of the words America and trak, the latter itself a sensational spelling of track. In 1916, 98% of all commercial intercity travelers in the United States moved by rail, the remaining 2% moved by inland waterways. Nearly 42 million passengers used railways as primary transportation. Passenger trains were owned and operated by the same owned companies that operated freight trains; as the 20th century progressed, patronage declined in the face of competition from buses, air travel, the automobile. New streamlined diesel-powered trains such as the Pioneer Zephyr were popular with the traveling public but could not reverse the trend. By 1940, railroads held just 67 percent of commercial passenger-miles in the United States. In real terms, passenger-miles had fallen by 40 % from 42 billion to 25 billion. Traffic surged during World War II, aided by troop movement and gasoline rationing; the railroad's market share surged with a massive 94 billion passenger-miles. After the war, railroads rejuvenated their overworked and neglected passenger fleets with fast and luxurious streamliners.
These new trains brought only temporary relief to the overall decline. As postwar travel exploded, passenger travel percentages of the overall market share fell to 46% by 1950, 32% by 1957; the railroads had lost money on passenger service since the Great Depression, but deficits reached $723 million in 1957. For many railroads, these losses threatened financial viability; the causes of this decline were debated. The National Highway System and airports, both funded by the government, competed directly with the railroads, who paid for their own infrastructure. Progressive Era rate regulation limited the railroad's ability to turn a profit. Railroads faced antiquated work rules and inflexible relationships with trade unions. To take one example, workers continued to receive a day's pay for 100-to-150-mile work days. Streamliners covered that in two hours. Matters approached a crisis in the 1960s. Passenger service route-miles fell from 107,000 miles in 1958 to 49,000 miles in 1970, the last full year of private operation.
The diversion of most U. S. Postal Service mail from passenger trains to trucks and freight trains in late 1967 deprived those trains of badly needed revenue. In direct response, the Atchison and Santa Fe Railway filed to discontinue 33 of its remaining 39 trains, ending all passenger service on one of the largest railroads in the country; the equipment the railroads had ordered after World War II was now 20 years old, worn out, in need of replacement. As passenger service declined various proposals were brought forward to rescue it; the 1961 Doyle Report proposed. Similar proposals failed to attract support; the federal government passed the High Speed Ground Transportation Act of 1965 to fund pilot programs in the Northeast Corridor, but this did nothing to address passenger deficits. In late 1969 multiple proposals emerged in the United States Congress, including equipment subsidies, route subsidies, lastly, a "quasi-public corporation" to take over the operation of intercity passenger trains.
Matters were brought to a head on March 5, 1970, when the Penn Central, the largest railroad in the Northeast United States and teetering on bankruptcy, filed to discontinue 34 of its passenger trains. In October 1970, Congress passed, President Richard Nixon signed into law, the Rail Passenger Service Act. Proponents of the bill, led by the National Association of Railroad Passengers, sought government funding to ensure the continuation of passenger trains, they conceived the National Railroad Passenger Corporation, a private entity that would receive taxpayer funding and assume operation of intercity passenger trains. The original working brand name for NRPC was Railpax, but shortly before the company started operating it was changed to Amtrak. There were several key provisions: Any railroad operating intercity passenger service could contract with the NRPC, thereby joining the national system. Participating railroads bought into the NRPC using a formula based on their recent intercity passenger losses.
The purchase price could be satisfied either by cash or rolling stock. Any participating railroad was freed of the obligation to operate intercity passenger service after May 1, 1971, except for those services chosen by the Department of Transportation as part of a "basic system" of servic
Washoe County, Nevada
Washoe County is a county in the U. S. state of Nevada. As of the 2010 census, the population was 421,407, its county seat is Reno. Washoe County is included in NV Metropolitan Statistical Area. Washoe County was created on November 25, 1861, as one of the original nine counties of the Nevada Territory, it is named after the Washoe people who inhabited the area. It was consolidated with Roop County in 1864. Washoe City was the first county seat in 1861 and was replaced by Reno in 1871. Washoe County is the setting of the 1965 episode "The Wild West's Biggest Train Holdup" of the syndicated western television series, Death Valley Days. In the story line, deputy Jim Brand places a locked chain on a Central Pacific Railroad engine until the company agrees to pay its tax assessment. Roy Barcroft played the aging Sheriff Jackson with Pat Priest as N Brand. In 1911, a small group of Bannock lead by Mike Daggett killed four ranchers in Washoe County. A posse was formed, on February 26, 1911, they caught up with the band, eight of them were killed, along with one member of the posse, Ed Hogle.
Three children and a woman who survived the battle were captured. The remains of some of the members of the band were repatriated from the Smithsonian Institution to the Fort Hall Idaho Shoshone-Bannock Tribe in 1994. In 1918, Washoe County elected the first woman elected to the Nevada Legislature, Sadie Hurst, a Republican."For decades Paiute children growing up in northern Nevada were required by the federal government to attend a boarding school in Carson City where they learned English, not Paiute."As of 2013, "Washoe County is the first school district in the state to offer Paiute classes," offering an elective course in the Paiute language at Spanish Springs High School and North Valleys High School. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 6,542 square miles, of which 6,302 square miles is land and 240 square miles is water; the highest point in Washoe County is Mount Rose at 10,785 ft, while the most topographically prominent peak is Virginia Peak. There Sparks.
In 2010, there was a ballot question asking whether the Reno city government and the Washoe County government should become one combined governmental body. According to unofficial results the day after the election, 54% of voters approved of the ballot measure to consolidate the governments; the Truckee Meadows of Washoe County starts at the furthest southern runway of Reno Tahoe International Airport, GPS Coordinates 39.468836,-119.770912 and runs south east. Rattle Snake Mountain at Huffaker Park, follows the span of Steamboat Creek to the southern east end of Washoe County; this is the last of the range/prairie and wild grass water shed from the eastern range of the Reno Tahoe basin. Anaho Island National Wildlife Refuge Black Rock Desert-High Rock Canyon Emigrant Trails National Conservation Area Sheldon National Wildlife Refuge Toiyabe National Forest As of the census of 2000, there were 339,486 people, 132,084 households, 83,741 families residing in the county; the population density was 54 people per square mile.
There were 143,908 housing units at an average density of 23 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 80.41% White, 2.09% Black or African American, 1.82% Native American, 4.28% Asian, 0.46% Pacific Islander, 7.67% from other races, 3.28% from two or more races. 16.58% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 132,084 households out of which 31.10% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 47.90% were married couples living together, 10.30% had a female householder with no husband present, 36.60% were non-families. 27.00% of all households were made up of individuals and 7.70% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.53 and the average family size was 3.09. In the county, the population was spread out with 24.90% under the age of 18, 9.80% from 18 to 24, 31.00% from 25 to 44, 23.80% from 45 to 64, 10.50% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females, there were 102.80 males.
For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 101.80 males. The median income for a household in the county was $45,815, the median income for a family was $54,283. Males had a median income of $36,226 versus $27,953 for females; the per capita income for the county was $24,277. About 6.70% of families and 10.00% of the population were below the poverty line, including 12.20% of those under age 18 and 6.20% of those age 65 or over. As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 421,407 people, 163,445 households, 102,768 families residing in the county; the population density was 66.9 inhabitants per square mile. There were 184,841 housing units at an average density of 29.3 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 76.9% white, 5.2% Asian, 2.3% black or African American, 1.7% American Indian, 0.6% Pacific islander, 9.5% from other races, 3.8% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 22.2% of the population. In terms of ancestry, 16.9% were German, 13.1% were Irish, 11.8% were English, 7.2% were Italian, 4.7% were American.
Of the 163,445 households, 32.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 45.6% were married couples living together, 11.3% had a female householder with no husband present, 37.1% were non-families, 27.2% of all households were made up of individuals. The average household size was 2.55 and the average family size was 3.11. The median age was 37.0 years. The median income for a household in the county was
Inter-city rail services are express passenger train services that cover longer distances than commuter or regional trains. There is no precise definition of inter-city rail. Most broadly, it can include any rail services that are neither short-distance commuter rail trains within one city area, nor slow regional rail trains calling at all stations and covering local journeys only. Most an inter-city train is an express train with limited stops and comfortable carriages to serve long-distance travel. Inter-city rail sometimes provides international services; this is most prevalent in Europe, due to the close proximity of its 50 countries in a 10,180,000 square kilometre area. Eurostar and EuroCity are examples of this. In many European countries the word "InterCity" or "Inter-City" is an official brand name for a network of regular-interval long-distance train services that meet certain criteria of speed and comfort; this use of the term appeared in the United Kingdom in the 1960s and has been imitated.
The speeds of inter-city rail lines are quite diverse, ranging from 50 km/h in a mountainous area or on undeveloped tracks to 200–350 km/h on newly constructed or improved tracks. As a result, Inter-city rail may or may not fall into the category of higher-speed rail or high-speed rail. Ideally, the average speed of inter-city rail service would be faster than 100 km/h in order to be competitive with car and other methods of transport. 50–100 kmThe distance of an inter-city rail journey is at least 50–100 km, although in many large metropolitan areas commuter and regional services cover equal or longer distances. 100–500 kmA distance of 100–500 km is a common journey distance for inter-city rail in many countries. In many cases, railway travel is most competitive at about 2–3 hours journey time. Inter-city rail can compete with highways and short-haul air travel for journeys of this distance. 500–1,000 kmIn journeys of 500–1,000 km, the role of inter-city rail is replaced by faster air travel.
Development of high-speed rail in some countries increases the share of railway for such longer-distance journeys. The Paris-Marseille TGV and Tokyo-Aomori Shinkansen are examples of this type of journey. In conventional non high-speed rail, overnight trains are common for this distance. 1,000 km or moreIn some countries with a dense rail network, large territory, or less air and car transport, such as China and Russia, overnight long-distance train services are provided and used practically. In many other countries, such long-distance rail journey has been replaced by air travel except for tourism or hobbyist purposes, luxury train journeys, or significant cost benefit. Discount Eurail Pass in Europe, Amtrak in the United States, Indian Pacific in Australia are examples. Faster high-speed rail of 350 km, such as the Beijing–Shanghai High-Speed Railway in China and Tokyo-Sapporo in the proposed Hokkaido Shinkansen in Japan, may play a significant role in long-distance travel in the future. Railways in Africa are still developing or not used for passenger purposes in many countries, but the following countries have inter-city services between major cities: Algeria SNTF Egypt: Egyptian National Railways Morocco: ONCF South Africa: Shosholoza Meyl Tunisia Tunisian Railways Trains run by China Railway link every town and city in the People's Republic of China mainland, including Beijing, Shanghai, Shenzhen and Xi'an, as well as onwards from Shenzhen across the border to Kowloon, Hong Kong.
New high-speed lines from 200–350 km/h operation are constructed, many conventional lines are upgraded to 200 km/h operation. There are seven High-Speed Inter-City lines in China, with up to 21 planned, they are operated independently from the parallel High-Speed-Rail-Lines. Japan has six main regional passenger railway companies, known collectively as Japan Railways Group or as JR. Four JR companies operate the "bullet trains" on fast and frequent Shinkansen lines that link all the larger cities, including Tokyo, Nagoya, Osaka, Hiroshima and many more. Many other cities are covered by a network of JR's "limited express" inter-city trains on 1,067 mm, narrow gauge, lines. Major cities are covered by convenient train services of every one hour or more frequent. In addition to the JR Group, Japan has several major regional carriers such as the Kintetsu and Nagoya Railroads. Rail services that connect the towns in the New Territories with the city centres of Kowloon and Hong Kong are provided by the East Rail Line, West Rail Line and Tung Chung Line.
Inter-city railway services crossing the Hong Kong-China border are jointly operated by Hong Kong's MTR Corporation Limited and the Ministry of Railways of the People's Republic of China. Hung Hom Station is the only station in the territory where passengers can catch these cross-border trains. Passengers are required to go through immigration and customs inspections of Hong Kong before boarding a cross-border train or alighting from such a train. There are four cross-border train services: Between Hong Kong and Beijing Between Hong Kong and Shanghai Between Hong Kong and Guangzhou Between Hong Kong and Zhaoqing A new bo
Nevada is a state in the Western United States. It is bordered by Oregon to the northwest, Idaho to the northeast, California to the west, Arizona to the southeast and Utah to the east. Nevada is the 7th most extensive, the 32nd most populous, but the 9th least densely populated of the U. S. states. Nearly three-quarters of Nevada's people live in Clark County, which contains the Las Vegas–Paradise metropolitan area where three of the state's four largest incorporated cities are located. Nevada's capital, however, is Carson City. Nevada is known as the "Silver State" because of the importance of silver to its history and economy, it is known as the "Battle Born State", because it achieved statehood during the Civil War. Nevada is desert and semi-arid, much of it within the Great Basin. Areas south of the Great Basin are within the Mojave Desert, while Lake Tahoe and the Sierra Nevada lie on the western edge. About 86% of the state's land is managed by various jurisdictions of the U. S. federal government, both civilian and military.
Before European contact, Native Americans of the Paiute and Washoe tribes inhabited the land, now Nevada. The first Europeans to explore the region were Spanish, they called the region Nevada because of the snow. The area formed part of the Viceroyalty of New Spain, became part of Mexico when it gained independence in 1821; the United States annexed the area in 1848 after its victory in the Mexican–American War, it was incorporated as part of Utah Territory in 1850. The discovery of silver at the Comstock Lode in 1859 led to a population boom that became an impetus to the creation of Nevada Territory out of western Utah Territory in 1861. Nevada became the 36th state on October 31, 1864, as the second of two states added to the Union during the Civil War. Nevada has a reputation for its libertarian laws. In 1940, with a population of just over 110,000 people, Nevada was by far the least-populated state, with less than half the population of the next least-populated state. However, legalized gambling and lenient marriage and divorce laws transformed Nevada into a major tourist destination in the 20th century.
Nevada is the only U. S. state where prostitution is legal, though it is illegal in Clark County, Washoe County and Carson City. The tourism industry remains Nevada's largest employer, with mining continuing as a substantial sector of the economy: Nevada is the fourth-largest producer of gold in the world; the name "Nevada" comes from meaning "snow-covered", after the Sierra Nevada. Most Nevadans pronounce the second syllable of their state name using the TRAP vowel. Many from outside the Western United States pronounce it with the PALM vowel. Although the latter pronunciation is closer to the Spanish pronunciation, it is not the pronunciation preferred by most Nevadans. State Assemblyman Harry Mortenson proposed a bill to recognize the alternate pronunciation of Nevada, though the bill was not supported by most legislators and never received a vote; the Nevadan pronunciation is the de facto official one, since it is the one used by the state legislature. At one time, the state's official tourism organization, TravelNevada, stylized the name of the state as "Nevăda", with a breve mark over the a indicating the locally preferred pronunciation, available as a license plate design.
Nevada is entirely within the Basin and Range Province, is broken up by many north-south mountain ranges. Most of these ranges have endorheic valleys between them, which belies the image portrayed by the term Great Basin. Much of the northern part of the state is within the Great Basin, a mild desert that experiences hot temperatures in the summer and cold temperatures in the winter. Moisture from the Arizona Monsoon will cause summer thunderstorms; the state's highest recorded temperature was 125 °F in Laughlin on June 29, 1994. The coldest recorded temperature was −52 °F set in San Jacinto in 1972, in the northeastern portion of the state; the Humboldt River crosses the state from east to west across the northern part of the state, draining into the Humboldt Sink near Lovelock. Several rivers drain from the Sierra Nevada eastward, including the Walker and Carson rivers. All of these rivers are endorheic basins, ending in Walker Lake, Pyramid Lake, the Carson Sink, respectively. However, not all of Nevada is within the Great Basin.
Tributaries of the Snake River drain the far north, while the Colorado River, which forms much of the boundary with Arizona, drains much of southern Nevada. The mountain ranges, some of which have peaks above 13,000 feet, harbor lush forests high above desert plains, creating sky islands for endemic species; the valleys are no lower in elevation than 3,000 feet, while some in central Nevada are above 6,000 feet. The southern third of the state, where the Las Vegas area is situated, is within the Mojave Desert; the area is closer to the Arizona Monsoon in the summer. The terrain is lower below 4,000 feet, creating conditions for hot summer days and cool to chilly winter nights. Nevada and California have by far the longest diagonal line as a state boundary at just over 400 miles; this line begins in Lake Tahoe nearly
The chukar partridge, or chukar called Chukor, is a Eurasian upland gamebird in the pheasant family Phasianidae. It has been considered to form a superspecies complex along with the rock partridge, Philby's partridge and Przevalski's partridge and treated in the past as conspecific with the first; this partridge has well marked black and white bars on the flanks and a black band running from the forehead across the eye and running down the head to form a necklace that encloses a white throat. The species has been introduced into many other places and feral populations have established themselves in parts of North America and New Zealand; this bird can be found in parts of South Asia. The chukar is a rotund 32–35 cm long partridge, with a light brown back, grey breast, buff belly; the shades vary across the various populations. The face is white with a black gorget, it has red legs and coral red bill. Sexes are similar, the female smaller in size and lacking the spur; the tail has 14 feathers, the third primary is the longest while the first is level with the fifth and sixth primaries.
It is similar to the rock partridge with which it has been lumped in the past but is browner on the back and has a yellowish tinge to the foreneck. The defined gorget distinguishes this species from the red-legged partridge which has the black collar breaking into dark streaks near the breast, their song is a noisy chuck-chuck-chukar-chukar. The Barbary partridge has a reddish-brown rather than black collar with a grey throat and face with a chestnut crown. Other common names of this bird include Indian chukar and keklik; this partridge has its native range in Asia, Assyria, Israel, Turkey, Afghanistan and India, along the inner ranges of the Western Himalayas to Nepal. Further west in southeastern Europe it is replaced by Alectoris rufa, it ranges into Africa on the Sinai Peninsula. The habitat in the native range is rocky open hillsides with grass or scattered scrub or cultivation. In Israel and Jordan it is found at low altitudes, starting at 400 m below sea level in the Dead Sea area, whereas in the more eastern areas it is found at an altitude of 2,000 to 4,000 m except in Pakistan, where it occurs at 600 m.
They are not found in areas of high humidity or rainfall. It has been introduced as a game bird, feral populations have become established in the United States, Chile, New Zealand and Hawaii. Initial introductions into the US were from the nominate populations collected from Afghanistan and Nepal, it has been introduced to New South Wales in Australia but breeding populations have not persisted and are extinct. A small population exists on Robben Island in South Africa since it was introduced there in 1964; the chukar interbreeds with the red-legged partridge, the practice of breeding and releasing captive-bred hybrids has been banned in various countries including the United Kingdom, as it is a threat to wild populations. The chukar partridge is part of a confusing group of "red-legged partridges". Several plumage variations within the widespread distribution of the chukar partridge have been described and designated as subspecies. In the past the chukar group was included with the rock partridge.
The species from Turkey and farther east was subsequently separated from A. graeca of Greece and Bulgaria and western Europe. There are fourteen recognized subspecies: A. c. chukar – nominate – eastern Afghanistan to eastern Nepal A. c. cypriotes – island chukar – southeastern Bulgaria to southern Syria, Crete and Cyprus A. c. dzungarica – northwestern Mongolia to Russian Altai and eastern Tibet A. c. falki – north central Afghanistan to Pamir Mountains and western China A. c. kleini A. c. koroviakovi – Persian chukar – eastern Iran to Pakistan A. c. kurdestanica – Kurdestan chukar – Caucasus Mountains to Iran A. c. pallescens – northern chukar – northeastern Afghanistan to Ladakh and western Tibet A. c. pallida – northwestern China A. c. potanini – western Mongolia A. c. pubescens – inner Mongolia to northwestern Sichuan and eastern Qinghai A. c. sinaica – northern Syrian Desert to Sinai Peninsula A. c. subpallida – Tajikistan A. c. werae – Iranian chukar – eastern Iraq and southwestern Iran This species is unaffected by hunting or loss of habitat.
Its numbers are affected by weather patterns during the breeding season. The release of captive stock in some parts of southern Europe can threaten native populations of rock partridge and red-legged partridge with which they may hybridize. British sportsmen in India considered the chukar as good sport although they were not considered to be good in flavour, their fast flight and ability to fly some distance after being shot made recovery of the birds difficult without retriever dogs. During cold winters, when the higher areas are covered in snow, people in Kashmir have been known to use a technique to tire the birds out to catch them. In the non-breeding season, chukar partridge are found in small coveys of 10 or more birds. In summer, chukars form pairs to breed. During this time, the cocks are pugnacious calling and fighting
Nevada State Route 447
State Route 447 is a state highway in the U. S. state of Nevada. The highway is entirely within Washoe County but does for a brief time enter Pershing County, Nevada; the highway connects the town of Gerlach to the remainder of the state via Wadsworth. Though passing through remote and desolate areas of Nevada, the highway has gained fame as the primary route to access the Black Rock Desert, the site of the annual Burning Man festival; the state maintained portion ends at Gerlach. A 4.5-mile portion of this highway, along with portions of SR 445 and SR 446, has been designated the Pyramid Lake Scenic Byway. The route begins at a junction with Old US 40 in Wadsworth; the highway proceeds north following the path of the Truckee River, passes along the east side of the river's terminus at Pyramid Lake near Nixon. The highway continues north following the western edge of Winnemucca Lake, a dry lake that once was the terminus of the Truckee river. During this portion the highway straddles the Washoe/Pershing County line.
The highway enters the Black Rock Desert just before arriving at Empire, a city founded on processing gypsum extracted from the desert. The highway ends 0.375 miles north of crossing the Union Pacific Railroad's Feather River Route in Gerlach. Just past where the official designation ends is the turn off for former State Route 34, used to access the large playa of the Black Rock Desert and the site of the annual Burning Man Festival; the State highway ends here, becoming CR 447 where the roadbed continues as a Washoe county road to the California State Line near the Lassen/Modoc county line. This road is called the Gerlach-Cederville Road; some maps erroneously list this road as part of State Route 447. Before 1978, the present-day highway was part of SR 34 from Gerlach to Wadsworth, former SR 81 from Gerlach to the California state line. Ten solar energy arrays, totaling 451 kilowatts, have been installed along Nevada 447 with the help of Burning Man-related not-for-profit Black Rock Solar and Nevada's "Solar Generations" rebate program.
Nevada Governor Jim Gibbons issued an August 18, 2010 proclamation declaring the road "to be America's Solar Highway". This major intersections table lists junctions for both State Route 447 and Washoe County Route 447. All junctions are located in Washoe County. Nevada portal U. S. Roads portal