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Ghassanids

The Ghassanids were a pre-Islamic Arab tribe which founded an Arab kingdom. They immigrated from Yemen in the early 3rd century to the Levant region; some merged with Hellenized Christian communities, converting to Christianity in the first few centuries AD, while others may have been Christians before emigrating north to escape religious persecution. After settling in the Levant, the Ghassanids became a client state to the Byzantine Empire and fought alongside them against the Persian Sassanids and their Arab vassals, the Lakhmids; the lands of the Ghassanids acted as a buffer zone protecting lands, annexed by the Romans against raids by Bedouin tribes. Few Ghassanids became Muslim following the Muslim conquest of the Levant. Oral tradition holds that the Ghassanids came from the city of Ma'rib in South Arabia and its surrounding cities and towns, modern day Yemen. Tradition holds that their exodus from the area was due to the destruction of the Marib Dam, the story of, detailed in the eponymous 34th chapter of the Quran.

The Arabic proverb “They were scattered like the people of Saba” refers to that exodus in history. Migration did occur in different waves, another prominent wave being the prosecution of Christian Arabs by Dhu Nawas and the mass graves where many who did not escape were buried alive – the same is recited in the Quran and referred to "Aṣḥāb al-Ukhdūd"; the date of the migration to the Levant is unclear, but they are believed to have arrived in the region of Syria between 250-300 AD and waves of migration circa 400 AD. Their earliest appearance in records is dated to 473 AD, when their chief Amorkesos signed a treaty with the Eastern Roman Empire acknowledging their status as foederati controlling parts of Palestine, he became Chalcedonian at this time. By the year 510, the Ghassanids were no longer Chalcedonian, they became the leading tribe among the Arab foederati, such as Banu Judham. After settling in the Levant, the Ghassanids became a client state to the Eastern Roman Empire; the Romans found a powerful ally in the Ghassanids.

In addition, as kings of their own people, they were phylarchs, native rulers of client frontier states. The capital was at Jabiyah in the Golan Heights. Geographically, it occupied much of the eastern Levant, its authority extended via tribal alliances with other Azdi tribes all the way to the northern Hijaz as far south as Yathrib; the Ghassanids fought alongside the Byzantine Empire against the Persian Sassanids and Arab Lakhmids. The lands of the Ghassanids continually acted as a buffer zone, protecting Byzantine lands against raids by Bedouin tribes. Among their Arab allies were the Banu Banu Amela; the Eastern Roman Empire was focused more on the East and a long war with the Persians was always their main concern. The Ghassanids maintained their rule as the guardian of trade routes, policed Lakhmid tribes and was a source of troops for the imperial army; the Ghassanid king al-Harith ibn Jabalah supported the Byzantines against Sassanid Persia and was given in 529 by the emperor Justinian I, the highest imperial title, bestowed upon a foreign ruler.

In addition to that, al-Harith ibn Jabalah was given the rule over all the Arab allies of the Byzantine Empire. Al-Harith was a Miaphysite Christian. Byzantine mistrust and persecution of such religious unorthodoxy brought down his successors, al-Mundhir and Nu'man; the Ghassanids, who had opposed the Persian allied Lakhmids of al-Hirah, prospered economically and engaged in much religious and public building. The Ghassanids remained a Byzantine vassal state until its rulers and the eastern Byzantine Empire were overthrown by the Muslims in the 7th century, following the Battle of Yarmuk in 636 AD. At the time of the Muslim conquest the Ghassanids were no longer united by the same Christian faiths: some of them accepted union with the Byzantine Chalcedonian church, it is worth noting that a significant percentage of the Muslim armies in the Battle of Mu'tah were Christian Arabs. Several of those Christian Arab tribes in today's modern Jordan who sided with the Muslim armies were recognized by exempting them from paying jizya.

Jizya is a form of tax paid by non-Muslims – Muslims paid another form of tax called Zakah. Those who remained Christian joined Melkite Syriac communities; the remnants of the Ghassanids were dispersed throughout Asia Minor. There are different opinions why his followers didn't convert to Islam; some opinions go along the general idea that the Ghassanids were not interested yet in giving up their status as the lords and nobility of Syria. Below is quoted the story of Jabalah's return to the land of the Byzantines as told by 9th-century historian al-Baladhuri. Jabalah ibn-al-Aiham sided with the Ansar

Warmingham

Warmingham is a village and civil parish in the unitary authority of Cheshire East and the ceremonial county of Cheshire, England. The village lies on the River Wheelock, 3.25 miles to the north of Crewe, 3.25 miles to the south of Middlewich and 3.25 miles miles to the west of Sandbach. The parish includes the small settlement of Lane Ends, with a total population of just under 250. Nearby villages include Minshull Vernon and Wimboldsley; the land is mentioned in the Domesday Book of 1086, with a village being documented from the 13th century. The oldest surviving building dates from the late 16th century. In the 17th and 18th centuries the parish had a finery forge, among the earliest in the county; the area is agricultural, with dairy farming the predominant land use. The Northwich Halite Formation, a Triassic salt field, underlies the parish, there is a long history of local salt production, with the Warmingham brine field remaining an important source of the mineral. Cavities in the salt-bearing stratum are used to store natural gas.

Several flashes were created in the 20th century by subsidence after natural brine pumping in the area, some of which form part of a Site of Special Scientific Interest. The village maintains the tradition of holding a wake each May. An Iron Age gold stater dating from around the end of the 1st century BC was found in the parish. One face depicts a horse, with a wreath on the obverse. An urn described as Roman, but as early as the Bronze Age, was discovered in a burial mound near Forge Mill. There is no other evidence of Roman inhabitation at Warmingham, although the remains of a Roman road from Middlewich to near Nantwich pass around 200 metres away from the parish's north-west corner. Warmingham is documented under Tetton in the Domesday Book of 1086; the medieval manor was granted to Randulphus. There is believed to have been a medieval church in the village; the earliest recorded rector was in 1298. The land passed to the Mainwaring and Trussell families, in the 16th century part was sold to Christopher Hatton.

It passed to Randolph Crewe, remained in the Crewe family until 1918. The village school was founded in 1839. A prisoner-of-war camp was located at Donkinson's Oak, near the southern edge of the parish, during the Second World War, there was a heavy anti-aircraft battery near Bottoms Farm in 1940–41; the village gained an electricity supply in the 1950s. The village post office and shop closed in the 1970s; the Warmingham area has a long history of salt extraction. Brine from the parish's flashes is thought to have been used to make salt in Middlewich, an important salt-producing centre during the Roman occupation. Natural brine pumping at nearby Elworth, Ettiley Heath and elsewhere in the Sandbach area occurred from the 19th century, increasing after the First World War, was associated with subsidence in Warmingham and the adjacent parish of Moston from the 1890s; the Sandbach Flashes – pools formed by subsidence from the underlying salt dissolving, accelerated by salt extraction – first appeared in the early 1920s and were still expanding in the 1950s.

Natural brine pumping ceased in the area in the early 1970s, British Salt started to extract brine by the controlled pumping method, which prevents subsidence, at a site near Hill Top Farm in the early 1980s. The village had a corn mill from around 1289. A finery forge or smelting furnace was established on the River Wheelock north of the village in the mid-17th century, one of a handful in Cheshire at that date, it was still in operation in around 1750, when its annual output of bar iron was recorded as 300 tons, more than any other Cheshire forge. The former corn mill was adapted to grind coconut shells for manufacturing plastics, aircraft parts were made there during the Second World War. By 1990, the building had been converted into craft workshops, it had been demolished by 2006. Warmingham is administered by Warmingham Parish Council. From 1974, the civil parish was served by Crewe and Nantwich Borough Council, succeeded on 1 April 2009 by the unitary authority of Cheshire East. Warmingham falls in the parliamentary constituency of Eddisbury, represented by Edward Timpson since 2019, after being represented by Stephen O'Brien and Antoinette Sandbach.

The Northwich Halite Formation, a Triassic salt field, underlies the civil parish, with the 170–240-metre-thick salt-bearing layer lying around 180–250 metres below the surface. In the area of Hill Top and Hole House, sandy soil overlays red clay, with the base rock being Triassic sandstone–mudstone; the River Wheelock runs broadly north-west to south-east through the civil parish, with much of the parish lying in its valley. The ground is undulating with an average elevation of around 45 metres. Hoggins Brook, a tributary of the Wheelock, forms parts of the northern and western boundaries of the parish, Fowle Brook runs north–south in the south-east corner. Crabmill Flash lies north of the Wheelock at SJ71756050; these wetlands form part of the Sandbach Flashes, a Site of Special Scientific Interest and a popular site for birdwatching. Numerous meres and ponds are scattered throughout the area, there are several small areas of woodland in the north west of the parish, near The Old Hough. Warmingham Moss occupies the south-west of the parish.

The parish is predominantly agricultural, with dairy farming remaining the main land use. Brine is extracted using controlled brine pumping by British Salt from the Warmingham brine field, located near Hill Top Farm to th

Battlestar Galactica Online

Battlestar Galactica Online was a browser-based massively multiplayer online game loosely based on the 2004 television series Battlestar Galactica. Released in open beta on February 8, 2011, it was developed by Bigpoint Games and Artplant using the Unity game engine for the game client in the browser; the game server was written in Erlang. In less than three months of release, the game surpassed two million registered users. Bigpoint announced in early January 2019 that the game servers would be closed at the end of the month, the game permanently shut down in the early morning hours of February 1, 2019. You can pilot a Battlestar in Battlestar Galactica Online right now! PC Gamer April 14, 2011 Battlestar Galactica Online passes one million player milestone Massively April 15, 2011 Official website

57 Channels (And Nothin' On)

"57 Channels" is a song written and performed by Bruce Springsteen, appearing on his album Human Touch, released in 1992. The song was released as a single. A video for the song was released; the title may be a reference to cable television, which carries more channels than terrestrial television. The accompanying music video illustrates the song's narrative, culminating in a recreation of Ant Farm's infamous 1975 "Media Burn" stunt, wherein a speeding car crashes through a pyramid of television sets; the same art collective was responsible for Cadillac Ranch, immortalized in the Bruce Springsteen song of the same name. Bruce Springsteen himself is playing a bass, which he played in the recording. In a September 2014 post on Facebook discussing the video, Springsteen wrote, "Shot back in the quaint days of only 57 channels and no flat screen TVs, I have no idea what we were aiming for in this one outside of some vague sense of'hipness' and an attempt at irony. Never my strong suit, it reads now to me as a break from our usual approach and kind of a playful misfire."

Easy Fly Express

Easy Fly Express is a cargo airline from Bangladesh. The airline was founded in 2007 and commenced operations on 1 July 2008; the airline has its main hub at the Shahjalal International Airport and its fleet comprises one Airbus A300-600 and one Saab 340 aircraft. Easy Fly Express was founded on 18 April 2007, received its first aircraft HS 748 on 7 May 2008; the aircraft was registered on 24 June 2008 and the airline commenced operations on 1 July 2008. In February 2014, Karnaphuli Group purchased 100% of the shares of the airlines; the airline operates international cargo flights. The airline has been challenged by Monaco and London-based easyGroup, licensor of the easyJet brand, over its orange "easyFly" branding, strikingly similar to that used by easyJet. An April 2019 "Brand Thief" statement by easyGroup indicated the Airbus A300 in question was no longer operated by Easy Fly Express and has been stripped of the contentious logo; the Easy Fly Express fleet consists of the following aircraft: List of airlines of Bangladesh Media related to Easy Fly Express at Wikimedia Commons Official website

Reserve Bank of Australia

The Reserve Bank of Australia is Australia's central bank and banknote issuing authority. It has had this role since 14 January 1960, when the Reserve Bank Act 1959 removed the central banking functions from the Commonwealth Bank; the bank has the responsibility of providing services to the Government of Australia in addition to providing services to other central banks and official institutions. It consists of the Payments System Board, which governs the payments system policy of the bank, the Reserve Bank Board, which governs all other monetary and banking policies of the bank. Both boards consist of members of both the bank, the Treasury, other Australian government agencies, leaders of other institutions that are part of the economy; the structure of the Reserve Bank Board has remained consistent since 1951, with the exception of the change in the number of members of the board. The governor of the Reserve Bank of Australia is appointed by the Treasurer and chairs both the Payment Systems and Reserve Bank Boards and when there are disagreements between both boards, the governor resolves them.

From the middle of the 19th century into the 1890s, the prospects of a national bank forming grew. In 1911, the Commonwealth Bank was established, but did not have the authority to print notes, a power, still reserved to the Treasury. A movement toward reestablishing the gold standard occurred after World War I, with John Garvan leading various boards in contracting the money supply on the route to doing so, the gold standard was instituted for both the British pound sterling and the Australian pound in 1925. During the Great Depression, the Australian pound became devalued, no longer worth the same as the pound sterling, formally departed from the gold standard with the Commonwealth Bank Act of 1932. Legislation in 1945 led to regulation of private banks which H. C. Coombs was opposed to, when he became governor in 1949, he gave them more overall control over their institutions; when the monetary authorities implemented the advice of Coombs to have a flexible interest rate, it allowed the bank to rely more on open market operations.

In 1980 the issue of short-term government bonds – Treasury notes of 13 and 26 weeks duration – changed from a tap system, in which the price was set, to a tender system in which the volume of stock was set and the price determined by the market. Soon afterwards the tender system was extended to the issue of longer-term government bonds; the float of the Australian dollar happened in 1983, around the same period of time that the financial system in Australia was deregulated. Administration of the banks was transferred in 1998 from the bank to the Australian Prudential Regulation Authority and the Payments System Board was created, while the bank was given power within the board in the same year; the current governor of the Reserve Bank is Philip Lowe, who succeeded Glenn Stevens as governor on 18 September 2016. The proposition of a national bank in Australia began to be raised in the middle of the 19th century; this interest accelerated in the 1890s due to an austere collapse of the financial and banking sectors at the beginning of that decade.

The Australian Labor Party formed during the same decade and proposed a bank should be formed, which would be a protected and cheap way of having financial services. The party designed a platform in 1908 for a "Commonwealth Bank", which would be a combination of both a commercial and central bank. Regardless, Fisher's Labor government introduced legislation in 1911 for a government-owned commercial bank, without a complete central banking component, he stated that "Time and experience will show how its functions for usefulness may be extended." The only function at the time that made the bank characteristic of a central one was that it was the banker to the Australian government, in addition to it being the same for the states. For the time being, the Treasury of Australia maintained the role of issuing bank notes through the Australian Notes Act 1910; the Commonwealth Bank of Australia developed into the central bank of Australia. In response to the disruption of trade during World War I the Commonwealth Bank began to manage the debt of the Australian government.

At the end of the war, the bank continued to have a primary role as a savings and trading bank. World War I had caused the currency of Australia to move away from the gold standard, in order to fund a great increase of government spending, as did the United Kingdom and other parts of the British Empire; the value of the Australian pound remained tied to the pound sterling. Inflation in Australia thus less than in Britain, but more than in the United States; the case for a central bank was increased by the need for the government to cut spending after the war to reduce its debt. Commonwealth Bank Governor Denison Miller had been arguing for the issue of Australian currency to be switched from the treasury to the bank, as it had more staff and more monetary knowledge; the Australian Notes Board was created in 1920 and acceded to the request of Miller, in having four directors, with the governor of the bank being an ex officio member. The ANB began to follow a policy of board member John Garvan, in contracting the money supply, with the goal of reducing prices so that free convertibility of the Australian pound to gold could be re-established at pre-war rates, return to the former gold standard.

This was accomplished by refusing the exchange of notes for gold and it was hoped that this would lower domestic prices and raise the exchange rate for the Australian pound. When gold arrived from New York the government sold securities in order to diminish the effect of monetary expansion, therefore