Arnošt Lustig was a renowned Czech Jewish author of novels, short stories and screenplays whose works have involved the Holocaust. Lustig was born in Prague; as a Jewish boy in Czechoslovakia during World War II, he was sent in 1942 to the Theresienstadt concentration camp, from where he was transported to the Auschwitz concentration camp, followed by time in the Buchenwald concentration camp. In 1945, he escaped from a train carrying him to the Dachau concentration camp when the engine was destroyed by an American fighter-bomber, he returned to Prague in time to take part in the May 1945 uprising against the German occupation. After the war, he studied journalism at Charles University in Prague and worked for a number of years at Radio Prague, he worked as a journalist in Israel at the time of its War of Independence where he met his future wife, who at the time was a volunteer with the Haganah. He was one of the major critics of the Communist regime in June 1967 at the 4th Writers Conference, gave up his membership in the Communist Party after the 1967 Middle East war, to protest his government's breaking of relations with Israel.
However, following the Soviet-led invasion that ended the Prague Spring in 1968, he left the country, first to Yugoslavia Israel and in 1970 to the United States. He spent the academic year 1970-1971 as a scholar in the International Writing Program at the University of Iowa. After the fall of eastern European communism in 1989, he divided his time between Prague and Washington, D. C. where he continued to teach at the American University. After his retirement from the American University in 2003, he became a full-time resident of Prague, he was given an apartment in the Prague Castle by President Václav Havel and honored for his contributions to Czech culture on his 80th birthday in 2006. In 2008, Lustig became the eighth recipient of the Franz Kafka Prize, the third recipient of the Karel Čapek Prize in 1996. Lustig was married to the former Věra Weislitzová, daughter of a furniture maker from Ostrava, imprisoned in the Terezín concentration camp. Unlike her parents, she was not deported to Auschwitz.
She wrote of her family's fate during the Holocaust in the collection of poems entitled "Daughter of Olga and Leo." They have two children and Eva. Lustig died at age 84 in Prague on 26 February 2011 after suffering from Hodgkin lymphoma for five years, his most renowned books are A Prayer For Katerina Horowitzowa, Dita Saxová, Night and Hope, Lovely Green Eyes. Dita Saxová and Night and Hope have been filmed in Czechoslovakia. Fighter Arnošt Lustig on IMDb Watch film about Arnost Lustig "Nine lives" at www.dafilms.com
Dachau concentration camp
Dachau concentration camp was the first of the Nazi concentration camps opened in 1933, intended to hold political prisoners. It is located on the grounds of an abandoned munitions factory northeast of the medieval town of Dachau, about 16 km northwest of Munich in the state of Bavaria, in southern Germany. Opened by Heinrich Himmler, its purpose was enlarged to include forced labor, the imprisonment of Jews and Austrian criminals, foreign nationals from countries that Germany occupied or invaded; the Dachau camp system grew to include nearly 100 sub-camps, which were work camps or Arbeitskommandos, were located throughout southern Germany and Austria. The camps were liberated by U. S. forces on 29 April 1945. Prisoners lived in constant fear of brutal treatment and terror detention including standing cells, the so-called tree or pole hanging, standing at attention for long periods. There were 32,000 documented deaths at the camp, thousands that are undocumented. 10,000 of the 30,000 prisoners were sick at the time of liberation.
In the postwar years the Dachau facility served to hold SS soldiers awaiting trial. After 1948, it held ethnic Germans, expelled from eastern Europe and were awaiting resettlement, was used for a time as a United States military base during the occupation, it was closed in 1960. There are several religious memorials within the Memorial Site, open to the public. Dachau served as a model for the other German concentration camps that followed; every community in Germany had members taken away to these camps. Newspapers continually reported "the removal of the enemies of the Reich to concentration camps." As early as 1935, a jingle went around: "Lieber Herr Gott, mach mich stumm, Das ich nicht nach Dachau komm'". The camp's layout and building plans were developed by Commandant Theodor Eicke and were applied to all camps, he had a separate secure camp near the command center, which consisted of living quarters and army camps. Eicke became the chief inspector for all concentration camps, responsible for organizing others according to his model.
The Dachau complex included the prisoners' camp, which occupied 5 acres, the much larger area of SS training school including barracks, plus other facilities of around 20 acres. The entrance gate used by prisoners carries the phrase "Arbeit macht frei"; this phrase was used in Theresienstadt, near Prague, Auschwitz I. Dachau was the concentration camp, in operation the longest from March 1933 to April 1945, nearly all twelve years of the Nazi regime. Dachau's close proximity to Munich, where Hitler came to power and where the Nazi Party had its official headquarters, made Dachau a convenient location. From 1933 to 1938, the prisoners were German nationals detained for political reasons. After the Reichspogromnacht or Kristallnacht, 30,000 male Jewish citizens were deported to concentration camps. More than 10,000 of them were interned in Dachau alone; as the German military occupied other European states, citizens from across Europe were sent to concentration camps. Subsequently, the camp was used for prisoners of all sorts, from every nation occupied by the forces of the Third Reich.:137In the postwar years, the camp continued in use.
From 1945 through 1948, the camp was used by the Allies as a prison for SS officers awaiting trial. After 1948, when hundreds of thousands of ethnic Germans were expelled from eastern Europe, it held Germans from Czechoslovakia until they could be resettled, it served as a military base for the United States, which maintained forces in the country. It was closed in 1960. At the insistence of survivors, various memorials have been constructed and installed here.:138 Demographic statistics vary but they are in the same general range. History will never know how many people were interned or died there, due to periods of disruption. One source gives a general estimate of over 200,000 prisoners from more than 30 countries for the Third Reich's years, of whom two-thirds were political prisoners, including many Catholic priests, nearly one-third were Jews. 25,613 prisoners are believed to have died in the camp and another 10,000 in its subcamps from disease and suicide. In late 1944, a typhus epidemic occurred in the camp caused by poor sanitation and overcrowding, which caused more than 15,000 deaths.
It was followed by an evacuation. Toward the end of the war, death marches to and from the camp caused the deaths of numerous unrecorded prisoners. After liberation, prisoners weakened beyond recovery by the starvation conditions continued to die. Two thousand cases of "the dread black typhus" had been identified by 3 May, the U. S. Seventh Army was "working day and night to alleviate the appalling conditions at the camp". Prisoners with typhus, a louse-borne disease with an incubation period from 12 to 18 days, were treated by the 116th Evacuation Hospital, while the 127th would be the general hospital for the other illnesses. There were 227 documented deaths among the 2,252 patients cared for by the 127th. Over the 12 years of use as a concentration camp, the Dachau administration recorded the intake of 206,206 prisoners and deaths of 31,951. Crematoria were constructed to dispose of the deceased. Visitors may now walk through the buildings and view the ovens used to cremate bodies, which hid the evidence of many deaths.
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World War II
World War II known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. The vast majority of the world's countries—including all the great powers—eventually formed two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis. A state of total war emerged, directly involving more than 100 million people from over 30 countries; the major participants threw their entire economic and scientific capabilities behind the war effort, blurring the distinction between civilian and military resources. World War II was the deadliest conflict in human history, marked by 50 to 85 million fatalities, most of whom were civilians in the Soviet Union and China, it included massacres, the genocide of the Holocaust, strategic bombing, premeditated death from starvation and disease, the only use of nuclear weapons in war. Japan, which aimed to dominate Asia and the Pacific, was at war with China by 1937, though neither side had declared war on the other. World War II is said to have begun on 1 September 1939, with the invasion of Poland by Germany and subsequent declarations of war on Germany by France and the United Kingdom.
From late 1939 to early 1941, in a series of campaigns and treaties, Germany conquered or controlled much of continental Europe, formed the Axis alliance with Italy and Japan. Under the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact of August 1939, Germany and the Soviet Union partitioned and annexed territories of their European neighbours, Finland and the Baltic states. Following the onset of campaigns in North Africa and East Africa, the fall of France in mid 1940, the war continued between the European Axis powers and the British Empire. War in the Balkans, the aerial Battle of Britain, the Blitz, the long Battle of the Atlantic followed. On 22 June 1941, the European Axis powers launched an invasion of the Soviet Union, opening the largest land theatre of war in history; this Eastern Front trapped most crucially the German Wehrmacht, into a war of attrition. In December 1941, Japan launched a surprise attack on the United States as well as European colonies in the Pacific. Following an immediate U. S. declaration of war against Japan, supported by one from Great Britain, the European Axis powers declared war on the U.
S. in solidarity with their Japanese ally. Rapid Japanese conquests over much of the Western Pacific ensued, perceived by many in Asia as liberation from Western dominance and resulting in the support of several armies from defeated territories; the Axis advance in the Pacific halted in 1942. Key setbacks in 1943, which included a series of German defeats on the Eastern Front, the Allied invasions of Sicily and Italy, Allied victories in the Pacific, cost the Axis its initiative and forced it into strategic retreat on all fronts. In 1944, the Western Allies invaded German-occupied France, while the Soviet Union regained its territorial losses and turned toward Germany and its allies. During 1944 and 1945 the Japanese suffered major reverses in mainland Asia in Central China, South China and Burma, while the Allies crippled the Japanese Navy and captured key Western Pacific islands; the war in Europe concluded with an invasion of Germany by the Western Allies and the Soviet Union, culminating in the capture of Berlin by Soviet troops, the suicide of Adolf Hitler and the German unconditional surrender on 8 May 1945.
Following the Potsdam Declaration by the Allies on 26 July 1945 and the refusal of Japan to surrender under its terms, the United States dropped atomic bombs on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki on 6 and 9 August respectively. With an invasion of the Japanese archipelago imminent, the possibility of additional atomic bombings, the Soviet entry into the war against Japan and its invasion of Manchuria, Japan announced its intention to surrender on 15 August 1945, cementing total victory in Asia for the Allies. Tribunals were set up by fiat by the Allies and war crimes trials were conducted in the wake of the war both against the Germans and the Japanese. World War II changed the political social structure of the globe; the United Nations was established to foster international co-operation and prevent future conflicts. The Soviet Union and United States emerged as rival superpowers, setting the stage for the nearly half-century long Cold War. In the wake of European devastation, the influence of its great powers waned, triggering the decolonisation of Africa and Asia.
Most countries whose industries had been damaged moved towards economic expansion. Political integration in Europe, emerged as an effort to end pre-war enmities and create a common identity; the start of the war in Europe is held to be 1 September 1939, beginning with the German invasion of Poland. The dates for the beginning of war in the Pacific include the start of the Second Sino-Japanese War on 7 July 1937, or the Japanese invasion of Manchuria on 19 September 1931. Others follow the British historian A. J. P. Taylor, who held that the Sino-Japanese War and war in Europe and its colonies occurred and the two wars merged in 1941; this article uses the conventional dating. Other starting dates sometimes used for World War II include the Italian invasion of Abyssinia on 3 October 1935; the British historian Antony Beevor views the beginning of World War II as the Battles of Khalkhin Gol fought between Japan and the fo
Ravensbrück concentration camp
Ravensbrück was a German concentration camp for women from 1939 to 1945, located in northern Germany, 90 km north of Berlin at a site near the village of Ravensbrück. The largest single national group consisted of 40,000 Polish women. Others included 26,000 Jewish women from various countries: 18,800 Russian, 8,000 French, 1,000 Dutch. More than 80 percent were political prisoners. Many slave labor prisoners were employed by Halske. From 1942 to 1945, medical experiments to test the effectiveness of sulfonamides were undertaken. In the spring of 1941, the SS established a small adjacent camp for male inmates, who built and managed the camp's gas chambers in 1944. Of some 130,000 female prisoners who passed through the Ravensbrück camp, about 50,000 of them perished, some 2,200 were killed in the gas chambers and 15,000 survived until liberation. Construction of the camp began in November 1938 by the order of the SS leader Heinrich Himmler and was unusual in that it was intended to hold female inmates.
Ravensbrück first housed prisoners in May 1939, when the SS moved 900 women from the Lichtenburg concentration camp in Saxony. Eight months after the start of World War II the camp's maximum capacity was exceeded, it underwent major expansion following the invasion of Poland. By the summer of 1941 with the launch of Operation Barbarossa an estimated total of 5,000 women were imprisoned, who were fed decreasing hunger rations. By the end of 1942, the inmate population of Ravensbrück had grown to about 10,000. Between 1939 and 1945, some 130,000 to 132,000 female prisoners passed through the Ravensbrück camp system. According to Encyclopædia Britannica, about 50,000 of them perished from disease, starvation and despair. Only 15,000 of the total survived until liberation, on 29–30 April 1945 some 3,500 prisoners were still alive in the main camp. During the first year of their stay in the camp, from August 1940 to August 1941 47 women died. During the last year of the camp's existence, about 80 inmates died each day from disease or famine-related causes.
Although the inmates came from every country in German-occupied Europe, the largest single national group in the camp were Polish. In the spring of 1941, the SS authorities established a small men's camp adjacent to the main camp; the male inmates built and managed the gas chambers for the camp in 1944. There were children in the camp as well. At first, they arrived with mothers who were Romani or Jews incarcerated in the camp or were born to imprisoned women. There were few children early on, including a few Czech children from Lidice in July 1942; the children in the camp represented all nations of Europe occupied by Germany. Between April and October 1944 their number increased consisting of two groups. One group was composed of Romani children with their mothers or sisters brought into the camp after the Romani camp in Auschwitz-Birkenau was closed; the other group included children who were brought with Polish mothers sent to Ravensbrück after the collapse of the Warsaw Uprising of 1944. Most of these children died of starvation.
Ravensbrück had 70 sub-camps used for slave labour that were spread across an area from the Baltic Sea to Bavaria. Among the thousands executed at Ravensbrück were four members of the British World War II organization Special Operations Executive: Denise Bloch, Cecily Lefort, Lilian Rolfe and Violette Szabo. Other victims included the Roman Catholic nun Élise Rivet, Elisabeth de Rothschild, Russian Orthodox nun St. Maria Skobtsova, the 25-year-old French Princess Anne de Bauffremont-Courtenay, Milena Jesenská, lover of Franz Kafka, Olga Benário, wife of the Brazilian Communist leader Luís Carlos Prestes; the largest single group of women executed at the camp were 200 young Polish members of the Home Army. Among the survivors of Ravensbrück was author Corrie ten Boom, arrested with her family for harbouring Jews in their home in Haarlem, the Netherlands, she documented her ordeal alongside her sister Betsie ten Boom in her book The Hiding Place, produced as a motion picture. Polish Countess Karolina Lanckoronska, an art historian and author of Michelangelo in Ravensbrück, was imprisoned there from 1943 until 1945.
Eileen Nearne, a member of the Special Operations Executive, was a prisoner in 1944 before being transferred to another work camp and escaping. Ravensbrück survivors who wrote memoirs about their experiences include Gemma LaGuardia Gluck, sister of New York Mayor Fiorello LaGuardia, as well as Germaine Tillion, a Ravensbrück survivor from France who published her own eyewitness account of the camp in 1975. 500 women from Ravensbrück were transferred to Dachau, where they were assigned as labourers to the Agfa-Commando. A male political prisoner, Gustav Noske, stayed in Ravensbrück concentration camp after his arrest by the Gestapo in 1944. Noske was freed by advancing Allied troops from a Gestapo prison in Berlin. Camp commandants included SS-Standartenführer Günther Tamaschke from May 1939 to August 1939, SS-Hauptsturmführer Max Koegel from January 1940 till August 1942, SS-Hauptsturmführer Fritz Suhren from August 1942 until the camp's liberation at the end of April 1945. Besides the male Nazi administrators, the camp staff included over 150 female SS guards assigned to oversee the prisoners at some point during the camp's operational peri
Night and Fog (1956 film)
Night and Fog is a 1956 French documentary short film. Directed by Alain Resnais, it was made ten years after the liberation of Nazi concentration camps; the title is taken from the notorious Nacht und Nebel program of abductions and disappearances decreed by the Nazis on 7 December 1941. The documentary features the abandoned grounds of Auschwitz and Majdanek while describing the lives of prisoners in the camps. Night and Fog was made in collaboration with scriptwriter Jean Cayrol, a survivor of the Mauthausen-Gusen concentration camp; the music of the soundtrack was composed by Hanns Eisler. Resnais was hesitant about making the film and refused the offer to make it until Cayrol was contracted to write the script; the film was shot in the year 1955 and is composed of contemporary shots of the camps plus stock footage. Resnais and Cayrol found the film difficult to make due to its graphic nature and subject matter; the film faced difficulties with French censors unhappy with a shot of a French police officer in the film, with the German embassy in France, which attempted to halt the film's release at the Cannes Film Festival.
Night and Fog was released to critical acclaim, still receives high praise today. It was re-shown on French television nationwide in 1990 to remind the people of the "horrors of war". Night and Fog is a documentary that alternates between past and present, using both black-and-white and color footage; the first part of Night and Fog shows remnants of Auschwitz while the narrator Michel Bouquet describes the rise of Nazi ideology. The film continues with comparisons of the life of the Schutzstaffel to the starving prisoners in the camps. Bouquet addresses the sadism inflicted upon the doomed inmates, including torture and medical "experiments", rape; the next section is shown in black-and-white, depicts images of gas chambers and piles of bodies. The final topic of the film depicts the liberation of the country, the discovery of the horror of the camps, the questioning of, responsible for them. From 1954 to 1955, a number of activities took place observing the tenth anniversary of the liberation of France and of the concentration camps.
One of these was an exhibition curated by Olga Wormser and Henri Michel, Liberation, which opened on 10 November 1954 at the Institut Pédagogique National in Paris. The exhibit was based on Michel and Wormser's monograph which had appeared earlier in 1954 in a special issue of Revue d'histoire de la Deuxième Guerre mondiale; the first public notice of a proposed film project was given during a radio broadcast on 10 November 1954, the opening day of the exhibition. Although Michel was under pressure from veterans' organizations to create a film document that would honor French Resistance fighters, Wormser argued for a scholarly approach that would show the concentration camps as a systematic microcosm of the German war economy. Michel recognized that this approach would enable broader financing, both re-envisioned the film as "communicating historical research through contemporary media." Michel thought the film could take the form of a montage of news reports. But as a result of the exhibit Resistance, Deportation, both he and Wormser had received many items created by former inmates during their internment, making Michel and Wormster believe that a unique perspective would be created by providing an inside view of the camps.
"The genocide of the Jews was treated in French remembrance as more of a side issue—something, in any case a matter for the Jews themselves and not for the majority of society. Michel and Wormser might have wanted scholarly objectivity instead of the heroism favoured by the deportees' association...but the Holocaust had remained a blind spot for them."Film producers Anatole Dauman, Samy Halfton and Philippe Lifchitz were invited to this exhibit and felt that a film should be made on the subject. Anatole Dauman from Warsaw, undertook the production for Argos Films and arranged for co-financing by Films Polski, the Polish state production company. Dauman approached filmmaker Alain Resnais who had experience with documentary films since 1948. Resnais turned down the offer for over a week, feeling that only someone with first hand experience of concentration camps should attempt the subject matter. Resnais agreed, providing that poet and novelist Jean Cayrol, a concentration camp prisoner, would collaborate on the project.
Resnais signed his contract for the film on 24 May 1955. Cayrol had written in 1946 about his experience as a survivor of Mauthausen in Poèmes de la nuit et brouillard, which gave the documentary its title. For Resnais, the film was meant to showcase a warning that the horrors of Nazism may be repeated during the Algerian War where torture and internment were under way; the film was commissioned by two organizations, the first of, the Comité d'histoire de la Deuxième Guerre mondiale, a government commission assigned the tasks of assembling documentary material on, of launching historical inquiries and studies of, the period of the French occupation from 1940 to 1945. The other commissioner was the Réseau du souvenir, an association devoted to the memory of those deported to camps. A pre-production meeting was held on 28 May 1955, during the course of which it was decided "to explain how the concentration-camp system flowed automatically from fascism"; the film's working title and Deportation, was changed to the French
Nazi concentration camp badge
Nazi concentration camp badges triangles, were part of the system of identification in Nazi camps. They were used in the concentration camps in the Nazi-occupied countries to identify the reason the prisoners had been placed there; the triangles were sewn on jackets and trousers of the prisoners. These mandatory badges of shame had specific meanings indicated by their shape; such emblems helped. For example, a guard at a glance could see if someone were a convicted criminal and thus of a tough temperament suitable for kapo duty. Someone with an escape suspect mark would not be assigned to work squads operating outside the camp fence. Someone wearing an F could be called upon to help translate guards' spoken instructions to a trainload of new arrivals from France; some historical monuments quote the badge-imagery, with the use of a triangle being a sort of visual shorthand to symbolize all camp victims. The modern-day use of a pink triangle emblem to symbolize gay rights is a response to the camp identification patches.
The system of badges varied between the camps and in the stages of World War II the use of badges dwindled in some camps and became accidental in others. The following description is based on the badge coding system used before and during the early stages of the war in the Dachau concentration camp, which had one of the more elaborate coding systems. Shape was chosen by analogy with the common triangular road hazard signs in Germany that denote warnings to motorists. Here, a triangle is called inverted. Red triangle – political prisoners: social democrats, socialists and anarchists. Green triangle – convicts and criminals. Blue triangle – foreign forced laborers and emigrants. Purple triangle – Jehovah's Witnesses as well as members of other small pacifist religious groups. Pink triangle – homosexual men and those identified as such as well as sexual offenders including rapists and zoophiles. Black triangle – people who were deemed asocial elements and work-shy, including the following: Roma and Sinti.
They wore the black triangle with a Z notation to the right of the triangle's point. Male Romani were assigned a brown triangle. Female Romani were still deemed asocials. Mentally ill and mentally disabled, their triangles were inscribed with the word Blöd, meaning stupid. Alcoholics and drug addicts. Vagrants and beggars. Pacifists and conscription resisters. Prostitutes. Lesbians; some anarchists. Brown triangle – Romani males. Uninverted red triangle – an enemy POW, a spy or traitor, or a military deserter or criminal. People who wore the green and pink triangles were convicted in criminal courts and may have been transferred to the criminal prison systems after the camps were liberated; some period examples of the single triangle design at Nazi camps Double-triangle badges resembled two superimposed triangles forming a Star of David, a Jewish symbol. Red inverted triangle superimposed upon a yellow one representing a Jewish political prisoner Blue inverted triangle superimposed upon a red one representing foreign forced labour and political prisoner Green inverted triangle upon a yellow one representing a Jewish habitual criminal Purple inverted triangle superimposed upon a yellow one representing one of Jehovah's Witnesses of Jewish descent Pink inverted triangle superimposed upon a yellow one representing a Jewish "sexual offender", an LGBT person Black inverted triangle superimposed upon a yellow one representing asocial and work-shy Jew Voided black inverted triangle superimposed over a yellow triangle representing a Jew convicted of miscegenation and labelled as a Rassenschänder.
Yellow inverted triangle superimposed over a black triangle representing an Aryan convicted of miscegenation and labelled as a Rassenschänder. Like those who wore pink and green triangles, people in the bottom two categories would have been convicted in criminal courts; some period examples of the double triangle design at Nazi camps In addition to color-coding, non-German prisoners were marked by the first letter of the German name for their home country or ethnic group. Red triangle with a letter, for example: B, E, F, H, I, J, N, P, S T, U, or a Z notation next to a black triangle. Polish emigrant laborers wore a purple diamond with a yellow backing. A letter P was cutout in the purple cloth to show the yellow backing beneath. Furthermore, repeat offenders would receive bars over their stars or triangles, a different colour for a different crime. A political prisoner would have a red bar over his/her triangle. A professional criminal would have a green bar. A foreign forced laborer would not have a blue bar, but might have a different coloured bar if they were drawn from another pool of inmates.
One of Jehovah's Witnesses would have a purple bar. A homosexual or
SS Experiment Camp
SS Experiment Camp is a 1976 Nazi exploitation film directed by Sergio Garrone. The plot concerns consensual sexual experimenting with female prisoners of a concentration camp ran by Colonel von Kleiben, a Nazi officer who needs a testicle transplant after being castrated by a Russian girl, it gained infamy in the 1980s for its controversial themes and a public advertising campaign that involved obscene, suggestive posters. The film was banned in some countries, including the United Kingdom, where the film was subject to prosecution as one of the films known as "video nasties". Mircha Carven... Helmut Giorgio Cerioni... Col. Von Kleiben Paola Corazzi... Mirelle Giovanna Mainardi... Serafino Profumo... The Sergeant Attilio Dottesio... Dr. Steiner Patrizia Melega... Dr. Renke Almina De Sanzio... Matilde Dall'Aglio... Agnes Kalpagos... Margot Bizarre Magazine, in a 2004 overview of the Naziploitation genre, said the following: "Its advertising campaign, an image of a semi-naked woman hanging upside-down from a crucifix, was instrumental in bringing unwanted attention to the Nasties, beyond that, its infamy is unwarranted".
A similar view of it was taken by the British Board of Film Classification, who passed it uncut the next year, noting "Despite the questionable taste of basing an exploitation film in a concentration camp, the sexual activity itself was consensual and the level of eroticised violence sufficiently limited". However, it was denounced in by the Sunday Times and Sunday Express at the time of Holocaust Memorial Day, cited by MPs Julian Brazier and Keith Vaz as part of their attempts to tighten the film banning system. SS Experiment Camp on IMDb