Eleanor of Austria
Eleanor of Austria called Eleanor of Castile, was born an Archduchess of Austria and Infanta of Castile from the House of Habsburg, subsequently became Queen consort of Portugal and of France. She held the Duchy of Touraine in dower, she is called "Leonor" in Portuguese and "Eléonore" or "Aliénor" in French. Eleanor was born in 1498 at Leuven, the eldest child of Philip of Austria and Joanna of Castile, who would become co-sovereigns of Castile, her father was the son of the reigning Holy Roman Emperor Maximilian I and his deceased consort Marie of Burgundy, while her mother was the daughter of the Catholic Monarchs. Her siblings were Holy Roman Emperor Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor Ferdinand I, Queen Isabella of Denmark, Queen Mary of Hungary and Queen Catherine of Portugal, she was named after Eleanor of Portugal, Holy Roman Empress. When she was a child, Eleanor's relatives tried to marry her to the future King of England, Henry VIII, to whom she was betrothed. However, when Henry's father died and he became King, Henry decided to marry Eleanor's aunt, Catherine of Aragon, the widow of King Henry's older brother, Prince of Wales.
Her relatives tried to marry her to the French Kings Louis XII or Francis I or to the Polish King Sigismund I, but nothing came of these plans. Eleanor was proposed as a marriage candidate for Antoine, Duke of Lorraine, in 1510. In 1517 Eleanor may have had a love affair with Elector Palatine, her brother King Charles, who had succeeded their elderly grandfather King Ferdinand as King of Spain the year before, once discovered her reading a love letter from Frederick. Charles forced Eleanor and Frederick to swear in front of an attorney that they were not secretly married, after which he expelled Frederick from court, she followed her brother to Spain in 1517. Eleanor married her uncle by marriage, King Manuel I of Portugal, after a proposed marriage with her cousin, the future King John III of Portugal, did not occur, her brother Charles arranged the marriage between Eleanor and the King of Portugal to avoid the possibility of Portuguese assistance for any rebellion in Castile. Manuel had been married to two of Eleanor's maternal aunts, Isabella of Aragon and Maria of Aragon.
Manuel and Eleanor married on 16 July 1518. They had two children: the Infanta Maria, she became a widow on 13 December 1521. As Queen Dowager of Portugal, Eleanor returned to the court of Charles in Spain. Eleanor's sister Catherine married Eleanor's stepson, King John III of Portugal. In July 1523, Eleanor was engaged to Charles III, Duke of Bourbon, in an alliance between Charles and Bourbon against France, but the marriage never took place. In 1526, Eleanor was engaged to King Francis I of France during his captivity in Spain. In 1529, by the treaty called "La Paz de las Damas", it was stipulated that the marriage should take place, she was married to Francis on 4 July 1530. They had no children. Eleanor left Spain in the company of her future stepsons, who were now to be released having been held hostage by her brother; the group met Francis at the border, where Eleanor and Francis were married, departed for an official entrance to Bordeaux. Eleanor was crowned Queen of France in Saint-Denis on 31 May 1531.
She was dressed in purple velvet at her coronation. Eleanor was ignored by Francis, who performed his marital obligations and preferred his lover Anne de Pisseleu d'Heilly. At the official entrance of Eleanor to Paris, Francis displayed himself to the public in a window with his lover Anne for a period of two hours. Queen Eleanor performed as the queen of France at official occasions, such as at the wedding between her stepson Henry and Catherine de' Medici in 1533, she performed charity and was praised for this. She took her stepdaughters and Margaret, into her household to raise them further; as the French queen, Eleanor did not have any political power. Queen Eleanor was present at the peace negotiations between Francis and Charles in Aigues-Mortes in 1538. In 1544, she was given the task of entering peace negotiations with their sister Mary. In November 1544, she visited Charles in Brussels; as a queen dowager, Eleanor left France for Brussels in 1548. She witnessed the abdication of Charles in October 1555 and left for Spain with him and their sister Mary in August 1556.
She lived with her sister in Jarandilla de la Vera, where they visited their brother, who retired to a monastery nearby. In 1558, she met her daughter Maria in Badajoz for the first time in 28 years. Eleanor died in 1558 on the return trip from Badajoz. Media related to Eleanor of Austria at Wikimedia Commons
Revolt of the Brotherhoods
The Revolt of the Brotherhoods was a revolt by artisan guilds against the government of King Charles V in the Kingdom of Valencia, part of the Crown of Aragon. It took place from 1519–1523, with most of the fighting occurring during 1521; the Valencian revolt inspired a related revolt in the island of Majorca part of Aragon, which lasted from 1521–1523. The revolt was an anti-monarchist, anti-feudal autonomist movement inspired by the Italian republics, it bore a strong anti-Islamic aspect, as rebels rioted against Valencia's peasant Muslim population and imposed forced conversions to Christianity. The agermanats are comparable to the comuneros of neighboring Castile, who fought a similar revolt against Charles from 1520–1522. Both rebellions were inspired by the departure for Germany of Charles, the new King of both Castile and Aragon, to take the throne as Holy Roman Emperor and leaving behind a somewhat disreputable Royal Council and regent. Valencia was dealing with a variety of problems in the early 16th century.
In King Ferdinand II's years as ruler, the government decayed and became more corrupt. The economy in Aragon was not as vibrant as in Andalusia, as it was more based on agriculture and less on the lucrative maritime trade. Valencia's economy was dominated by two somewhat static factions: the landed nobles, who controlled agriculture and the countryside, the Germanies, which controlled light manufacturing and the cities. Outbreaks of famine and plague impeded the economy still further. However, the most imminent threat to the country was that of warfare. Ferdinand pursued an ambitious foreign policy, participating in the Italian Wars and invading Navarre in 1512 during a war against France; this stretched the finances of Castile to their limit. Spanish relations with Muslim nations and North Africa were still exceedingly poor after the Reconquista, the coast of Aragon was raided by Barbary pirates. Revolt of the oppressed Muslim-convert population in the conquered Granada was a concern. Royal troops were required to be stationed in Navarre to maintain order.
In order to maintain a coastal defense against the pirates without the cost of deploying the army, Ferdinand gave the Germanies permission to arm themselves and form their own paramilitary brigades. The local nobles did not approve of this and tried to prevent the Germanies from arming, fearful of the consequences of an armed citizenry. Ferdinand was succeeded by his mentally unstable daughter Joanna. Within a few weeks, her son proclaimed himself her co-ruler as King Charles I of Aragon. Charles had been raised in Netherlands and his affairs were controlled by the Flemish noble William de Croÿ, sieur de Chièvres. In 1517, the seventeen-year-old King sailed to Castile, where he was formally recognised as King of Castile. There, his Flemish court provoked much scandal, as de Croÿ shamelessly sold government privileges for personal money and installed other Flemish nobles into government offices. In May 1518, Charles traveled to Barcelona in Aragon. Here, he haggled with Aragon's stronger cortes, the Generalitat, for privileges and his formal recognition as King of Aragon.
Aragon managed to maintain more local control than Castile did, but because Aragon was poorer and there was no point in pressing the issue for extra tax money that wasn't there to be collected. In 1519, the King's paternal grandfather, Holy Roman Emperor Maximilian I, died. Charles competed with King Francis I of France to win the imperial election by aggressively bribing prince-electors. Charles won, becoming Emperor Charles V, he left Aragon to return to Castile to raise funds to pay down the debts he had incurred in the election. The taxes granted to Charles at a Castilian cortes in Corunna would help spark the Revolt of the Comuneros of Castile. Of more importance for Aragon, in the summer of 1519 Charles granted his permission to the Germanies to arm themselves against the raiding Muslim fleets. While permission had been granted under Ferdinand, Charles was able to force the Valencian nobles to accept this decision. In 1519, the plague struck Valencia. Several of the most important nobles died, many of the others fled to the countryside.
The superstitious population concluded that the disease was punishment for immorality, rioted against people suspected of being homosexual as well as Muslims. The government tried to contain the rioters; the Germanies stepped into this power vacuum, replaced the royal government of the capital of Valencia. The "Council of Thirteen", comprising one representative from each union, became the new government of the capital city. Joan Llorenç emerged as the leader and intellectual statesmen of the Germanies, he sought a representative government similar to the Italian republics such as the Republic of Genoa. Llorenç and the Council of Thirteen gave power to the Germanies, who re-established their monopolies on their professions and forbade anyone to work who did not affiliate with one of the guilds. King Charles I was in Aachen, Germany in 1520 where he was dealing with his coronation as Holy Roman Emperor; the only steps he took was to revoke his grant of arms to the Germanies and several other concessions, measures which were ignor
Ferdinand, Duke of Calabria
Ferdinand, Duke of Calabria was a Neapolitan prince who played a significant role in the Mediterranean politics of the Crown of Aragon in the early 16th century. Born in Andria, Apulia as son of the future King Frederick and his second wife, Isabella del Balzo, he held the titles of Duke of Apulia. An alliance of Louis XII of France and Ferdinand II of Aragon had continued the claim of Louis's predecessor, Charles VIII, to the thrones of Naples and Sicily, in 1501 they deposed Frederick, Naples went to Louis, but by 1504 a new war led to Naples' seizure by Ferdinand of Aragon. Ferdinand was taken prisoner by Gonzalo Fernández de Córdoba, was moved to Barcelona as a hostage, he gained the King of Aragon's friendship and that of his grandson and successor Charles. Charles arranged Ferdinand of Naples' marriage with his stepgrandmother, Ferdinand of Aragon's widow Germaine of Foix, in 1526, he designated them as joint viceroys of Valencia in 1537. After Queen Germaine's death in 1538, Ferdinand married the cultivated widow Mencía de Mendoza in 1541.
They became renowned for their patronage of literary works. Kingdom of Sicily Kingdom of Naples Kingdom of Valencia History of Italy Bernadette Nelson, The court of Don Fernando de Aragón, Duke of Calabria in Valencia, c.1526–c.1550: music and the meeting of cultures. Oxford University Press. Early Music, Volume 32, Number 2, May 2004, pp. 194–224 Maricarmen Gómez, "San Miguel de los Reyes y la capilla musical de Don Fernando de Aragón, duque de Calabria", in San Miguel de los Reyes: De Biblioteca Real a Biblioteca Valenciana, 91-111 Digitized manuscripts from his personal collection, at SOMNI
Count of Foix
The Count of Foix ruled the independent County of Foix, in what is now southern France, during the Middle Ages. The House of Foix extended its power across the Pyrenees mountain range, moving their court to Pau in Béarn; the last count unified with King Henry IV of France in 1607. 1010-1034: Bernard Roger, count of Couserans, count of Bigorre, lord of Comminges and lord of Foix Main article: House of Albret and Albret In 1607 the county of Foix was reunited to the French crown. Foix Castle of Foix County of Foix List of Co-Princes of Andorra Diana of Foix List of Navarrese monarchs from the House of Foix Navarre monarchs family tree Histoire des Comtes de Foix Medieval History of Navarre
Ferdinand II of Aragon
Ferdinand II, called the Catholic, was King of Aragon from 1479 until his death. His marriage in 1469 to Isabella, the future queen of Castile, was the marital and political "cornerstone in the foundation of the Spanish monarchy." As a consequence of his marriage to Isabella I, he was de jure uxoris King of Castile as Ferdinand V from 1474 until her death in 1504. At Isabella's death the crown of Castile passed to their daughter Joanna, by the terms of their prenuptial agreement and her last will and testament. Following the death of Joanna's husband Philip I of Spain, her alleged mental illness, Ferdinand was recognized as regent of Castile from 1508 until his own death. In 1504, after a war with France, he became King of Naples as Ferdinand III, reuniting Naples with Sicily permanently and for the first time since 1458. In 1512, he became King of Navarre by conquest. In 1506 he married Germaine of Foix of France, but Ferdinand's only son and child of that marriage died soon after birth. Ferdinand had a role in inaugurating the first European encounters in the future Americas, since he and Isabella sponsored the first voyage of Christopher Columbus, in 1492.
That year was the final victory in the war with Granada which defeated the last Muslim state in Iberia and all of Western Europe. This brought to a close the centuries-long Christian reconquest of Iberia. For that Christian victory, Pope Alexander VI, born in the Kingdom of Valencia, awarded the royal couple the title of Catholic Monarchs. At Ferdinand's death Joanna's son, Ferdinand's grandson, Charles I, co-ruler in name over all the several Iberian kingdoms except for Portugal, succeeded him, making Charles the first King of Spain. However, during the regency of Ferdinand, many called him the King of Spain as distinct from his daughter Joanna, "queen of Castile". Ferdinand was born in Sada Palace, Sos del Rey Católico, Kingdom of Aragon, as the son of John II of Aragon by his second wife, Juana Enríquez, he married Infanta Isabella, the half-sister and heiress of Henry IV of Castile, on 19 October 1469 in Valladolid, Kingdom of Castile and Leon. Isabella belonged to the royal House of Trastámara, the two were cousins by descent from John I of Castile.
They were married with a clear prenuptial agreement on sharing power, under the joint motto "tanto monta, monta tanto." He became jure uxoris King of Castile when Isabella succeeded her deceased brother in 1474 to be crowned as Queen Isabella I of Castile. The two young monarchs were obliged to fight a civil war against Joan of Castile, the purported daughter of Henry IV, were swiftly successful; when Ferdinand succeeded his father as King of Aragon in 1479, the Crown of Castile and the various territories of the Crown of Aragon were united in a personal union. The various states were not formally administered as a single unit, but as separate political units under the same Crown; the first years of Ferdinand and Isabella's joint rule saw the Spanish conquest of the Nasrid dynasty of the Emirate of Granada, the last Islamic al-Andalus entity on the Iberian peninsula, completed in 1492. The completion of the Reconquista was not the only significant act performed by Ferdinand and Isabella in that year.
In March 1492, the monarchs issued the Edict of Expulsion of the Jews called the Alhambra Decree, a document which ordered all Jews either to be baptised and convert to Christianity or to leave the country. It allowed Mudéjar Moors and converso Marrano Jews to stay, while expelling all unconverted Jews from Castile and Aragon. 1492 was the year in which the monarchs commissioned Christopher Columbus to find a westward maritime route for access to Asia, which resulted in the Spanish arrival in the Americas. In 1494 the Treaty of Tordesillas divided the entire world beyond Europe between Portugal and Castile for conquest and dominion purposes – by a north–south line drawn down the Atlantic Ocean. Ferdinand violated the 1491 Treaty of Granada peace treaty in 1502 by dismissing the guaranteed religious freedom for Mudéjar Muslims. Ferdinand forced all Muslims in Castile and Aragon to convert, converso Moriscos, to Catholicism, or else be expelled; some of the Muslims who remained were mudéjar artisans, who could design and build in the Moorish style.
This was practised by the Spanish inquisitors on the converso Marrano Jewish population of Spain. The main architect behind the Spanish Inquisition was King Ferdinand II. Ferdinand destroyed over ten thousand Arabic manuscripts in Granada alone; the latter part of Ferdinand's life was taken up with disputes with successive Kings of France over control of Italy, the so-called Italian Wars. In 1494, Charles VIII of France invaded Italy and expelled Alfonso II, Ferdinand's first cousin once removed and stepson of Ferdinand's sister, from the throne of Naples. Ferdinand allied with various Italian princes and with Emperor Maximilian I to expel the French by 1496 and install Alfonso's son, Ferdinand, on the Neapolitan throne. In 1501, following the death of Ferdinand II of Naples and accession of his uncle Frederick, Ferdinand signed an agreement with Charles VIII's successor, Louis XII, who had just asserted his claims to the Duchy of Milan, to partition Naples between them, w
Kingdom of Majorca
The Kingdom of Majorca was founded by James I of Aragon known as James The Conqueror. After the death of his firstborn son Alfonso, a will was written in 1262 and created the kingdom to cede it to his son James; the disposition was maintained during successive versions of his will and so when James I died in 1276, the Crown of Aragon passed to his eldest son Peter, known as Peter III of Aragon or Peter the Great. The Kingdom of Majorca passed to James. After 1279, Peter III of Aragon established that the king of Majorca was a vassal to the king of Aragon; the title continued to be employed by the Aragonese and Spanish monarchs until its dissolution by the 1715 Nueva Planta decrees. The kingdom included the Balearic Islands: Majorca, Menorca and Formentera; the king was lord of the mainland counties of Roussillon and Cerdanya, the territories James I kept in Occitania: the signory of Montpellier, the viscountcy of Carlat in Auvergne, the barony of Aumelas, contiguous with Montpellier. The legacy of James I included the creation of a strategic Mediterranean enclave, including territories between two large kingdoms, the Capetians of France and the Crown of Aragon, which were in constant conflict at the time.
Conscious of the fragility of the Kingdom of Majorca, James I undertook the conquest of Cerdanya to unify the new kingdom. He entered into negotiations to arrange the marriage of his son James to Beatrice of Savoy, daughter to Count Amadeus of Savoy. Neither plan was successful. On the death of James I, the new king of Majorca, James II, decided not to pay tribute to Peter III of Aragon. Preoccupied with diverse problems within the realm, it was not until 1279 when the Majorcan monarch reconciled to have his states recognized as subordinate to the king of Aragon; as a consequence the Kingdom of Majorca could not hold court, the king of Majorca was forced to go to Catalonia to present tribute to the king of Aragon. By means of the Treaty of Perpignan in 1279, an imbalance of power between the Kingdom of Aragon and the Kingdom of Majorca was created; the Aragonese king maintained the political and economic control of Aragon over the Kingdom of Majorca, reestablishing the unified jurisdiction of the Crown of Aragon, broken by the will of James I.
This treaty would condition relations between the Kingdom of Majorca and the Crown of Aragon throughout the former's existence. The lack of courts aggravated the destabilization of a kingdom on the brink of fracture, besides this, lacked any common institution beyond the monarchy. During the Aragonese Crusade, James II of Majorca allied himself with the Pope and the French against Peter of Aragon; as a result, Peter's successor Alfonso conquered the kingdom in 1286. However, by the Treaty of Anagni in 1295, James II of Aragon was required to restore the Balearics to James of Majorca. On the death of James II of Majorca's son Sancho in 1324, James III took the throne at the age of nine, necessitating a regency council headed by his uncle Philip to govern the realm; the situation was difficult since James II of Aragon did not renounce his claim to the Majorcan throne. In 1325, Philip secured the renunciation by the Aragonian king of any claim on the rights of succession of the Majorcan throne after the repayment of a great debt incurred by Sancho during an invasion by Sardinia.
While the act solved the problem of succession, it plunged the kingdom into a serious financial crisis. James was forced to develop policies similar to that of Aragon's. To that end, he was forced to participate in the war against Genoa, which resulted in the loss of various economic markets for the kingdom. Again, it was necessary to impose new taxes and fines on the Jewish community though this was insufficient to resolve the financial crisis; the problems of the kingdom did not appear to have an end since in 1341, Peter IV of Aragon closed relations with the Kingdom of Majorca as a prelude to invasion. In May 1343, Peter IV invaded the Balearic Islands and followed that in 1344 with the invasions of the counties of Roussillon and Cerdanya. James III was able to keep only his French possessions. After the sale of these possessions to the king of France in 1349, James III left for Majorca, he was defeated and killed at the Battle of Llucmajor on 25 October 1349. The Kingdom of Majorca was definitively incorporated into the Crown of Aragon.
The extinction of the Kingdom of Majorca was inevitable given the conflicts by which it was affected: the Hundred Years War between France and England. The kingdom of Majorca, which had bonds of vassalage with the crowns of France and Aragon, could not remain neutral during the conflicts. In addition, increased taxes to fund the kingdom's economy during its neutrality managed to unsettle the people of the kingdom. List of monarchs of Majorca A Mediterranean emporium - The Catalan kingdom of Majorca, by David Abulafia, ISBN 0-521-89405-0 Abulafia, David; the Western Mediterranean Kingdoms, 1200-1500. 1997. ISBN 0-582-07820-2 —Genealogía, Reyes y Reinos: Reino de Mallorca —La Conquista de Mallorca en mapas y cuadros
Johann of Brandenburg-Ansbach, Viceroy of Valencia
Johann of Brandenburg-Ansbach was the second husband of Germaine de Foix and viceroy of Valencia from 1523 until his death in 1525. He was Margrave of Brandenburg-Ansbach and his wife Sophia of Poland, he married on June 17, 1519 with Germaine de Foix, second wife and widow of King Ferdinand II of Aragon. In 1523 the couple was appointed Viceroys of Valencia by King Ferdinand's grandson Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor; the marriage remained childless. After his death Germaine of Foix remarried Ferdinand of Duke of Calabria. Johann of Brandenburg-Ansbach became in 1516 a knight in the Order of the Golden Fleece