German National Library

The German National Library is the central archival library and national bibliographic centre for the Federal Republic of Germany. Its task is to collect, permanently archive, comprehensively document and record bibliographically all German and German-language publications since 1913, foreign publications about Germany, translations of German works, the works of German-speaking emigrants published abroad between 1933 and 1945, to make them available to the public; the German National Library maintains co-operative external relations on a national and international level. For example, it is the leading partner in developing and maintaining bibliographic rules and standards in Germany and plays a significant role in the development of international library standards; the cooperation with publishers has been regulated by law since 1935 for the Deutsche Bücherei Leipzig and since 1969 for the Deutsche Bibliothek Frankfurt. Duties are shared between the facilities in Leipzig and Frankfurt, with each center focusing its work in specific specialty areas.

A third facility has been the Deutsches Musikarchiv Berlin, which deals with all music-related archiving. Since 2010 the Deutsches Musikarchiv is located in Leipzig as an integral part of the facility there. During the German revolutions of 1848 various booksellers and publishers offered their works to the Frankfurt Parliament for a parliamentary library; the library, led by Johann Heinrich Plath, was termed the Reichsbibliothek. After the failure of the revolution the library was abandoned and the stock of books in existence was stored at the Germanisches Nationalmuseum in Nuremberg. In 1912, the town of Leipzig, seat of the annual Leipzig Book Fair, the Kingdom of Saxony and the Börsenverein der Deutschen Buchhändler agreed to found a German National Library in Leipzig. Starting January 1, 1913, all publications in German were systematically collected. In the same year, Dr. Gustav Wahl was elected as the first director. In 1946 Dr. Georg Kurt Schauer, Heinrich Cobet, Vittorio Klostermann and Professor Hanns Wilhelm Eppelsheimer, director of the Frankfurt University Library, initiated the re-establishment of a German archive library based in Frankfurt.

The Federal state representatives of the book trade in the American zone agreed to the proposal. The city of Frankfurt agreed to support the planned archive library with personnel and financial resources; the US military government gave its approval. The Library began its work in the tobacco room of the former Rothschild library, which served the bombed university library as accommodation; as a result, there were two libraries in Germany, which assumed the duties and function of a national library for the GDR and the Federal Republic of Germany, respectively. Two national bibliographic catalogues identical in content were published annually. With the reunification of Germany on 3 October 1990, the Deutsche Bücherei Leipzig and the Deutsche Bibliothek Frankfurt am Main were merged into a new institution, The German Library; the "Law regarding the German National Library" came into force on 29 June 2006. The expansion of the collection brief to include online publications set the course for collecting and storing such publications as part of Germany's cultural heritage.

The Library's highest management body, the Administrative Council, was expanded to include two MPs from the Bundestag. The law changed the name of the library and its buildings in Leipzig, Frankfurt am Main and Berlin to "Deutsche Nationalbibliothek". In July 2000, the DMA assumed the role as repository for GEMA, Gesellschaft für musikalische Aufführungs- und mechanische Vervielfältigungsrechte, a German music copyright organization. Since music publishers only have to submit copies to DMA, which covers both national archiving and copyright registration; the 210,000 works of printed music held by GEMA were transferred to DMA. One of the special activities of the German National Library involves the collection and processing of printed and non-printed documents of German-speaking emigrants and exiles during the period from 1933 to 1945; the German National Library maintains two exile collections: the Collection of Exile Literature 1933–1945 of the German National Library in Leipzig and the German Exile Archive 1933–1945 of the German National Library in Frankfurt am Main.

Both collections contain printed works written or published abroad by German-speaking emigrants as well as leaflets and other materials produced or in part by German-speaking exiles. In 1998 the German National Library and the German Research Foundation began a publicly funded project to digitise the “Jewish Periodicals in Nazi Germany” collection of 30,000 pages, which were published between 1933 and 1943. Additionally included in the project were 30 German-language emigrant publications "German-language exile journals 1933–1945", consisting of around 100,000 pages; these collections were put online in 2004 and were some of the most visited sites of the German National Library. In June 2012 the German National Library discontinued access to both collections on its website for legal reasons; the digitised versions are since available for use in the reading rooms of the German National Library in Leipzig and Frankfurt am Main only, which caused harsh criticism. The German National Library cited concerns over copyright as the reason, claiming that although the Library and the German Research Foundation had permission from the owners of the publication to put them online, the owners


Sernur is an urban locality and the administrative center of Sernursky District of the Mari El Republic, Russia. As of the 2010 Census, its population was 8,686. Within the framework of administrative divisions, Sernur serves as the administrative center of Sernursky District; as an administrative division, the urban-type settlement of Sernur, together with three rural localities, is incorporated within Sernursky District as Sernur Urban-Type Settlement. As a municipal division, Sernur Urban-Type Settlement is incorporated within Sernursky Municipal District as Sernur Urban Settlement. Правительство Республики Марий Эл. Постановление №9 от 18 января 2008 г. «О реестре административно-территориального устройства Республики Марий Эл», в ред. Постановления №555 от 24 октября 2014 г. «О внесении изменения в Постановление Правительства Республики Марий Эл от 18 января 2008 г. №9». Опубликован: "Собрание законодательства Республики Марий Эл", №2, ст. 108, 26 февраля 2008 г.. Государственное Собрание Республики Марий Эл.

Закон №22-З от 3 мая 2006 г. «О порядке решения вопросов административно-территориального устройства Республики Марий Эл», в ред. Закона №50-З от 31 октября 2014 г. «О внесении изменений в некоторые законодательные акты Республики Марий Эл». Вступил в силу со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Марийская правда", №81, 6 мая 2006 г.. Государственный Совет Республики Марий Эл. Закон №62-З от 28 декабря 2004 г. «О составе и границах сельских, городских поселений в Республике Марий Эл», в ред. Закона №34-З от 18 августа 2014 г. «О внесении изменений в некоторые законодательные акты Республики Марий Эл». Вступил в силу по истечении десяти дней со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Марийская правда", №7, 19 января 2005 г

Wagener, South Carolina

Wagener is a town in Aiken County, South Carolina, United States. The population was 797 at the 2010 census, it is part of Georgia metropolitan area. Wagener is located in eastern Aiken County at 33°39′10″N 81°21′51″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 1.2 square miles, of which 0.008 square miles, or 0.60%, is water. As of the census of 2012, there were 809 people, 368 males, 441 females. Median resident age was 38.4 As of the census of 2000, there were 863 people, 347 households, 239 families residing in the town. The population density was 685.1 people per square mile. There were 424 housing units at an average density of 336.6 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 61.53% African American, 37.54% White, 0.35% Asian, 0.58% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.93% of the population. There were 347 households out of which 32.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 38.0% were married couples living together, 26.2% had a female householder with no husband present, 31.1% were non-families.

27.4% of all households were made up of individuals and 13.0% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.49 and the average family size was 3.04. In the town, the population was spread out with 28.2% under the age of 18, 9.4% from 18 to 24, 26.4% from 25 to 44, 22.6% from 45 to 64, 13.4% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females, there were 88.0 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 81.8 males. The median income for a household in the town was $24,773, the median income for a family was $29,833. Males had a median income of $28,182 versus $17,212 for females; the per capita income for the town was $13,805. About 15.2% of families and 17.9% of the population were below the poverty line, including 25.0% of those under age 18 and 18.4% of those age 65 or over Gunter's Crossroad The history of Wagener dates back to 1887. The early settlement was known as Pinder Town and as Guntersville or Gunter's Crossroad, after the large number of North Carolinian settlers named Gunter.

These men helped make up Company I of the 20th SC Infantry, part of Kershaw's Brigade during the Civil War. The town is situated on, he donated this property to benefit the schools of the First Baptist Church. The Southern Railroad The little town grew when the Southern Railroad ran a line through to Batesburg. Nearly all of the towns that sprang up along the railroad wanted to use the last name of George Wagener, a strong supporter of the railroad and the owner of a wholesale house in Charleston, it was through the influence of J. A. Gunter, a prosperous local farmer, that the town received the honor of using this distinguished name. In the 1920s and 30s, asparagus was exported across America. During the same period, cotton became a successful product and huge bales lined the streets awaiting departure via train; the children of Wagener frolicked among the hay bales during their games of hide-n-seek. A central town park is located. Wagener has a branch of the ABBE Regional Library System. Official website