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German East Africa

German East Africa was a German colony in the African Great Lakes region, which included present-day Burundi and the mainland part of Tanzania. GEA's area was 994,996 square kilometres, nearly three times the area of present-day Germany, double the area of metropolitan Germany then; the colony was organised when the German military was asked in the late 1880s to put down a revolt against the activities of the German East Africa Company. It ended with Imperial Germany's defeat in World War I. GEA was divided between Britain and Portugal and was reorganised as a mandate of the League of Nations. Like other colonial powers, the Germans expanded their empire in the Africa Great Lakes region, ostensibly to fight slavery and the slave trade. Unlike other imperial powers, they never formally abolished either, preferring instead to curtail the production of new "recruits" and regulate the existing slaving business; the colony began when Carl Peters, an adventurer who founded the Society for German Colonization, signed treaties with several native chieftains on the mainland opposite Zanzibar.

On 3 March 1885, the German government announced that it had granted an imperial charter, signed by Chancellor Otto von Bismarck on 27 February 1885. The charter was granted to Peters' company and was intended to establish a protectorate in the African Great Lakes region. Peters recruited specialists who began exploring south to the Rufiji River and north to Witu, near Lamu on the coast; the Sultan of Zanzibar protested, claiming that he was the ruler of the mainland. Chancellor Bismarck sent five warships, which arrived on 7 August 1885 and trained their guns on the Sultan's palace; the British and Germans agreed to divide the mainland between themselves, the Sultan had no option but to agree. German rule was established over Bagamoyo, Dar es Salaam, Kilwa; the caravans of Tom von Prince, Wilhelm Langheld, Emin Pasha, Charles Stokes were sent to dominate "the Street of Caravans." The Abushiri Revolt of 1888 was put down with British help the following year. In 1890, London and Berlin concluded the Heligoland-Zanzibar Treaty, which returned Heligoland to Germany and decided the border between GEA and the East Africa Protectorate controlled by Britain, although the exact boundaries remained unsurveyed until 1910.

Between 1891 and 1894, the Hehe people, led by Chief Mkwawa, resisted German expansion. They were defeated. After years of guerrilla warfare, Mkwawa himself was cornered and committed suicide in 1898; the Maji Maji Rebellion occurred in 1905 and was put down by Governor Gustav Adolf von Götzen, who ordered to create a famine to crush the resistance. Scandal soon followed, with allegations of corruption and brutality. In 1907, Chancellor Bernhard von Bülow appointed Bernhard Dernburg to reform the colonial administration. German colonial administrators relied on native chiefs to keep order and collect taxes. By 1 January 1914, aside from local police, the military garrisons of the Schutztruppen at Dar es Salaam, Moshi and Mahenge numbered 110 German officers, 126 non-commissioned officers, 2,472 Askari. Germans promoted economic growth. Over 100,000 acres were put under sisal cultivation, the largest cash crop. Two million coffee trees were planted, rubber trees grew on 200,000 acres, there were large cotton plantations.

To bring these agricultural products to market, beginning in 1888, the Usambara Railway was built from Tanga to Moshi. The Central Railroad covered 775 miles and linked Dar es Salaam, Morogoro and Kigoma; the final link to the eastern shore of Lake Tanganyika was completed in July 1914 and was cause for a huge and festive celebration in the capital with an agricultural fair and trade exhibition. Harbor facilities were improved with electrical cranes, with rail access and warehouses. Wharves were remodeled at Tanga and Lindi. In 1912, Dar es Salaam and Tanga received 356 freighters and passenger steamers and over 1,000 coastal ships and local trading-vessels. Dar es Salaam became the showcase city of all of tropical Africa. By 1914, Dar es Salaam and the surrounding province had a population of 166,000, among them 1,000 Germans. In all of the GEA, there were 3,579 Germans. Gold mining in Tanzania in modern times dates back to the German colonial period, beginning with gold discoveries near Lake Victoria in 1894.

The Kironda-Goldminen-Gesellschaft established one of the first gold mines in the colony, the Sekenke Gold Mine, which began operation in 1909 after the finding of gold there in 1907. Germany developed an educational program for Africans that included elementary and vocational schools. "Instructor qualifications, textbooks, teaching materials, all met standards unmatched anywhere in tropical Africa." In 1924, ten years after the beginning of the First World War and six years into British rule, the visiting American Phelps-Stokes Commission reported, "In regards to schools, the Germans have accomplished marvels. Some time must elapse before education attains the standard it had reached under the Germans."The Swahili word "shule" means school and has been borrowed from the German word "schule". The most populous colony of the German Empire, there were more than 7.5 million locals, around 30% of whom were Muslim and the remainder belonging to various tribal beliefs or Christian converts, compared to around 10,000 Europeans, who resided in coastal locations and official residences.

In 1913, only 882 German farmers and planters l

Agate Falls Scenic Site

The Agate Falls Scenic Site is a waterfall and scenic site located in Interior Township, in southeastern Ontonagon County, Michigan. The waterfall is 7 miles southeast of Bruce Crossing, Michigan on the state highway M-28. Agate Falls is a 39-foot-high waterfall of the Middle Branch of the Ontonagon River. Dropping down from the highlands of the western Upper Peninsula, this river drops 875 feet from the Bond Falls Flowage to Lake Superior, Agate Falls is part of this change in elevation; the water flows over a shelf of erosion-resistant sandstone. The falls can be seen from a trail accessible from a parking lot on M-28 or from a sturdy railroad bridge which now is part of a snowmobile and atv trail; this bridge, which once carried the tracks of the Duluth, South Shore and Atlantic Railway, spans the falls. A roadside picnic area offers simple recreational opportunities. Michigan Department of Natural Resources Ottawa National Forest - Agate Falls

Bayfield, Wisconsin

Bayfield is a city in Bayfield County, United States. The population was 530 at the 2010 census. Wisconsin Highway 13 serves as a main route in the community, it is a former county seat, lumbering town and commercial fishing community, which today is a tourist and resort destination. There are many restaurants, bed & breakfasts establishments, specialty shops, marine services. Bayfield was named in 1856 for Henry Bayfield, a British Royal Topographic Engineer who explored the region in 1822-23. A post office has been in operation at Bayfield since 1856. Bayfield is located at 46°48.7′N 90°49.2′W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 0.87 square miles, of which, 0.86 square miles is land and 0.01 square miles is water. Bayfield is the main gateway to the Apostle Islands National Lakeshore, a group of 21 islands in Lake Superior. Madeline Island is the largest of the Apostle Islands and the only one not in the National Lakeshore. A ferry to Madeline Island links Bayfield with Wisconsin, a community on the island.

As of the census of 2010, there were 487 people, 261 households, 130 families residing in the city. The population density was 566.3 inhabitants per square mile. There were 482 housing units at an average density of 560.5 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 77.8% White, 0.2% African American, 14.8% Native American, 1.0% Asian, 6.2% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.8% of the population. There were 261 households of which 16.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 39.5% were married couples living together, 8.8% had a female householder with no husband present, 1.5% had a male householder with no wife present, 50.2% were non-families. 44.1% of all households were made up of individuals and 18.7% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 1.87 and the average family size was 2.58. The median age in the city was 53.2 years. 15.4% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the city was 51.1 % female.

As of the census of 2000, there were 611 people, 289 households, 167 families residing in the city. The population density was 703.3 people per square mile. There were 403 housing units at an average density of 463.8 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 76.92% White, 0.65% Black or African American, 15.22% Native American, 1.31% from other races, 5.89% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.49% of the population. 10.5% were of American, 10.1% German, 9.4% Norwegian, 8.1% Irish, 7.4% Swedish and 5.4% English ancestry according to Census 2000. There were 289 households out of which 22.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 41.2% were married couples living together, 11.4% had a female householder with no spouse present, 41.9% were non-families. 35.6% of all households were made up of individuals and 15.9% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.10 and the average family size was 2.64. In the city, the population was spread out with 20.9% under the age of 18, 6.9% from 18 to 24, 21.4% from 25 to 44, 33.1% from 45 to 64, 17.7% who were 65 years of age or older.

The median age was 45 years. For every 100 females, there were 89.8 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 85.8 males. The median income for a household in the city was $32,266, the median income for a family was $36,500. Males had a median income of $34,375 versus $25,875 for females; the per capita income for the city was $18,377. About 10.5% of families and 11.8% of the population were below the poverty line, including 20.5% of those under age 18 and 4.6% of those age 65 or over. The city of Bayfield is known in the Anishinaabe language as Oshki-oodena, opposed to Superior, known as Gete-oodena, in reference to the Ojibwa migration; the Bayfield Maritime Museum and Bayfield Heritage Museum are the city's two museums. There are several art galleries. Nearby is the 950 seat all-canvas tent theater known as Big Top Chautauqua which during its summer season has hosted such entertainers as Willie Nelson and Lyle Lovett. Bayfield's annual Apple Fest draws about 60,000 visitors during the first weekend in October.

Popular summertime events include Bayfield Race Week regatta, held during the week of the 4th of July and the Festival of Arts and Gallery Tour, which takes place the third weekend of July. It features artists from across the midwest, along with tours and demos at a diverse array of local galleries; the Apostle Islands Sled Dog Race takes place the first weekend of February. It is the largest sled dog race in the Midwest, with between 75 teams competing annually. Bayfield receives three radio stations from Ashland. Television stations come from the Duluth–Superior market. Laurie E. Carlson, Wisconsin State Representative, 1937–42, born in Bayfield Norris J. Nelson, Los Angeles City Council member, 1939–43, born in Bayfield Nathan Van Cleave, Composer for Television, including "The Twilight Zone," born in Bayfield Bayfield group City of Bayfield Bayfield Chamber of Commerce Sanborn fire insurance maps: 1886 1892 1898 1904 1911