The Gettysburg Address is a speech that U. S. President Abraham Lincoln delivered during the American Civil War at the dedication of the Soldiers' National Cemetery in Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, on the afternoon of Thursday, November 19, 1863, four and a half months after the Union armies defeated those of the Confederacy at the Battle of Gettysburg, it is one of the best-known speeches in American history. Not the day's primary speech, Lincoln's crafted address came to be seen as one of the greatest and most influential statements of American national purpose. In just 271 words, beginning with the now iconic phrase "Four score and seven years ago," referring to the signing of the Declaration of Independence 87 years earlier, Lincoln described the US as a nation "conceived in Liberty, dedicated to the proposition that all men are created equal," and represented the Civil War as a test that would determine whether such a nation, the Union sundered by the secession crisis, could endure, he extolled the sacrifices of those who died at Gettysburg in defense of those principles, exhorted his listeners to resolve that these dead shall not have died in vain—that this nation, under God, shall have a new birth of freedom—and that government of the people, by the people, for the people, shall not perish from the earth.
Despite the prominent place of the speech in the history and popular culture of the United States, its exact wording is disputed. The five known manuscripts of the Gettysburg Address in Lincoln's hand differ in a number of details, differ from contemporary newspaper reprints of the speech. Neither is it clear. Modern scholarship locates the speakers' platform 40 yards away from the traditional site in Soldiers' National Cemetery at the Soldiers' National Monument, such that it stood within the private, adjacent Evergreen Cemetery. Following the Battle of Gettysburg on July 1–3, 1863, the removal of the fallen Union soldiers from the Gettysburg Battlefield graves and their reburial in graves at the National Cemetery at Gettysburg began on October 17. In inviting President Lincoln to the ceremonies, David Wills, of the committee for the November 19 Consecration of the National Cemetery at Gettysburg, wrote, "It is the desire that, after the Oration, you, as Chief Executive of the nation, formally set apart these grounds to their sacred use by a few appropriate remarks."On the train trip from Washington, D.
C. to Gettysburg on November 18, Lincoln was accompanied by three members of his Cabinet, William Seward, John Usher and Montgomery Blair, several foreign officials, his secretary John Nicolay, his assistant secretary, John Hay. During the trip Lincoln remarked to Hay. Hay noted that during the speech Lincoln's face had "a ghastly color" and that he was "sad, mournful haggard." After the speech, when Lincoln boarded the 6:30 pm train for Washington, D. C. he was weak, with a severe headache. A protracted illness followed, it thus seems likely that Lincoln was in the prodromal period of smallpox when he delivered the Gettysburg address. The program organized for that day by Wills and his committee included: Music, by Birgfeld's Band Prayer, by Reverend T. H. Stockton, D. D. Music, by the Marine Band, directed by Francis Scala Oration, by Hon. Edward Everett Music, Hymn by B. B. French, Esq. music by Wilson G Horner, sung by Baltimore Glee Club Dedicatory Remarks, by the President of the United States Dirge, sung by Choir selected for the occasion Benediction, by Reverend H. L. Baugher, D.
D. While it is Lincoln's short speech that has gone down in history as one of the finest examples of English public oratory, it was Everett's two-hour oration, slated to be the "Gettysburg address" that day, his now seldom-read 13,607-word oration began: Standing beneath this serene sky, overlooking these broad fields now reposing from the labors of the waning year, the mighty Alleghenies dimly towering before us, the graves of our brethren beneath our feet, it is with hesitation that I raise my poor voice to break the eloquent silence of God and Nature. But the duty to which you have called me must be performed, and ended two hours with: But they, I am sure, will join us in saying, as we bid farewell to the dust of these martyr-heroes, that wheresoever throughout the civilized world the accounts of this great warfare are read, down to the latest period of recorded time, in the glorious annals of our common country, there will be no brighter page than that which relates the Battles of Gettysburg.
Lengthy dedication addresses like Everett's were common at cemeteries in this era. The tradition began in 1831 when Justice Joseph Story delivered the dedication address at Mount Auburn Cemetery in Cambridge, Massachusetts; those addresses linked cemeteries to the mission of Union. Lincoln's address followed the oration by Edward Everett, who subsequently included a copy of the Gettysburg Address in his 1864 book about the event. Shortly afte
Oliver Ogedengbe Macaulay, alias Oged Macaulay, son of Herbert Macaulay, was a politician, archivist, a journalist, public relations consultant, private secretary to Oba Adeyinka Oyekan. Oged Macaulay was born on December 15, 1918; however not much is known about Oged's mother, Isabella Macaulay, a princess of Akure, since it is unclear whether his father, Herbert Macaulay, remarried after losing his wife, Caroline Pratt in 1899. Oged was an alumnus of Lagos. Oged was a journalist, he served as Assistant Secretary of the NCNC, a political party, founded by Dr. Nnamdi Azikiwe and his father, Herbert Macaulay. Oged was a part of the Zikist Movement within the NCNC which sought a more radical nationalist position than the larger NCNC. On October 27, 1948, Osita Agwuna, Deputy President of the Zikist Movement, delivered a speech titled "A Call for Revolution" in which calls were made for not paying taxes, civil disobedience, a boycott of British goods; the British colonial government tried the Zikists for sedition and Oged served a year in prison.
Oged Macaulay's private archive at the University of Ibadan complements his father's Macaulay Papers at the Africana Section of the University of Ibadan Library. The Oged Collection sheds light on Herbert Macaulay's descendants, it provides an overview of party politics after Herbert Macaulay's death and includes papers on many land disputes in Lagos, border disputes in Oshogun, family history of Lagos chiefs and celebrities. Various newspaper cuttings, personal diaries, correspondence are included in the Oged Collection
Francisco "Quico" Cortés Juncosa is a Spanish field hockey player who plays as a goalkeeper for Club Egara and the Spanish national team. Cortés played his whole career for Club Egara, except for the 2012–13 season, when he played for Dutch side HC Den Bosch. Cortés was a member of the Men's National Team that won the silver medal at the 2008 Summer Olympics in Beijing, PR China, he competed in the 2012 Summer Olympics. He was a part of the Spain squad. In December 2019, he was nominated for the FIH Goalkeeper of the Year Award. Francisco Cortés Juncosa at the International Hockey Federation