Germanic peoples

The Germanic peoples are a category of north European ethnic groups, first mentioned by Graeco-Roman authors. They are associated with Germanic languages, which many of them spoke. Starting with Julius Caesar, several Roman authors placed their homeland, Germania between the Lower Rhine and the Vistula, distinguished them from other broad categories of peoples better known to Rome the Celtic Gauls to their southwest, "Scythian" Sarmatians to their southeast. Greek writers, in contrast categorized the Germanic peoples from east of the Rhine as a type of Gaul. With the possible exception of some tribes near the Rhine, there is no evidence that the Germanic peoples called themselves or their lands "Germanic". Broad definitions of the Germanic peoples include peoples who were not known as Germani or Germanic peoples in their own time, but who have been proposed to be part of the same group of cultures, most because of their use of Germanic languages, although not all scholars agree that this is a useful approach.

Thus, in modern writing "Germanic peoples" is a term which includes the medieval or modern speakers of Germanic languages which are no longer mutually intelligible, for example the Norse-speaking Vikings, who did not appear in written records until long after the Roman era. Making such linguistic classification difficult, all the languages of the earliest-known Germanic peoples of classical antiquity have left only fragmentary evidence, if any at all, the first long texts which have survived are written in languages of new mixed peoples outside Germania: the Gothic languages from the region, today Ukraine, Old English in England. Languages in this family are widespread today in Europe, have dispersed worldwide, the family being represented by major modern languages such as English, Nordic languages and German; the Eastern Germanic branch of the language family, once found in what is now Poland and the Ukraine, is extinct. Apart from language and geography, proposed connections between the diverse Germanic peoples described by classical and medieval sources and linguistics are the subject of on-going debate among scholars: On the one hand there is doubt about whether Roman-era Germanic peoples were all unified by any single unique shared culture, collective consciousness, or language.

The idea that Germanic-speaking groups maintained any meaningful idea of shared origins or culture has been criticized by scholars such as Walter Goffart, become the subject of vigorous debate. On the other hand, there is a connected debate concerning the extent to which any significant Germanic traditions apart from language smaller scale tribal traditions, survived after Roman times, when new mixed peoples formed new political entities in many Roman-influenced parts of Europe; some of these new entities are seen as precursors of modern European nation states, such as the English and French. Such proposed connections back to medieval and classical barbarian nations were important to many of the Romanticist nationalist movements which developed in Europe in modern times; the most controversial of these has been "Germanicism" which saw Germans as direct heirs of a Europe-conquering Germanic race and culture - a popular narrative which helped inspire Nazism. In the 21st century, genetic studies have begun to look more systematically at questions of ancestry, using both modern and ancient DNA.

However, the connection between modern Germanic languages and genetic heritage is thought by many scholars to be unlikely to be simple or uncontroversial. Guy Halsall for example writes: "The danger addressed, is of reducing ethnicity to biology and thus to something close to the nineteenth-century idea of race, at the basis of the ‘nation state’." Since the first surviving discussion of the topic by Julius Caesar, the definition of what makes any people or peoples "Germanic" has involved several criteria, allowing the possibility of debatable cases. This remains relevant because his writings, a small number of writings from his time and soon after—Strabo, Pliny the Elder, Tacitus —are still the basis of modern scholarly debate concerning the various ways in which the Germanic peoples were connected, such as language, hairstyles, law and religion. Attempts to unite all or some of these peoples on linguistic or archaeological criteria have created new concepts which overlap with the old ones.

However this has not ended debate and uncertainty concerning the origins and backgrounds of either the early Roman-era Germanic peoples, or the late Roman Germanic peoples. According to all available evidence, the theoretical concept of the Germanic peoples as a large grouping distinct from the Gauls, whose homeland was east of the Rhine, included areas far from it, originated with Julius Caesar's published account of his "Gallic Wars", those parts concerning his battles near the Rhine. For all future conceptions of what Germanic means, Caesar was the first to categorize distant peoples such as the Cimbri and the large group of Suebian peoples as "Germanic"; the Suevians and their languages, which had never been called Germanic before had started expanding their influence in his time, as Caesar experienced personally. Caesar's categorization was in the context of explaining his battle against Ariovistus, a Roman ally, who led mixed forces which included significant Suebian contingents. Rome had suffered pr

John F. Beard

John Forbes Beard was an American plasterer and farmer from Gratiot, Wisconsin who served a single one-year term as a member of the Wisconsin State Assembly from Lafayette County, Wisconsin. Beard was born in Landisburg, Pennsylvania on August 13, 1822, he received a common school education. He left Pennsylvania in 1840 with $12, an umbrella and his clothes, walked the 250 miles to Wheeling, West Virginia, where he caught a boat to Cincinnati, Ohio, he learned the trade of plasterer, left for Wisconsin in 1845, spending about a year in Galena, Illinois settled in New Diggings where on March 17, 1846 he would marry Amanda Criss, a native of Wheeling. He stayed in New Diggings before moving on, coming in 1851 to Gratiot, he would serve on the town board of Gratiot. In 1873, Beard was elected to the Assembly from the Lafayette County district as a candidate of the new Reform Party, a coalition of Democrats and Liberal Republicans, Grangers, which secured the election for two years of a Governor of Wisconsin and a number of state legislators.

Beard drew 1,374 votes, to 1,345 for Republican John S. Wiley, he was appointed to the standing committees on railroads, on mining and smelting. Beard was not a candidate for re-election the next year, was succeeded by Democrat John Anderson. Beard remained in politics, holding various township offices in Gratiot, after the collapse of the Reform Party aligned with the Democratic Party, he and Amanda had eleven children between 1846 and 1874, at least six of them still living as of 1881. Amanda died on March 6, 1879; as of 1881, Beard owned 596 acres of improved land, with a two-story brick house, large barn, stable and carriage house, stocked with horses and sheep. He described himself as "in religion, Liberal." He died Oct. 2 1891 in Sundance Wyoming of Brights disease. He was interred in Warren, Illinois


Noordwijk is a town and municipality in the west of the Netherlands, in the province of South Holland. The municipality covers an area of 51.45 km2 of which 15.97 km2 is water and had a population of 42,859 in 2019. On January 1, 2019, the former municipality of Noordwijkerhout became part of Noordwijk. Besides its beaches, Noordwijk is known for its bulb flower fields, it is located in an area called the "Dune and Bulb Region". Noordwijk is the location of the headquarters for the European Space Research and Technology Centre, part of the European Space Agency. ESA's visitors' centre. 13 kilometres coast line 43 kilometres from Amsterdam 25 kilometres from Schiphol airport 27 kilometres from The Hague 43 kilometres from Rotterdam Airport 14 camp sites in the region ± 1 million overnight stays per year Number of hotels/B&B beds: ± 3,400 No. 2 congress destination in the Netherlands ± 251 international congresses per year Home to the ESA/ESTEC In 2012 Noordwijk has received the QualityCoast Gold Award for its efforts to become a sustainable tourism destination.

Because of this award Noordwijk has been selected for inclusion in the global atlas for sustainable tourism DestiNet. The municipality of Noordwijk consists of the communities Noordwijk aan Zee and Noordwijk-Binnen, separated by a narrow green belt, as well as Noordwijkerhout and De Zilk. Noordwijk aan Zee was founded around 1200 as a fishing village; until the beginning of the 19th century, fishing remained its primary business, but began to be replaced by the growing tourism industry. Nowadays because of its long sandy beaches, it is a popular resort town with 1,000,000 overnight stays per year, it has a KNRM rescue station. Furthermore, it has a reformed church with a pulpit from the 17th century. Noordwijk aan Zee is rated as the 12th richest location in the Netherlands. Beer magnate Freddy Heineken has built a villa there with the characteristic green roof. A small part of the indigenous population of Noordwijk aan Zee speaks Noordwijks, a original Dutch dialect, which sounds like Katwijks, but in Noordwijk the dialect is gone, compared to Katwijk, where more people speak in dialect.

Because of the martyrdom of Priest Jeroen in 857, the Archbishop of Utrecht made Noordwijk-Binnen a pilgrimage location in 1429. Both the Catholic and Protestant churches here are named after this priest. Noordwijk-Binnen has retained its historic character and is therefore protected by the Dutch Monument Law. An interesting historic view is showen by the picture of Gerard van der Laan with the view to the Jeroenskerk. In the foreground is a canal with two sailboats for inland waterways; the area around Noordwijk-Binnen has long been an important part of the regional bulb flower industry. The dunes were transformed into fields for the cultivation of bulb flowers; the territory of Noordwijk still exists for a large part from spirit grounds. The bulb region is formed of Noordwijk together with surrounding municipalities. North of Noordwijk spreads a vast dune area, in which a varied wild flora and fauna is observable for bikers and gallopers. North of Noordwijk, large areas of dunes are covered by the natura 2000 act.

Part of which holds house to the Kennemer Zweefvlieg Club. Public figures who lived in Noordwijk or sought recovery were Thomas Mann, Maria Montessori among others, the entrepreneur Alfred Heineken, ex-Empress Soraya, the poet Henriette Roland Holst, the psychoanalyst Sigmund Freud, the writer Stefan George, the pianist Pia Beck, the tenor Jacques Urlus, the writer Margriet de Moor as well as painters and artists such as Marinus Gidding, Gerard van der Laan, Max Liebermann, Daniël Noteboom, Jan Hillebrand Wijsmuller and known film actors; the landscape painter Ludolph Berkemeier moved in 1896 to Noordwijk. His paintings are in the style of the Hague School. Noordwijk is home of football coach Louis van Gaal. In March 2014, the US President Barack Obama and President of the People's Republic of China Xi Jinping stayed in NoordwijkPart of Martin Ritt's adaptation of John le Carre's The Spy Who Came in from the Cold, starring Richard Burton, was filmed at Koningin Astrid Boulevard in Noordwijk.

This is where Burton's character Alec Leamas is taken for initial interrogation after appearing to defect to the East. Janus Dousa Lord of Noordwyck, a Dutch statesman, historian and philologist Petrus Jacobus Runckel a Dutch colonial government official in the Dutch Gold Coast Henriette Roland Holst a Dutch poet and council communist, Nobel Prize in Literature nominee Freddy Heineken a Dutch businessman for Heineken International Lodewijk Woltjer an astronomer Margriet de Moor a Dutch pianist and writer of novels and essays Leendert van Utrecht a retired Dutch footballer with 300 club caps Joris Putman a Dutch actor Janieck Devy a Dutch singer-songwriter and actor Just north of Noordwijk, buried in the North Sea dunes, lies one of the biggest and most extensive bunker complexes in the Netherlands of the World War II Atlantic Wall defenses, constructed under Nazi Germany occupation; some 80 bunkers and underground structures housed 180 soldiers, were connected by 400 metres of tunnels, equipped with narrow rail-tracks for moving heavy ammunition.

The central, S414 design, fire command bunker alone cou