Wilhelm Wundt

Wilhelm Maximilian Wundt was a physician, physiologist and professor, known today as one of the founders of modern psychology. Wundt, who distinguished psychology as a science from philosophy and biology, was the first person to call himself a psychologist, he is regarded as the "father of experimental psychology". In 1879, at University of Leipzig, Wundt founded the first formal laboratory for psychological research; this marked psychology as an independent field of study. By creating this laboratory he was able to establish psychology as a separate science from other disciplines, he formed the first academic journal for psychological research, Philosophische Studien, set up to publish the Institute's research. A survey published in American Psychologist in 1991 ranked Wundt's reputation as first for "all-time eminence" based on ratings provided by 29 American historians of psychology. William James and Sigmund Freud were ranked a distant third. Wundt was born at Neckarau, Baden on the 16 of August 1832, the fourth child to parents Maximilian Wundt, his wife Marie Frederike, née Arnold.

Wundt's paternal grandfather was Friedrich Peter Wundt, Professor of Geography and pastor in Wieblingen. When Wundt was about four years of age, his family moved to Heidelsheim a small medieval town in Baden-Württemberg. Born in Germany at a time, considered economically stable, Wundt grew up during a period in which the reinvestment of wealth into educational and technological development was commonplace. An economic strive for the advancement of knowledge catalyzed the development of a new psychological study method, facilitated his development into the prominent psychological figure he is today. Wundt studied from 1851 to 1856 at the University of Tübingen, at the University of Heidelberg, at the University of Berlin. After graduating as a doctor of medicine from Heidelberg, doctoral advisor Karl Ewald Hasse. Wundt studied with Johannes Peter Müller, before joining the Heidelberg University's staff, becoming an assistant to the physicist and physiologist Hermann von Helmholtz in 1858 with responsibility for teaching the laboratory course in physiology.

There he wrote Contributions to the Theory of Sense Perception. In 1864, he became Associate Professor for Anthropology and Medical Psychology and published a textbook about human physiology. However, his main interest, according to his lectures and classes, was not in the medical field – he was more attracted by psychology and related subjects, his lectures on psychology were published as Lectures on Human and Animal Psychology in 1863–1864. Wundt applied himself to writing a work that came to be one of the most important in the history of psychology, Principles of Physiological Psychology, in 1874; this was the first textbook, written pertaining to the field of experimental psychology. In 1867, near Heidelberg, Wundt met Sophie Mau, she was the eldest daughter of the Kiel theology professor de: Heinrich August Mau and his wife Louise, née von Rumohr, a sister of the archaeologist August Mau. They married on 14 August 1872 in Kiel; the couple had three children: Eleanor, who became an assistant to her father in many ways, called Lilli, de: Max Wundt, who became a philosophy professor.

In 1875, Wundt was promoted to professor of "Inductive Philosophy" in Zurich, in 1875, Wundt was made professor of philosophy at the University of Leipzig where Ernst Heinrich Weber and Gustav Theodor Fechner had initiated research on sensory psychology and psychophysics – and where two centuries earlier Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz had developed his philosophy and theoretical psychology, which influenced Wundt's intellectual path. Wundt's admiration for Ernst Heinrich Weber was clear from his memoirs where he proclaimed that Weber should be regarded as the father of experimental psychology: “I would rather call Weber the father of experimental psychology…It was Weber’s great contribution to think of measuring psychic quantities and of showing the exact relationships between them, to be the first to understand this and carry it out.”In 1879, at the University of Leipzig, Wundt opened the first laboratory to be devoted to psychological studies, this event marked the official birth of psychology as an independent field of study.

The new lab was full of graduate students carrying out research on topics assigned by Wundt, it soon attracted young scholars from all over the world who were eager to learn about the new science that Wundt had developed. The University of Leipzig assigned Wundt a lab in 1876 to store equipment he had brought from Zurich. Located in the Konvikt building, many of Wundt's demonstrations took place in this laboratory due to the inconvenience of transporting his equipment between the lab and his classroom. Wundt arranged for the construction of suitable instruments and collected many pieces of equipment such as tachistoscopes, pendulums, electrical devices and sensory mapping devices, was known to assign an instrument to various graduate students with the task of developing uses for future research in experimentation. Between 1885 and 1909, there were 15 assistants. In 1879, Wundt began conducting experiments that were not part of his course work, he claimed that these independent experiments solidified his lab's legitimacy as a formal laboratory of psychology, though the University did not recognize the building as part of the campus until 1883.

The laboratory grew and encompassing a total of eleven rooms, the Psychological Institute, a

Edwin Bramwell

Prof Edwin Bramwell FRSE PRCPE LLD was a 20th century Scottish neurologist. He was President of the Royal College of Physicians of Edinburgh from 1933 to 1935, he was born in North Shields on 11 January 1873 the son of Sir Byrom Bramwell. He was educated at Cheltenham College, he studied medicine at the University of Edinburgh graduating MB ChB in 1896. After graduation he began working at the Edinburgh Royal Infirmary moved to the National Hospital for the Paralysed and Epileptic in London, he did a years further postgraduate study in Freiburg in Germany. In 1900 he settled in Edinburgh as a consultant and in 1902 moved to work in Leith Hospital as Assistant Physician. In 1907 he returned to Edinburgh Royal Infirmary as Assistant Physician. In 1906 he was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society of Edinburgh, his proposers were John Chiene, George Chrystal and Alexander Bruce. At this time he lived at 24 Walker Street in Edinburgh's West End. In the First World War he served in the 2nd Second General Hospital treating the returning wounded.

He began to specialise in brain injuries and mental injuries such as shell shock and in 1919 began lecturing in Neurology at the University of Edinburgh. In 1922 he became Professor of Clinical Medicine, he died in Edinburgh on 21 March 1952. He is buried in Dean Cemetery; the grave lies on the westmost outer wall of the first northern extension. A keen fly-fisher, he wrote many articles for the Fishing Gazette under the pseudonym "The Professor". In 1908 he married Elizabeth Cumming Cunningham daughter of Daniel John Cunningham and grand-daughter of Very Rev John Cunningham, they had two sons. One daughter Margaret Claire Byrom Bramwell married Dr James Kirkwood Slater, his brother was Byrom Stanley Bramwell

Cannabis in Guatemala

Cannabis in Guatemala, as of 2016, is illegal. Otto Pérez, when he was president of the country, tried to lead a legalization drive, some congressmen tried to pass a law for legalization, but those efforts failed. A poll conducted in 2012 said. One early law restricting cannabis was Decree 1331 of 1932, which restricted "plantas letales" to include "Indian hemp and marihuana". In 2012, former Guatemalan president Otto Pérez announced his support for decriminalizing drugs, but he said that the United States boycotted his plans, he tried to promote the idea in diverse forums, culminating in a speech he gave before the United Nations General Assembly in New York on 26 September 2012. A poll in that year revealed. In 2016 the Commission of legislation and constitutional points of Congress in Guatemala rejected the Law to regulate the cultivation, distribution, commercialization and recreational consumption of cannabis as "unfeasible and unconstitutional"; the law had been proposed in April of that year by the congressmen from the party Convergencia.

Alvaro Velázquez, one of the congressmen, had said he would keep trying for the initiative to advance but he died in 2017. According to Guatemalan law, cannabis is illegal, as of 2016, a person convicted of personal consumption of a drug would be sentenced to a minimum of 4 months in jail and a 200 quetzals fine, up to 5 years and a 10,000 quetzals fine, but because "personal consumption" is not defined properly, the prosecutor can accuse the person of traffic and the judge may give a sentence of up to 20 years in prison. Cannabis Effects of cannabis Legality of cannabis Medical cannabis Drug prohibition Drug liberalization Video of speech of former Guatemalan president Otto Pérez before the United Nations General Assembly in 2012