Germania Superior

Germania Superior was an imperial province of the Roman Empire. It comprised an area of today's western Switzerland, the French Jura and Alsace regions, southwestern Germany. Important cities were Besançon, Strasbourg and Germania Superior's capital, Mainz, it comprised the Middle Rhine, bordering on the Limes Germanicus, on the Alpine province of Raetia to the south-east. Although it had been occupied militarily since the reign of Augustus, Germania Superior was not made into an official province until c. 85 AD. The terms, "Upper Germania" and "Lower Germania" do not appear in the Gallic Wars of Julius Caesar, yet he writes about reports that the people who lived in those regions were referred to as Germani locally, a term used for a tribe that the Romans called the Germani Cisrhenani, that the name Germania seems to have been adopted to designate other indigenous tribes in the area. Lower Germania was occupied by the Belgae. Upper Germania was occupied by Gaulish tribes including the Helvetii, Sequani and Treveri, and, on the north bank of the middle Rhine, the remnant of the Germanic troops that had attempted to take Vesontio under Ariovistus, but who were defeated by Caesar in 58 BC.

The Romans did not abandon this region at any time after then. During a 5-year period in the initial years of his reign, as Cassius Dio tells us, Octavian Caesar assumed direct governorship of the major senatorial provinces on grounds that they were in danger of insurrection and he alone commanded the troops required to restore security, they were to be restored to the senate in 10 years under proconsuls elected by the senate. Among these independent provinces were upper Germania, it had become a province in the last years of the republic. Tacitus mentions it as the province of Germania Superior in his Annales. Cassius Dio viewed the Germanic tribes as Celts, an impression given by Belgica, the name assigned to lower Germania at the time. Dio does not mention the border, it is not clear. Today we call the section of the Rhine running through upper Germania the middle Rhine. Augustus had planned to incorporate all of central Germania in Germania Magna; this plan was frustrated by the Germanic tribesmen at the Battle of the Teutoburg Forest.

Augustus decided to limit the empire at the Rhine-Danube border. Thereafter continual conflict prevailed along it, forcing the Romans to conduct punitive expeditions and fortify Germania Superior. By 12 BC, major bases existed from which Drusus operated. A system of forts developed around these bases. In 69-70, all the Roman fortications along the Rhine and Danube were destroyed by Germanic insurrections and civil war between the legions. At the conclusion of this violent but brief social storm they were rebuilt more extensively than before, with a road connecting Mainz and Augsburg. Domitian went to war against the Chatti in 83-85. At this time the first line, or continuous fortified border, was constructed, it consisted of a cleared zone of observation, a palisade where practicable, wooden watchtowers and forts at the road crossings. The system reached maximum extent by 90. A Roman road went through the Odenwald and a network of secondary roads connected all the forts and towers; the plan governing the development of the limes was simple.

From a strategic point of view, the Agri Decumates, or region between the Rhine and Danube, offers a bulge in the line between the Celts and the Germanics, which the Germanics had tried to exploit under Ariovistus. The bulge divided the densely populated Celtic settlements along the entire river system in two. Invading forces could move up under cover of the Black Forest. Roman defensive works therefore cut across the base of the bulge, denying the protected corridor and shortening the line; the key point was the shoulder of the bulge at Mogontiacum where the masse de manoevre or strategic reserves were located. The forts through the forest were lightly defended and on that account were always being burned by the Alamanni, they gave advance notice, however. On being notified, the legions would strike out in preventative and punitive expeditions from Mainz or Strasburg, or Augsburg on the other side; the entire system could only succeed. Fixed defenses alone are not much of a defense, in either modern times.

Other forces are required for attack. At best the fixed defenses serve to delay until a counterattack can be launched. For more complete details on the development of the limes, or frontier, see under Limes Germanicus. In the subsequent peaceful years, the limes lost its temporary character. Vici, or communities, developed around the forts. By 150, the towers and the bases had been rebuilt in stone; the soldiers now lived in good stone barracks within walls decorated by frescoes. Germanic civilization had changed as well. Where Caesar had described burning the wretched brush hovels of the Suebi who had come to fight for Ariovistus, the Chatti and the Alamanni now lived in comfortable Romanized villages around the limes. Germania Superior was reestablished as an Imperial Roman province in 90, taking large amounts of territory from Gallia Lugdunensis. One of its first and most famous governors was the future Emperor Trajan, who ruled the province from 96 until his accession in 98; the Helvetii settlement area became part of the province o

Herbert Reinecker

Herbert Reinecker was a prolific German novelist, dramatist and former Nazi SS officer. Born in Hagen, Reinecker began to write short stories as a high school student. In 1936 he moved to Berlin, where he became editor-in-chief of Jungvolk. In the same year he co-authored a book, Jugend in Waffen; this was a time when the Nazis had been in power for three years and when the media had long been gleichgeschaltet. In 1943 he joined the Nazi Party and worked as the editor-in-chief of a book entitled Der Pimpf about the training system of the Hitler Youth. Throughout World War II Reinecker served in a propaganda company of the Waffen SS. In the early 1940s Reinecker wrote a number of plays, among them Das Dorf bei Odessa, the novel Der Mann mit der Geige. In 1944 he wrote Junge Adler. After the war, he started working for television. At the same time he wrote screenplays for the series of German feature films of the 1960s that were loosely based on Edgar Wallace's novels as well as TV adaptations of Francis Durbridge novels and plays.

In the late 1960s Reinecker and producer Helmut Ringelmann wanted to create a German police detective. At first tentatively conceived as a "German Maigret", Reinecker's Kommissar Keller soon metamorphosed into a full-fledged character. Erik Ode was chosen to play Keller in the TV series, Der Kommissar, launched in 1969 and which became a huge success. In 1974, Reinecker and Ringelmann started Derrick. Herbert Reinecker is reported to have stopped writing due to macular degeneration, he was nearly blind when he died on 27 January 2007. Personal data: In 1938 Herbert Reinecker married Angela Schmikowski, with whom he had two children—daughter Rita, 1941, Hilmar, 1944-2001. Divorced in 1954, he married Brunhilde Schubert in 1959; the Rainer Case Father Needs a Wife I and You Canaris Children and the General Alibi Der Stern von Afrika The Fox of Paris Taiga The Trapp Family in America Solange das Herz schlägt People in the Net Dorothea Angermann An Alibi for Death The River Line Der Hexer Sie nannten ihn Gringo I Am Looking for a Man The Hunchback of Soho Murderers Club of Brooklyn The Monk with the Whip Der Tod läuft hinterher The Valley of Death The Hound of Blackwood Castle Babeck Der Kommissar 11 Uhr 20 Unter den Dächern von St. Pauli Engel, die ihre Flügel verbrennen The Girl from Hong Kong Crime After School Derrick Herbert Reinecker on IMDb

Dominic Shellard

Dominic Shellard is a British academic and politician who has served as Vice-Chancellor of De Montfort University and on the Rotherham Metropolitan Borough Council. Dominic Shellard was born in Kent, he read German at St Peter's College, Oxford. He obtained a DPhil in English Literature on the theatre criticism of Harold Hobson, he is a former councillor for Boston Ward on Rotherham Metropolitan Borough Council, serving from 1999 until 2003. Shellard began his academic career as a lecturer in English at the University of Salford in 1993, he moved to the University of Sheffield in 1996, was awarded a Readership in 1999 and a Personal Chair in 2003. In 2004, he became the Head of the Department of English, before being appointed Pro Vice-Chancellor for External Affairs in 2008, he was appointed Vice-Chancellor of De Montfort University in Leicester in 2010, being forced to resign in 2019. Shellard is an expert in an active Shakespeare scholar, he has authored ten books, including a biography of the critic Kenneth Tynan, with the most recent monograph being Shakespeare's Culture Capital, which he edited with Siobhan Keenan in 2016.

He has led the Theatre Archive Project, a joint venture with the British Library to reinvestigate British theatre history from 1945 to 1968. He is a former chairman of Sheffield Theatres Trust, responsible for the Crucible Theatre and the Lyceum Theatre. In January 2019, Shellard came under public scrutiny regarding a 22.3 percent increase in his remuneration over that of the previous year. His remuneration for the academic year 2017-18 consisted of a £350,000 salary, £1,000 in health benefits, £6,000 in pension contributions; the remuneration was estimated to be 10.4 times that of the average staff member at DMU. Furthermore, it was revealed that he and his partner lived rent-free in an apartment on campus, with the university contributing £2,700 in membership fees to a private members' club in London, he resigned in February 2019 amid growing public scrutiny. Following his resignation, the Office for Students launched a formal investigation into a number of "regulatory matters" within the governance of the university.

It was subsequently revealed that Shellard was awarded £270,000 by the university following his resignation, this was due to a clause in his contract which stipulated a notice period of nine months. Shellard was one of the few gay Vice-Chancellors