Germania was the Roman term for the historical region in north-central Europe inhabited by Germanic tribes. The origin of the term "Germania" was known by the time of Julius Caesar. In the 1st century BC, Caesar wrote about warlike Germanic tribesmen and their threat to Roman Gaul, there were military clashes between the Romans and the indigenous tribes. In the late 1st century AD, Tacitus wrote Germania the most complete account of Germania that still survives. Germania extended from the Danube and Main in the south to the Baltic Sea, from the Rhine in the west to the Vistula; the Roman portions formed two provinces of the Empire, Germania Inferior to the north, Germania Superior to the south. During antiquity, Germania was inhabited not only by Germanic tribes, but Celts, Scythians, Alans and on Early Slavs, Pannonian Avars, Huns; the population mix changed over time by assimilation, by migration during the Migration Period with many Germanic tribes migrating to the Roman Empire, a large influx of Slavs.

The ethnonym Germani is most Gallic in origin. Jacob Grimm derived it from a Celtic term for "shouting. Johann Kaspar Zeuss derived the name from the Celtic word for "neighbour". Germani enters into Latin use following Julius Caesar. Caesar in Commentarii de Bello Gallico reports hearing from his Remi allies that the term Germani was for a group that had come from the near side of the Rhine, named Germani Cisrhenani. By extension, Germani was understood to include similar tribes still living beyond the Rhine. Tacitus, writing in AD 98, reports that the Tungri of his time, who lived in the area, home to the Germani Cisrhenani, had changed their name, but had once been the original Germani: For the rest, they affirm Germania to be a recent word bestowed. For those who first passed the Rhine and expulsed the Gauls, are now named Tungrians, were called Germani, and thus by degrees the name of a tribe prevailed, not that of the nation. Names of Germany in English and some other languages are derived from "Germania", but German speakers call it "Deutschland", Dutch speakers call it "Duitsland", both from *þeudō "people or nation".

Several modern languages use the name "Germania", including Hebrew, Albanian, Maltese, Romanian, Russian and Georgian. Germania extended from the Rhine eastward to the Vistula river, from the Danube and Main river northward to the Baltic Sea; the geography of Magna Germania was comprehensively described in Ptolemy's Geography of around 150 AD via geographical coordinates of the main cities. By means of a geodetic deformation analysis carried out by the Institute of Geodesy and Geoinformation Science at the Technical University of Berlin as part of a project of the German Research Association under the direction of Dieter Lelgemann in 2007–2010, many historical place names have been localized and associated with place names of the present day; the Roman parts of Germania, "Lesser Germania" formed two provinces of the empire, Germania Inferior, "Lower Germania" and Germania Superior. Important cities in Lesser Germania included Besançon, Strasbourg and Mainz. Classical records show little about the people who inhabited the north of Europe before the 2nd century BC.

In the 5th century BC, the Greeks were aware of a group. Herodotus mentioned the Scythians but no other tribes. At around 320 BC, Pytheas of Massalia sailed around Britain and along the northern coast of Europe, what he found on his journeys was so strange that writers refused to believe him, he may have been the first Mediterranean to distinguish the Germanic people from the Celts. Contact between German tribes and the Roman Empire did was not always hostile. Recent excavations of the Waldgirmes Forum show signs that a civilian Roman town was established there, interpreted to mean that Romans and Germanic tribesmen were living in peace, at least for a while. Caesar described the cultural differences between the Germanic tribesmen, the Romans, the Gauls in his book Commentarii de Bello Gallico, where he recalls his defeat of the Suebi tribes at the Battle of Vosges, he describes them at length at the beginning of Book IV and the middle of Book VI. He states that the Gauls, although warlike, had a functional society and could be civilized, but that the Germanic tribesmen were far more savage and were a threat to Roman Gaul and Rome itself.

Caesar said the Germanic tribes were nomadic, with a primitive culture. He used this as one of his justifications for, his accounts of barbaric northern tribes could be described as an expression of the superiority of Rome, including Roman Gaul. Caesar's accounts portray the Roman fear of the threat they posed; the perceived menace of the

Oral Mathram

Oral Mathram is a 1997 Malayalam film directed by Sathyan Anthikkad. The film stars Mammootty, Sudheesh and Lalu Alex. Sreedhara Menon is a retired income tax officer from Mumbai and has now settled in a remote village in Kerala, he owns some land and a house where he and his three daughters live together and leads a calm and happy life. Menon owns a smaller house adjacent to his own, given for rent, his source of income other that agricultural income. Mr. Menon's Pension from the service has been blocked due to some unclear issues. Hareendran comes in as a new tenant to the rented house. Hareendran is put under unwanted troubles by his aide Balachandran, who convinces Hareendran to help people in trouble, his experience with Balachandran has made Hareendran a selfish man and he presently is least concerned about other peoples problems around him. But the things take a change. Hareendran, the selfish tenant decides to vacate the house to avoid unwanted troubles. Though selfish and unkind outside, the good-hearted Hareendran cannot stand the harsh difficulties forced to be faced by the girls in front of his house and rest of the story is about how only Hareendran steps up to help the girls.

Mammootty as Hareendranath Thilakan as Shekhara Menon Sreenivasan as C. I Sachidanandan Sudheesh as Balachandran Lalu Alex as S. I Mathew Varghese Shruti as Devika Menon Praveena as Malavika Menon Kavya Madhavan as Gopika Menon Oduvil Unnikrishnan as Pankunny Menon Mamukkoya as Kunjhalikutty Sankaradi as Nambiar, the tea shop owner Mahesh as Hameed Vishnuprakash as Kunjachan / K. R. K / K. R. Kuttikrishnan The film features songs written by Kaithapram. Https://

Video email

Video email is the term for the use of email to send videos such that the recipient feels the video is being watched inside the email. This is differentiated from a video file as an email attachment or a hyperlink to video elsewhere on the internet. In contrast to text emails, videos of people talking allows for nonverbal communication, considered 55% of all communication; the significance of video email has emerged with the final recommendation of the HTML5 video standard by World Wide Web Consortium on October 28, 2014. Html5 introduces a video element; as adoption of the new standard is implemented in email client and webmailsystems, the use of embedded video email is expected to grow. The first step in sending a video email is the creation of the video file. Videos can be professionally produced or create through low-cost methods using a camera, webcam, or a phone video camera. Videos having a broader audience involve higher production costs whereas personal videos that may only be viewed one time or by few persons, can employ inexpensive recording devices.

Video files are created by an application called a video codecs which outputs compressed file in a specific format. During video editing, videos can be interlaced with video clips. A common technique involves overlaying the video with another transparent video which would have clickable spots permitting the viewer to take an action, called a call to action. Call to actions can occur in the middle of a video or at the end providing the viewer with the next action to be taken, such as opening a webpage, an order form, an email, a survey, or a live chat session. Most video emails do not include the actual video file as an attachment to the email because attachment size limits; the most common technique is to have the video file uploaded to a video hosting service. The uploaded file can have metadata attached to it identifying the creator, video codec used and other tags; the video hosting service encodes the video in to multiple formats to permit efficient display on variety of devices like desktop browser or lower resolution mobile devices.

Video hosting services offer low latency, high bandwidth, minimum network hops, multiple encoding formats, backup. The hosting service will allow for entering the recipient email addresses, email title, text before or after the email, signature; the hosting service sends the email on behalf of the sender so that it looks like it originated from the sender. Some video email services offer the sender engagement analytics such as if the video has been watched, how many times, the IP address of the viewers, portions of video watched, skipped, or repeated; such engagement data helps the sender measure the impact of the video. Video emails are employed in the following broad categories: Inclusion of a video posted on a video sharing service. Inclusion of a video posted on a company website; such a video would be content specific to its products and services. Emails of general video allow for the proactive distribution of content versus videos on a website which are passive, waiting for a viewer to initiate seeing them.

Inclusion of a mass personalization video which incorporates viewer-specific information inside a general video. In such a video, the viewer would feel that the video contained personal information within a general content video and thus uniquely created for the viewer. Personal videos which involve someone speaking directly to the viewer for either personal, business, or accessibility reasons. Due to their disposable nature, such videos involve rapid, low-cost production techniques employing a webcam or smartphone; such videos can be useful in telesales situations, interpersonal, or social media and dating websites. Video email allows people with physical disabilities to communicate more easily; this can include amputees, who otherwise would have problems typing. For those that have difficulty reading and typing, video email is another use of communication that might be more accessible; the primary benefit of video email is to leverage the power of video to communicate more information quicker and more than a text email through the use of motion and nonverbal communication.

The wide proliferation of high internet bandwidth and the final HTML5 standards have established the technological preconditions for increased use of video email. Sending video email allows for the recipient to have an easier time understanding the sender. Although they cannot respond in real time, in most cases they are able to send another video email back in response. Video email eliminates the need for composition, which may be difficult for some people, it eliminates the requirement of proofreading, concerns about how a text email may be interpreted. People can use tone of voice and physical expressions to help a message come across more clearly. Furthermore video mails enable Deaf people to communicate in their native language, Sign Language, quite an important when it comes to accessibility and equal rights compared to written emails; the HTML5 video function does not limit video length, quantity of videos in an email, or operating system. Html4 markup language, in use since 2000, doesn't support multimedia elements natively.

Html4 email systems simulate embedded video in email by having an embedded image which appears like a frame from a video. Clicking on the image causes a hyperlink to be launched in a browser window to display a video using the browser's video codec or a rich internet application like Adobe Flash. Many codecs and rich internet applications are not natively supported in browsers and require browser extensions to operate which can impede embedded