The Cantonal police are the law enforcement agencies for each of the 26 Swiss Cantons. Law enforcement in Switzerland is a responsibility of the 26 cantons of Switzerland, which each operate cantonal police agencies; some cities operate municipal police agencies as provided for by cantonal law. The federal government provides specialised services and is responsible for the protection of the Swiss border; the 26 cantonal police agencies and numerous municipal police agencies are the backbone of Swiss law enforcement. They are not subordinate to federal authorities, their commanding officers report to the head of the respective cantonal or municipal department of police, a member of the cantonal or municipal governing council. Police training is conducted in cantonal service academies and at the Interkantonale Polizeischule Hitzkirch, a joint police academy of twelve police agencies established in 2007. Throughout Switzerland, the police may be reached by the emergency telephone number 1-1-7; the police authority is exercised by the cantons, which are considered sovereign states within the Confederation.
The organization of cantonal police forces reflects that of the country whose language is the primary language of that canton. In the French-speaking cantons, the police are divided into two sections: the gendarmerie, a uniformed organization which performs the tasks of police patrol and response, may conduct judicial enquiries. However, in certain cantons, the gendarmes have the ability to conduct judicial enquiries; the sûreté, civil investigators who work in the Criminal Investigation Department In German-speaking cantons, the police are divided into three sections: the Kriminalpolizei, who investigate crime and conduct criminal investigations. The Schutzpolizei, who respond to emergency conduct patrols; the Autobahnpolizei who enforce traffic laws and investigate road traffic accidents. In Italian-speaking cantons, the police are divided into geographical areas. Links of Cantonal police
Kazan Aircraft Production Association
Kazan Aircraft Production Association is an aircraft manufacturer based in Kazan, Russia. It has built more than 18,000 aircraft of 34 types during its history; the company traces its origins to the Fili plant of the Russo-Balt corporation, established as an automobile production plant in April 1916. In November 1922, the Soviet Union signed a joint venture agreement with the German aircraft manufacturer Junkers, the Fili facility was renamed State Aircraft Factory No. 7. The Fili site became the Khrunichev Space Center; as relations with the German government worsened, the plant was taken over by the Soviets and in 1927 it was renamed Zavod No. 22 Ten Years October Plant, it was named after S. P. Gorbunov. In 1941 the plant was evacuated to Kazan, in 1946 it absorbed the Heinkel facility from Elsnitz. KAPO produces Tu-214 passenger planes and Tu-160 strategic bombers. There are plans to start producing Tu-334 regional airliners and Tu-330 freighters. According to a 2010 article, after KAPO has upgraded the current Russian bomber fleet it will start production of a "new-generation strategic bomber", the PAK DA.
Kazanka KAPO official website
Kapo (concentration camp)
A kapo or prisoner functionary was a prisoner in a Nazi concentration camp, assigned by the SS guards to supervise forced labor or carry out administrative tasks. Called "prisoner self-administration", the prisoner functionary system minimized costs by allowing camps to function with fewer SS personnel; the system was designed to turn victim against victim, as the prisoner functionaries were pitted against their fellow prisoners in order to maintain the favor of their SS overseers. If they were derelict, they would be returned to the status of ordinary prisoners and be subject to other kapos. Many prisoner functionaries were recruited from the ranks of violent criminal gangs rather than from the more numerous political and racial prisoners; this brutality was an integral part of the camp system. Prisoner functionaries were spared physical abuse and hard labor, provided they performed their duties to the satisfaction of the SS functionaries, they had access to certain privileges, such as civilian clothes and a private room.
While the Germans called them kapos, the official government term for prisoner functionaries was Funktionshäftling. The origin of "kapo" is unclear; the Jewish Virtual Library claims it is an abbreviated form of the word Kameradschaftpolizei or Kameradschafts-Polizei. It could have come from the Italian word for "head" and "boss", capo. According to the Duden, it is derived from the French word for "Corporal". Pulitzer Prize-winning journalist Robert D. McFadden believes that the word "kapo" is derived from the German word Lagercapo meaning camp captain. Concentration camps were controlled by the SS, but day-to-day organization was supplemented by the system of functionary prisoners, a second hierarchy that made it easier for the Nazis to control the camps; these prisoners made it possible for the camps to function with fewer SS personnel. The prisoner functionaries sometimes numbered as high as 10% of the inmates; the Nazis were able to keep the number of paid staff who had direct contact with the prisoners low in comparison to normal prisons today.
Without the functionary prisoners, the SS camp administrations would not have been able to keep the day-to-day operations of the camps running smoothly. The kapos did this work for extra food, alcohol or other privileges. At Buchenwald, these tasks were assigned to criminal prisoners, but after 1939, political prisoners began to displace the criminal prisoners, though criminals were preferred by the SS. At Mauthausen, on the other hand, functionary positions remained dominated by criminal prisoners until just before liberation; the system and hierarchy inhibited solidarity among the prisoners. There were tensions between the various nationalities as well as between the various prisoner groups, who were distinguished by different Nazi concentration camp badges. Jews wore yellow stars, other prisoners wore. Prisoner functionaries were hated by other prisoners as Nazi henchmen and were spat upon. While some barrack leaders tried to assist the prisoners under their command by secretly helping them get extra food or easier jobs, others were more concerned with their own survival and, to that end, did more to assist the SS.
Identified by green triangles, the Berufsverbrecher or "BV" kapos, were called "professional criminals" by other prisoners and were known for their brutality and lack of scruples. Indeed, they were selected by the SS because of those qualities. According to former prisoners, the criminal functionaries were more apt to be helpful to the SS than political functionaries, who were more apt to be helpful to other prisoners. From Oliver Lustig's Dictionary of the Camp: Vicenzo and Luigi Pappalettera wrote in their book The Brutes Have the Floor that, every time a new transport of detainees arrived at Mauthausen, Kapo August Adam picked out the professors, lawyers and magistrates and cynically asked them: "Are you a lawyer? A professor? Good! Do you see this green triangle? This means. I have four for robbery. Well, here I am in command; the world has turned upside down, did you get that? Do you need a Dolmetscher, an interpreter? Here it is!" And he was pointing to his bat. When he was satisfied, he formed a Scheisskompanie with those selected and sent them to clean the latrines.
The SS used domination and terror to control the camps' large populations with just a few SS functionaries. The system of prisoner guards was a "key instrument of domination", was called "prisoner self-government" in SS parlance; the camp draconian rules, constant threat of beatings, humiliation and the practice of punishing whole groups for the actions of one prisoner were psychological and physical torments on top of the starvation, physical exhaustion from back-breaking labor. Prisoner guards were used to push other inmates to work harder, saving the need for paid SS supervision. Many kapos felt being both victims and perpetrators. Though kapos had a bad reputation, many suffered guilt about their actions, both at the time and after the war, as revealed in a book about Jewish kapos. Many prisoner functionaries from the ranks of the "greens" or criminal prisoners, could be quite ruthless in order to justify their privileges when an SS man was around, they played an active role in the beatings killing fellow prisoners.
One non-criminal functionary was Josef Heid
Narcisse-Olivier Kapo Obou, known as Olivier Kapo, is a French footballer who played as a left winger. Born in Abidjan, Ivory Coast, Kapo began his professional career with Auxerre in 1999, he joined Juventus on a free transfer in the summer of 2004, but he struggled to adapt to life in Turin and did not play much as he was behind Pavel Nedvěd in the left midfield role. As a result, he was loaned to Monaco for the 2005–06 season; when Juventus were forcibly relegated to Serie B, Kapo returned to Turin, but went back on loan due to the abundance of midfielders. He signed for Spanish La Liga club Levante, scoring five goals in 32 appearances. Kapo signed for Birmingham City on 29 June 2007 for a fee of £3 million, he claimed to have rejected other offers to sign for the club, suggesting his style of play was better suited to English football. He scored on his Premier League debut, against Chelsea in a 3–2 defeat on 12 August 2007. Kapo signed for Wigan Athletic on 16 July 2008, signing a three-year deal for a fee reported as £3.5 million, a move which reunited him with former manager Steve Bruce.
He scored his first goal for Wigan in a 4–1 League Cup win over Ipswich Town on 24 September 2008, his first league goal in a 2–1 defeat to Chelsea on 28 February 2009. On 8 January 2010, Kapo moved to Boulogne on a six-month loan deal, left Wigan by mutual consent in August 2010. On 4 November 2010, Kapo signed for Celtic on an 18-month deal, he was allocated the number 77 jersey. He stated he turned down better money from other clubs to sign for the Glasgow side, including an offer from Bundesliga club SC Freiburg, he was encouraged to join the club after consulting with his friend, ex-Celtic player Jean-Joël Perrier-Doumbé. Kapo made his debut against St Johnstone at home in the Scottish Premier League as a second-half substitute, hitting the bar and assisting the second goal in a 2–0 victory, he was released from his Celtic contract in January 2011, although the player claimed he walked out on the club because they had unilaterally changed the terms of his contract. In February 2011, Kapo signed for Qatar club Al Ahli SC on a five-month contract.
He scored twice to help Al Ahli to only their second win of the season, beating Qatar SC 3–1. After only five appearances and two league goals, he terminated his contract with the club of the Persian Gulf during the following summer, he signed an 18-month contract with former club Auxerre in January 2012, after a few weeks spent training with the club. When his contract expired, he signed a two-year deal with Superleague Greece club Levadiakos. In September 2014, he stated in the French media that "everything is corrupted in Greek football, mafia-controlled, while FIFA and UEFA don't care". Kapo won nine caps for France, he represented his country in the 2003 Confederations Cup, scoring against New Zealand, was a substitute in the final as France beat Cameroon. He has scored in friendlies against Egypt and Serbia and Montenegro. Kapo's last cap came in 2004, but after signing for Celtic in November 2010, he outlined his hopes for a recall to the international fold. Auxerre Coupe de France: 2002–03 France FIFA Confederations Cup: 2003 Olivier Kapo at 90minut.pl Olivier Kapo at National-Football-Teams.com Olivier Kapo at Soccerbase
A construction foreman is the worker or tradesman, in charge of a construction crew. This role is assumed by a senior worker; the foreman is a construction worker with many years of experience in a particular trade, charged with organizing the overall construction of a particular project for a particular contractor. The foreman is a person with specialist knowledge of a given trade who has moved into the position and is now focused on an overall management of his trade on the job site, he or she is responsible for providing proper documentation to his workers so they can proceed with tasks. Not to be confused with a Project Manager, Project Supervisor, General Foreman, or a "Firstman". A good foreman is said by many engineers to be the keystone of their projects. A foreman may train employees under his or her supervision, ensure appropriate use of equipment by employees, communicate progress on the project to a supervisor and maintain the employee schedule. Foremen may arrange for materials to be at the construction site and evaluate plans for each construction job.
Construction Civil engineering
Mallica Reynolds, OD, better known by the adopted name "Kapo", was a Jamaican artist and religious leader. Considered one of the greatest artists in Jamaica's "Intuitives" artistic movement, Kapo's religious beliefs were reflected in his work. Mallica Reynolds was born in Byndloss, Saint Catherine Parish, Jamaica on 10 February 1911. At the age of 12, Reynolds had a religious experience and began going by the name "Kapo". At age 16, he became a preacher, he moved to Kingston, where he founded a Zion Revival church, St. Michael's Revival Apostolic Tabernacle. Kapo was a leader in the Zion Revival movement, from 1976 until his death, was the patriarch Bishop of St. Michael's Revival Apostolic Tabernacle, he began creating paintings in the 1940s, he rose to national and international acclaim in the 1960s. Edward Seaga, a powerful politician who would go on to head the Jamaica Labour Party and become the Prime Minister of Jamaica, John Pringle, a founding figure in the Jamaican tourism industry, were both champions of Kapo's work.
The latter collected Kapo's work, donated his collection to the National Gallery of Jamaica upon his death. Roberta Flack, an American musician, was one of Kapo's patrons, his portrait of her is now held by the American Folk Art Museum, his works have been exhibited internationally, including six exhibitions in the United States between 1953 and 1982. Influenced by his religious beliefs, Kapo believed that he was tasked by god to create paintings and sculptures. Dr. Veerle Poupeye, the Executive Director of the National Gallery of Jamaica, wrote that "Kapo's paintings and sculptures, as a whole, depict his Zion Revival life world". Poupeye noted that several of Kapo's works depicted Zion Revival ceremonies and dance. Kapo is considered a member of the "Intuitives" artistic movement, he is considered one of the movement's greatest artists. Kapo died on 24 February 1989, was buried in National Heroes Park. One of Kapo's paintings, "Shining the Spring", was selected by the Jamaican government as a wedding gift for the 1981 Wedding of Prince Charles and Lady Diana.
In 1983, Kapo became the first artist to have a gallery of his work featured in an exhibition at the National Gallery of Jamaica. He has been named to the Order of Distinction, awarded the Norman Manley Award for Excellence in the Arts, he was awarded the Musgrave Gold Medal in 1985 by the Institute of Jamaica
Kapo (1960 film)
Kapò is a 1960 Italian film about the Holocaust directed by Gillo Pontecorvo. It was nominated for the Academy Award as Best Foreign Language Film, it was an Italian-French co-production filmed in Yugoslavia. Naive 14-year-old Edith and her Jewish parents are sent to a concentration camp, where the latter are killed. Sofia, an older, political prisoner, a kindly camp doctor save her from a similar fate by giving her a new, non-Jewish identity, that of the newly dead Nichole Niepas; as time goes by, she becomes hardened to the brutal life. She first sells her body to a German guard in return for food, she becomes fond of Karl. The fraternization helps her become one of those put in charge of the other prisoners, she thrives while the idealistic Sofia grows weaker. When she falls in love with Sascha, a Russian prisoner of war, Edith is persuaded to play a crucial role in a mass escape, turning off the power. Most of the would-be escapees are killed. Edith is not one of them; as she lies dying, she tells Karl, "They screwed us over, they screwed us both over."
She dies saying the traditional Jewish prayer Shema Yisrael. Susan Strasberg as Edith, alias Nicole Niepas Laurent Terzieff as Sascha Emmanuelle Riva as Terese Didi Perego as Sofia Gianni Garko as Karl Annabella Besi Graziella Galvani Paola Pitagora Eleonora Bellinzaghi Bruno Scipioni Dragomir Felba Dušan Perković as Commandant The authors of the Foreign Film Guide, Ronald Bergan and Robyn Karney, write:What does one say about this effort? Pontecorvo has jam-packed his film with every kind of tear-jerking cliché on offer and entrusted the debasement and regeneration of his heroine to a sadly inept actress; the result is an overheated melodrama which does a grave disservice to the enormity of its subject, although the horrors of the camps are realistically portrayed". Bernard-Henri Lévy, in the Wall Street Journal, writes:Pontecorvo earned "the deepest contempt" of French director Jacques Rivette in an article in Cahiers du cinéma nearly 50 years ago for a scarcely more insistent shot in the 1959 film "Kapo."
The shot was of the raised hand of actress Emmanuelle Riva, her character Terese electrocuted on the barbed wire of the concentration camp from which she was trying to escape. The criticism hung over Pontecorvo until his dying day, he was ostracized cursed, for a shot, just one. Lévy contrasts this reaction to one shot with what he asserts is the garish exploitation of Nazi history in Inglourious Basterds and Shutter Island. List of Holocaust films List of submissions to the 33rd Academy Awards for Best Foreign Language Film List of Italian submissions for the Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film Kapò on IMDb Column « De l'Abjection » by Jacques Rivette devoted to Pontecorvo's Kapo, L'oBservatoire site