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Gestalt psychology

Gestalt psychology or gestaltism is a school of psychology that emerged in Austria and Germany in the early twentieth century based on work by Max Wertheimer, Wolfgang Köhler, Kurt Koffka. As used in Gestalt psychology, the German word gestalt is interpreted as "pattern" or "configuration". Gestalt psychologists emphasized that organisms perceive entire patterns or configurations, not individual components; the view is sometimes summarized using the adage, "the whole is more than the sum of its parts." Gestalt principles, similarity, figure-ground, continuity and connection, determine how humans perceive visuals in connection with different objects and environments. Max Wertheimer, Kurt Koffka, Wolfgang Köhler founded Gestalt psychology in the early 20th century; the dominant view in psychology at the time was structuralism, exemplified by the work of Hermann von Helmholtz, Wilhelm Wundt, Edward B. Titchener. Structuralism was rooted in British empiricism and was based on three interrelated theories: "atomism," known as "elementalism," the view that all knowledge complex abstract ideas, is built from simple, elementary constituents, "sensationalism," the view that the simplest constituents—the atoms of thought—are elementary sense impressions, "associationism," the view that more complex ideas arise from the association of simpler ideas.

Together, these three theories give rise to the view that the mind constructs all perceptions and abstract thoughts from lower-level sensations that are related by being associated in space and time. The Gestaltists took issue with this widespread "atomistic" view that the aim of psychology should be to break consciousness down into putative basic elements. In contrast, the Gestalt psychologists believed that breaking psychological phenomena down into smaller parts would not lead to understanding psychology; the Gestalt psychologists believed, that the most fruitful way to view psychological phenomena is as organized, structured wholes. They argued that the psychological "whole" has priority and that the "parts" are defined by the structure of the whole, rather than vice versa. One could say that the approach was based on a macroscopic view of psychology rather than a microscopic approach. Gestalt theories of perception are based on human nature being inclined to understand objects as an entire structure rather than the sum of its parts.

Wertheimer had been a student of Austrian philosopher, Christian von Ehrenfels, a member of the School of Brentano. Von Ehrenfels introduced the concept of Gestalt to philosophy and psychology in 1890, before the advent of Gestalt psychology as such. Von Ehrenfels observed that a perceptual experience, such as perceiving a melody or a shape, is more than the sum of its sensory components, he claimed. Although in some sense derived from the organization of the component sensory elements, this further quality is an element in its own right, he called it Gestalt-qualität or "form-quality." For instance, when one hears a melody, one hears the notes plus something in addition to them that binds them together into a tune – the Gestalt-qualität. It is this Gestalt-qualität that, according to von Ehrenfels, allows a tune to be transposed to a new key, using different notes, while still retaining its identity; the idea of a Gestalt-qualität has roots in theories by David Hume, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Immanuel Kant, David Hartley, Ernst Mach.

Both von Ehrenfels and Edmund Husserl seem to have been inspired by Mach's work Beiträge zur Analyse der Empfindungen, in formulating their similar concepts of gestalt and figural moment, respectively. Through a series of experiments, Wertheimer discovered that a person observing a pair of alternating bars of light can, under the right conditions, experience the illusion of movement between one location and the other, he noted. That is, it was pure phenomenal motion, he dubbed. Wertheimer's publication of these results in 1912 marks the beginning of Gestalt psychology. In comparison to von Ehrenfels and others who had used the term "gestalt" earlier in various ways, Wertheimer's unique contribution was to insist that the "gestalt" is perceptually primary; the gestalt defines the parts from which it is composed, rather than being a secondary quality that emerges from those parts. Wertheimer took the more radical position that "what is given me by the melody does not arise... as a secondary process from the sum of the pieces as such.

Instead, what takes place in each single part depends upon what the whole is". In other words, one hears the melody first and only may perceptually divide it up into notes. In vision, one sees the form of the circle first—it is given "im-mediately". Only after this primary apprehension might one notice that it stars; the two men who served as Wertheimer's subjects in the phi experiments were Koffka. Köhler was an expert in physical acoustics, having studied under physicist Max Planck, but had taken his degree in psychology under Carl Stumpf. Koffka was a student of Stumpf's, having studied movement phenomena and psychological aspects of rhythm. In 1917, Köhler published the results of four years of research on learning in chimpanzees. Köhler sho

Jerry Kutzler

Jerry Scott Kutzler is an American former baseball pitcher. A right-handed starting pitcher, Kutzler appeared in seven games for Major League Baseball's Chicago White Sox in the 1990 season, he earned his first MLB victory by defeating the Toronto Blue Jays 5–4 in the first game of his major league career on April 28, 1990. Overall, he posted a 6.03 earned run average. Kutzler pitched for nine seasons in the United States professional system and one in the Mexican League with Guerreros de Oaxaca, he now teaches physical education at Lance Middle School in Wisconsin. Baseball-Reference Retrosheet Venezuelan Professional Baseball League statistics

Woods Point, Victoria

Woods Point is a small town in Victoria, Australia and is located on the banks of the Goulburn River. At the 2016 census, Woods Point and the surrounding area had a population of 37, down from 94 in 2006; the town began as a general store built by Henry Wood, to service the gold diggings around the discovered Morning Star Reef. Wood's Point Post Office opened on 1 December 1862. By 1864, only three years after the discovery of the gold reef, the area had become a thriving town with 36 hotels; the town was subdivided into numerous suburbs, such as Waverly, Killarney and Morning Star Hill. Communication was established via a telegraph line to Jamieson, two local papers were in circulation. From the 1870s to 1890s, mining activity declined, the population dropped to between 100 and 200; the mining industry was revived in the 1890s, the population grew once again, with four hotels servicing the town. Much of the town had to be rebuilt following devastating bushfires in 1939; the Morning Star Mine continued operations until its closure in 1963.

The town now serves as a hub for recreational trail-bike and off-road four-wheel drive activities and contains one hotel and one general store/petrol station, Mini Golf course, tennis court and many camping areas, the most popular being J. H. Scott Reserve. There are three gold mines still active in the area surrounding the town; the town is still only accessible by dirt roads. Woods Point was again threatened by bushfire in December 2006 and a 2008 bushfire calendar has been released with proceeds going to the town; the general store in Woods Point closed its doors in late 2010 and a smaller version opened down the main street, just over the bridge. This store facilitates small diesel fuel sales while the Commercial Hotel is covering the unleaded fuel sales. Plenty of fuel for motorbikes. Morning Star, a publicly listed company, was operating the Morning Star mine, as well as other nearby projects, until it was placed into receivership in 2015. Media related to Woods Point, Victoria at Wikimedia Commons Geoscience Australia place names: Woods Point Australian Places: Woods Point

Soul on Top

Soul on Top is the 28th studio album by American musician James Brown. The album was released in April 1970, by King. Brown and saxophonist Maceo Parker worked with arranger/conductor Oliver Nelson to record a big band and jazz vocal album, it was recorded with Louie Bellson and his 18-piece jazz orchestra at United Western Recorders in Hollywood, California in November 1969, features jazz standards, show tunes, middle of the road hits, as well as a new arrangement of Brown's funk hit "Papa's Got a Brand New Bag". The album was reissued in 2004 with one unreleased bonus track, a big band version of Brown's 1967 hit "There Was a Time", new liner notes by jazz critic Will Friedwald. James Brown - vocal Oliver Nelson - arranger and conductor Ernie Watts - alto saxophone Joe Romano - alto saxophone Maceo Parker - tenor saxophone Buddy Collette - tenor saxophone Pete Christlieb - tenor saxophone Jim Mulidore - baritone saxophone Al Aarons - trumpet Chuck Findley - trumpet John Audino - trumpet Tom Porello - trumpet Jimmy Cleveland - trombone Nick DiMaio - trombone Kenny Shroyer - trombone Bill Tole - trombone Frank Vincent - piano Bill Pitman - guitar Louis Shelton - guitar Ray Brown - bass Louis Bellson - drums, bandleader Jack Arnold - percussion Terrel, Tom.

"James Brown's'Soul on Top' Reissued". National Public Radio. Retrieved on April 27, 2007

North American Bancard

North American Bancard is a payments technology company that offers solutions for credit, debit, EBT, check conversion and guarantee, gift & loyalty cards, more. Founded in 1992 by CEO/President Marc Gardner, it is headquartered in Michigan, its corporate office employs more than 1,200 people, another 3,000 sales partners located throughout the U. S; as a merchant services provider, NAB’s payment solutions include: credit, debit, EBT, check conversion and guarantee, ATM, gift and loyalty cards, online payment solutions The company processes more than $50 billion per year in electronic transactions for more than 350,000 merchants in all 50 states. North American Bancard is a foundation member of Automation Alley. Since its inception in 1992, North American Bancard has grown into the 6th largest non-bank merchant acquirer in North America. In 2008, the Michigan Economic Development Corporation recommended the Michigan Economic Growth Authority approve a $21.5 million state tax credit to NAB. The company moved its headquarters to a 105,000-square-foot building on Stephenson Hwy in fall of 2009.

NAB reached 100,000 merchants in 2010, launched PayAnywhere in 2011, acquired Inovio Payments, Rapid Capital Funding, Electronic Payment Exchange in 2014. In 2016, NAB reached 1,000 employees for the first time. In 2017, NAB again expanded its portfolio by acquiring Total Merchant Services. Founder/CEO/President Marc Gardner received the Ernst & Young’s Entrepreneur of the Year award in 2008; the Detroit Regional Chamber selected Gardner as a guest speaker at the 2009 Mackinac Policy Conference to discuss Michigan’s economic future and Gardner’s success as an entrepreneur. The American Heart Association named North American Bancard as a 2010 Fit Friendly Gold Status company for their comprehensive wellness initiatives for their employees. North American Bancard and its brand PayAnywhere were awarded for the category Design in Electronic and Digital Communications - Website by the International Association of Business Communicators Detroit in June 2011. North American Bancard was named ETA ISO of the Year in 2014.

NAB employs more than 1,200 people in a 100,000+ sq. ft. corporate office in Troy, MI. In June 2010, North American Bancard announced its acquisition of Point and Pay from Vesta Corp as a means to expanding into payment processing for the public sector and non-profits. In January 2011, North American Bancard announced the launch of PayAnywhere, a mobile payment processing solution. PayAnywhere is a mobile application and card reader accessory designed so that users can accept credit card payments on their smartphone; the product offers no setup fees, no application fees, no monthly service fees, no cancellation fees, no monthly minimums. In 2014, NAB became a true, end-to-end payment acceptance solution after acquiring payment processor Electronic Payment Exchange. In June 2015, North American Bancard announced the launch of the newest version of its PayAnywhere Mobile credit card reader, a 3-in-1 credit card reader, launched in Apple Stores; this version is compatible with iOS devices

Birds of Cornwall

The birds of Cornwall are in general a selection of those found in the whole of the British Isles, though Cornwall's position at the extreme south-west of Great Britain results in many occasional migrants. The nightingale is one common English bird, absent from Cornwall; the tidal estuaries along the coasts contain large numbers of wading birds, while marshland bird species settle in the bogs and mires inland. Bodmin Moor is a breeding ground for species such as lapwing and curlew. On and around the rivers, sand martins and kingfishers are seen; the sea cliffs host many marine bird species with the Cornish chough returning to the county after a long absence. This rare bird holds the honour of appearing on the Cornish coat of arms and being the county animal of Cornwall. Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax, the nominate subspecies and smallest form, is endemic to the British Isles, but restricted to Ireland, the Isle of Man, the far west of Wales and Scotland, although it has recolonised Cornwall after an absence of many years.

The birds of the coast at Tintagel are well worth observing: in 1935 an anonymous writer mentions Willapark as the scene of spectacular flocks of seabirds. This bird is emblematic of Cornwall and is said to embody the spirit of King Arthur. B. H. Ryves mentions the razorbill as numerous at Tintagel and summarises reports from earlier in the century. In 1991 a local bird keeper, Jon Hadwick, published Owl Light about his experiences keeping ten owls and a buzzard. In the early days of the Royal Society for the Protection of Birds Charles Hambly was a correspondent for the Society. A hundred years Harry Sandercock observed that modern agricultural changes had not reduced the bird populations; the coastline near Polzeath is a good area for seeing many types of coastal birds including puffins and peregrine falcons. With the large areas of salt marsh on the estuary, the River Camel provides an excellent location for birds. Large flocks of waders can be seen in winter, preyed on by local peregrines, a migrant osprey pauses a few days to fish in spring and autumn.

Mute swans nest at several locations near to the bridge in Wadebridge where there is a nest on a small island a few yards downstream of the bridge. Ducks are found on the river with shelduck and mallard on the estuary and teal further upstream; the Camel estuary was one of the first places in England to be colonised by little egrets, the birds being seen on mudflats at low tide. Other rarities include an American belted kingfisher seen in the 1980s for only the second time in England. Upstream on the River Camel, on several of its tributaries, kingfishers can be seen, while the Cornwall Wildlife Trust reserve at Hawkes Wood is noted for nuthatches and tawney owls. There are two birdwatching hides on the River Camel. Tregunna Hide is owned by Cornwall County Council and is located on the Camel Trail and is open to the public. Burniere Hide is owned by the Cornwall Birdwatching and Preservation Society and is only open to members. In addition, the CBWPS own the Walmsley Sanctuary which covers over 20 hectares on the River Amble, a tributary of the River Camel, with a further 2 hides for use by its members.

The sanctuary is nationally important for wintering waders and wildfowl. Gwennap Head is renowned for its relative abundance of passing marine bird species such as Manx and sooty shearwaters, skuas and whimbrels. In addition, a colony of breeding gannets are close by. Therefore, the headland is favoured by birdwatchers and many travel the length and breadth of Britain to track rare seabirds. Annually, the Seawatch SW survey aims to record the numbers of such species from a designated location close to the cliff edge on Gwennap Head; the district of west Penwith being isolated from the rest of Cornwall has fewer resident species than the latter and those resident are in smaller numbers. However the only colonies of kittiwakes in the county are to be found in west Penwith and the only breeding records of blue-headed and yellow wagtails are from there; because of the Gulf Stream, Scilly has a mild climate - residents can grow sub-tropical plants there. Scilly is the first landing for many migrant birds, including extreme rarities from North America and Siberia.

Scilly is situated far into the Atlantic Ocean, so many North American vagrant birds will make first European landfall in the archipelago. Scilly is responsible for many firsts for Britain, is good at producing vagrant American passerines. If an rare bird turns up, the island sees a significant increase in numbers of visiting birders. William Wagstaff known as Will Wagstaff, is a leading ornithologist and naturalist in the Isles of Scilly, an author, his popular guided wildlife walks have made him both a popular figure in the islands. From South Wales, Wagstaff has lived on the Isles of Scilly since 1981; as of 2012 he serves as Honorary Chairman of the Isles of Scilly Bird Group. Periglis Cottage on St Agnes, Isles of Scilly was the home of St Agnes's resident ornithologist Hilda M. Quick, she wrote Birds of the Scilly Isles, published in 1964. The ornithologist David Bassil Hunt will be remembered as "... the man who brought Scilly wildlife into the lives of thousands of people over a period of 20 years".

He was based on the Isles of