Social anthropology is the dominant constituent of anthropology throughout the United Kingdom and Commonwealth and much of Europe, where it is distinguished from cultural anthropology. In the United States, social anthropology is subsumed within cultural anthropology. In contrast to cultural anthropology and its continuity have been traditionally seen more as the dependent "variable" by social anthropology, embedded in its historical and social context, including its diversity of positions and perspectives, ambiguities and contradictions of social life, rather than the independent one. Topics of interest for social anthropologists have included customs and political organization and conflict resolution, patterns of consumption and exchange and family structure, gender relations and socialization, while present-day social anthropologists are concerned with issues of globalism, ethnic violence, gender studies and local experience, the emerging cultures of cyberspace, can help with bringing opponents together when environmental concerns come into conflict with economic developments.
British and American anthropologists including Gillian Tett and Karen Ho who studied Wall Street provided an alternative explanation for the financial crisis of 2007–2010 to the technical explanations rooted in economic and political theory. Differences among British and American sociocultural anthropologies have diminished with increasing dialogue and borrowing of both theory and methods. Social and cultural anthropologists, some who integrate the two, are found in most institutes of anthropology, thus the formal names of institutional units no longer reflect the content of the disciplines these cover. Some, such as the Institute of Social and Cultural Anthropology changed their name to reflect the change in composition, such as Social Anthropology at the University of Kent became Anthropology. Most retain the name. Long-term qualitative research, including intensive field studies has been traditionally encouraged in social anthropology rather than quantitative analysis of surveys and brief field visits used by economists, political scientists, sociologists.
Social anthropology is distinguished from subjects such as economics or political science by its holistic range and the attention it gives to the comparative diversity of societies and cultures across the world, the capacity this gives the discipline to re-examine Euro-American assumptions. It is differentiated from sociology, both in its main methods, in its commitment to the relevance and illumination provided by micro studies, it extends beyond social phenomena to culture, art and cognition. Many social anthropologists use quantitative methods, too those whose research touches on topics such as local economies, human ecology, cognition, or health and illness. Specializations within social anthropology shift as its objects of study are transformed and as new intellectual paradigms appear. More recent and cognitive development; the subject has been enlivened by, has contributed to, approaches from other disciplines, such as philosophy, the history of science and linguistics. The subject has both reflexive dimensions.
Practitioners have developed an awareness of the sense in which scholars create their objects of study and the ways in which anthropologists themselves may contribute to processes of change in the societies they study. An example of this is the "hawthorne effect", whereby those being studied may alter their behaviour in response to the knowledge that they are being watched and studied. Social anthropology has historical roots in a number of 19th-century disciplines, including ethnology, folklore studies, Classics, among others, its immediate precursor took shape in the work of Edward Burnett Tylor and James George Frazer in the late 19th century and underwent major changes in both method and theory during the period 1890-1920 with a new emphasis on original fieldwork, long-term holistic study of social behavior in natural settings, the introduction of French and German social theory. Bronislaw Malinowski, one of the most important influences on British social anthropology, emphasized long term fieldwork in which anthropologists work in the vernacular and immerse themselves in the daily practices of local people.
This development was bolstered by Franz Boas's introduction of cultural relativism arguing that cultures are based on different ideas about the world and can therefore only be properly understood in terms of their own standards and values. Museums such as the British Museum weren't the only site of anthropological studies: with the New Imperialism period, starting in the 1870s, zoos became unattended "laboratories" the so-called "ethnological exhibitions" or "Negro villages". Thus, "savages" from the colonies were displayed
Rachael Domenica Ray is an American television personality, celebrity chef, author. She hosts the syndicated daily talk and lifestyle program Rachael Ray, three Food Network series. Other programs to her credit include Rachael Ray's Week In A Day and the reality format shows Rachael vs. Guy: Celebrity Cook-Off, Rachael Ray's Kids Cook-Off. Ray has written several cookbooks based on the 30 Minute Meals concept, launched a magazine Every Day with Rachael Ray, in 2006. Ray's television shows have won three Daytime Emmy Awards. Rachael Domenica Ray was born in Glens Falls, New York, the daughter of Elsa Providenza Scuderi and James Claude Ray, her mother's ancestry is Sicilian and her father's is French and Welsh. When Ray was 8, her family moved to New York, her mother managed restaurants in New York's Capital District, including the Lake George Howard Johnson's restaurant, located near the former Gaslight Village amusement park, which attracted many of the entertainers. In 1995, Ray moved to New York City.
She worked first at the Macy's Marketplace candy counter. When Macy's tried to promote her to a buyer in accessories, she moved to Agata & Valentina, a specialty foods store. Moving back to upstate New York, Ray managed Mister Brown's Pub at The Sagamore, a hotel on Lake George. From there, she became a buyer at a gourmet market in Albany. Ray credits the concept of 30 Minute Meals to her experience working at the store, where she met people who were reluctant to cook, she taught a course. With the success of her "30 Minute Meals" classes, WRGB, the local CBS-TV affiliate, asked her to appear in a weekly segment on their newscasts. This, along with a public radio broadcast and the publication of her first book, led to a Today show spot and her first Food Network contract in 2001. Ray, who favors a "quick and easy" cooking style, teaches many simple recipes that she says can be completed in 30 minutes or less, although critics claim her concept does not include preparation time. Ray says her Sicilian maternal grandfather, Emmanuel Scuderi, her Cajun ancestry both exert strong influences on her cooking.
She uses ingredients such as fresh herbs and chicken stock to boost flavors, believes measuring "takes away from the creative, hands-on process of cooking." She, favors approximations such as "half a palmful." To critics of her shortcut techniques, Ray responds, "I have no formal anything. I'm unqualified for any job I've had." She has repeatedly said, "I'm not a chef."On her television programs, she has used catchphrases such as "E-V-O-O", "yum-o," "G. B.", "Oh my gravy!", "entréetizer", "stoup", "choup". In 2007, The Oxford American College Dictionary announced the addition of the term EVOO, short for extra-virgin olive oil, which Ray had helped to popularize, credited her with coining the phrase. One of Ray's specialties is burgers, she has devoted one of her published works, 2012's The Book Of Burger, to the subject. Ray hosted 30 Minute Meals on Food Network for 11 seasons from 2001 to 2012. In 2005, she signed a deal to host a syndicated daytime TV talk show; the show, Rachael Ray, premiered on September 18, 2006.
Recurrent appearances on The Oprah Winfrey Show were used to fuel the launch, much as Dr. Phil's show was spun off based on his own frequent visits to Oprah; the show tapes in New York City. In coordination with the syndication announcement, Ray said, "People know me for my love of food, but I have so much more I want to share."On January 12, 2008, Ray's television series Rachael's Vacation premiered on the Food Network. The show was a five-part food travelogue shot in various European countries. In 2008, Ray became a television executive producer of a short-lived Latin cooking show on the Food Network, called Viva Daisy!, starring Daisy Martínez. In January 2012, Rachael and Guy Fieri were team captains in the Food Network reality series Rachael vs. Guy: Celebrity Cook-Off. In 2003, Ray posed for the men's magazine FHM. Though she was not nude in any of the photos, this drew criticism so harsh, at least not from Ray's own mother, that in a March 2, 2009 ABC News Nightline interview she gave to Cynthia McFadden, an ABC News correspondent, Ray defended her decision to pose in the magazine.
The interview quoted her as saying, "I'd do it again tomorrow."The Reader's Digest Association launched Ray's magazine Every Day with Rachael Ray on October 25, 2005. The magazine featured seven issues in 2006 and increased to 10 issues in 2007. In October 2011, Meredith Corporation acquired the magazine. In November 2006, Ray became a spokeswoman for Nabisco crackers, she appears on boxes for the many Nabisco products. Many boxes with Ray's picture have her recipes. In February 2007, WestPoint Home launched sheets and coverlets designed by Ray. Within six months, WestPoint expanded Ray's bed and bath line to include the "Moppine," a two-in-one dish towel/oven mitt, as Ray is seen with a kitchen towel over her shoulder that doubles for her as an ersatz mitt. In March 2007, the Dunkin' Donuts company announced Ray as its celebrity endorser of its coffee, since she had denied being able to make coffee herself; as part of a promotional campaign, Ray describes the company's coffee as "fantabulous."In May 2007, Ray's recipes were made available on AT&T cellular phones via the "Rachael Ray Recipes on the Run" feature.
In July 2008, Rachael Ray's "Nutrish" pet food was introduced. The dog foods are created from recipes Ray developed for her pit bull, "I
A pastry chef or pâtissier, is a station chef in a professional kitchen, skilled in the making of pastries, desserts and other baked goods. They are employed in large hotels, restaurants and some cafés; the pastry chef is a member of the classic brigade de cuisine in a professional kitchen and is the station chef of the pastry department. Day-to-day operations can require the pastry chef to research recipe concepts and develop and test new recipes; the pastry chef does all the necessary preparation of the various desserts in advance, before dinner seating begins. The actual plating of the desserts is done by another station chef the garde manger, at the time of order; the pastry chef is in charge of the dessert menu, which besides traditional desserts, may include dessert wines, specialty dessert beverages, gourmet cheese platters. Pastry chefs are expected to understand their ingredients and the chemical reactions that occur when making fine pastries. Precise timing and temperatures are critically important.
In larger kitchens, the pastry chef may have a number of other chefs working in their station, each responsible for specific types of pastries: boulanger: responsible for breads and breakfast pastries confiseur: responsible for candies and petit fours décorateur: responsible for specialty cakes and show pieces glacier: responsible for cold and frozen desserts List of chefs List of pastry chefs List of restaurant terminology Pastry blender Pastry brush Friberg, Bo. The Professional Pastry Chef. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold. ISBN 0-442-01597-6. Pastry Chef Education & Career Guide
Mario Francesco Batali is an American chef, writer and media personality. Batali co-owned restaurants in New York City. Batali was known for his appearances on the Food Network, on shows such as Molto Mario and Iron Chef America, on which he was one of the featured "Iron Chefs". In 2017 the restaurant review site Eater revealed multiple accusations of sexual assault against Batali and, in March 2019, he sold all his restaurant holdings—attributed to the aforementioned allegations. Batali was born in Seattle, Washington on September 19, 1960, to Marilyn and Armandino Batali, who founded Seattle's Salumi restaurant in 2006, his father is of Italian descent and his mother is of part French-Canadian ancestry. Batali attended Rutgers University in New Brunswick, New Jersey while working as a cook at the pub/restaurant Stuff Yer Face. In 1994, he married Susi Cahn, he is son-in-law to Miles and Lillian Cahn, founders of Coach Inc. Mario Batali's brother Dana Batali was Director of Pixar RenderMan development from 2001 to 2015.
At 29, Batali was a sous chef at the Four Seasons Biltmore after working as a sous chef for the Four Seasons Clift Hotel San Francisco. Early in his career, Batali worked with chef Jeremiah Tower at his San Francisco restaurant, Stars. Stars was open from 1984 until 1999 and is considered one of the birthplaces of the institution of the celebrity chef. Batali appeared in the Food Network show Molto Mario which aired from 1996 to 2004 and made Batali a household name and popularized the Food Network. In 1998, Joe Bastianich and Lidia Bastianich formed the B&B Hospitality Group known as Batali & Bastianich Hospitality Group; the flagship restaurant for B&B is Babbo Ristorante e Enoteca in New York City which has a Michelin star. Batali was a co-host of the ABC daytime talk show The Chew when it premiered in 2011 till 2017. In 2012, a lawsuit was settled by Batali with 117 members of the restaurant staff, who alleged that the Batali organization had skimmed a percentage of the tip pools in his restaurants over a period of years.
Batali is a critic of hydraulic fracturing known as fracking, a method of natural gas extraction. He has signed onto the cause of Chefs for the Marcellus, whose mission is to "protect regional foodshed from the dangers of hydraulic fracturing for natural gas." In May 2013, Batali co-wrote an opinion article with chef Bill Telepan for the New York Daily News, in which the two wrote that "Fracking... could do serious damage to agricultural industry and hurt businesses, like ours, that rely on safe, locally sourced foods."Batali was the subject of a 2007 book titled "Heat" by Bill Buford which detailed his philosophy to various aspects of social activism as well as cooking and life. Batali served as an ambassador and on the board of directors for The Lunchbox Fund, a non-profit organization which provides a daily meal to students of township schools in Soweto, South Africa; as of December 2017, Batali released in response to the sexual misconduct allegations, he would step down from his role with this organization.
In 2008, Batali and his wife Susi Cahn founded the Mario Batali Foundation, funding various children's educational programs and pediatric disease research. He supports the practice of Transcendental Meditation through the David Lynch Foundation. In a 2012 interview, Batali said that good Italian cooking was characterized by simplicity, an insight he attributed to his time working at a restaurant in Borgo Capanne, Italy. On December 11, 2017, restaurant news website Eater reported that four women accused Batali of sexual harassment and sexual misconduct. By the following day four more women had come forward. Batali took a leave of absence from his position at the management company Batali & Bastianich Hospitality Group. Producers of ABC's The Chew asked him to step aside temporarily, while his fellow co-hosts publicly addressed the allegations on air, he was fired from the show on December 14, 2017. Food Network halted plans to release episodes of his television show Molto Mario after the allegations.
Target announced it pulled Batali's pasta cookbooks out of sales. In May 2018, more accusations of sexual misconduct against Batali were aired on an episode of 60 Minutes, the New York Police Department confirmed it was investigating Batali for his past behavior including an alleged assault that took place at The Spotted Pig, a restaurant where Batali was an investor. Batali denied an allegation of sexual assault, but said "My past behavior has been inappropriate and I am sincerely remorseful for my actions." Days Batali's company B&B Hospitality Group announced it would be closing its three Las Vegas Strip restaurants after the Las Vegas Sands Corp. terminated the companies' relationship. In March 2019, Mario Batali surrendered ownership of his stakes in Batali & Bastianich Hospitality Group, a partnership between Batali, the Bastianich family, including Joe and Lidia Bastianich, he sold his minority ownership in Eataly, an Italian food marketplace. The Bastianichs said. Batali was the first chef to surrender ownerships in all his restaurants after reports of sexual misconducts.
1998 – "Best New Restaurant of 1998" from the James Beard Foundation for "Babbo Ristorante e Enoteca" 1999 – "Man of the Year" in GQ's chef category 2001 – D'Artagnan Cervena Who's Who of Food & Beverage in America 2002 – "Best Chef: New York City" from the James Beard Foundation 2004 – Three Stars from The New York Times for "Babbo Ristorante e Enot
Dino De Laurentiis
Agostino "Dino" De Laurentiis was an Italian-American film producer. Along with Carlo Ponti, he was one of the producers who brought Italian cinema to the international scene at the end of World War II, he co-produced more than 500 films, of which 38 were nominated for Academy Awards. He had a brief acting career in the late 1930s and early 1940s. De Laurentiis was born at Torre Annunziata in the province of Naples, grew up selling spaghetti made by his father's pasta factory, he started his studies at the Centro Sperimentale di Cinematografia in Rome in the years 1937–1938 interrupted by the outbreak of the Second World War. Following his first movie, L'ultimo Combattimento, Laurentiis produced nearly 150 films during the next seven decades. In 1946 his company, the Dino de Laurentiis Cinematografica, moved into production. In the early years, De Laurentiis produced Italian neorealist films such as Bitter Rice and the Fellini classics La Strada and Nights of Cabiria in collaboration with producer Carlo Ponti.
In the 1960s, Laurentiis built his own studio facilities, although these financially collapsed during the 1970s. During this period, though, De Laurentiis produced such films as Barabbas, a Christian religious epic. De Laurentiis relocated to the US in 1976, became an American citizen in 1986. In the 1980s he had his own studio, De Laurentiis Entertainment Group, based in Wilmington, North Carolina; the building of the studio made Wilmington a center of television production. De Laurentiis made a number of successful and acclaimed films, including The Scientific Cardplayer, Death Wish, Three Days of the Condor, The Shootist, Ingmar Bergman's The Serpent's Egg, Conan the Barbarian, Blue Velvet and Breakdown. De Laurentiis' name became well known through the 1976 King Kong remake, a commercial hit. De Laurentiis produced several adaptations of Stephen King works, including The Dead Zone, Cat's Eye, Silver Bullet, Maximum Overdrive. De Laurentiis's company was involved with the horror sequels Halloween II, Evil Dead II and Army of Darkness.
De Laurentiis produced the first Hannibal Lecter film, Manhunter, an adaptation of the Thomas Harris novel Red Dragon. He passed on adapting the novels' sequel, The Silence of the Lambs, but produced the two follow-ups and Red Dragon, a re-adaptation of the novel, he produced the prequel Hannibal Rising, which tells the story of how Hannibal becomes a serial killer. In the 1980s, de Laurentiis owned and operated DDL Foodshow, a specialty retailer with two gourmet Italian markets in New York City and Los Angeles, his brief first marriage in Italy was annulled. In 1949, De Laurentiis married actress Silvana Mangano. De Laurentiis and Mangano divorced in 1988. In 1990, he married Martha Schumacher, who produced many of his films since 1985, with whom he had two daughters and Dina. One of his grandchildren is Giada De Laurentiis, host of Everyday Italian, Behind the Bash, Giada at Home, Giada's Weekend Getaways on Food Network, he was the younger brother of Luigi De Laurentiis, who became a film producer after Dino did, uncle of Aurelio De Laurentiis a producer and the chairman of S.
S. C. Napoli football club. In 1958, he won the Academy Award for Best Foreign Film for producing La Strada, back when producers and directors would win the award instead of the country it was made in. In 2001, he received the Irving G. Thalberg Memorial Award from the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences. In 2012, he received the America Award of the Italy-USA Foundation. De Laurentiis died on 10 November 2010 at his residence in Beverly Hills at the age of 91. Dino De Laurentiis Company Official site Dino De Laurentiis at Find a Grave Dino De Laurentiis on IMDb Who Was Dino De Laurentiis? – image slideshow by Life magazine
Nevada is a state in the Western United States. It is bordered by Oregon to the northwest, Idaho to the northeast, California to the west, Arizona to the southeast and Utah to the east. Nevada is the 7th most extensive, the 32nd most populous, but the 9th least densely populated of the U. S. states. Nearly three-quarters of Nevada's people live in Clark County, which contains the Las Vegas–Paradise metropolitan area where three of the state's four largest incorporated cities are located. Nevada's capital, however, is Carson City. Nevada is known as the "Silver State" because of the importance of silver to its history and economy, it is known as the "Battle Born State", because it achieved statehood during the Civil War. Nevada is desert and semi-arid, much of it within the Great Basin. Areas south of the Great Basin are within the Mojave Desert, while Lake Tahoe and the Sierra Nevada lie on the western edge. About 86% of the state's land is managed by various jurisdictions of the U. S. federal government, both civilian and military.
Before European contact, Native Americans of the Paiute and Washoe tribes inhabited the land, now Nevada. The first Europeans to explore the region were Spanish, they called the region Nevada because of the snow. The area formed part of the Viceroyalty of New Spain, became part of Mexico when it gained independence in 1821; the United States annexed the area in 1848 after its victory in the Mexican–American War, it was incorporated as part of Utah Territory in 1850. The discovery of silver at the Comstock Lode in 1859 led to a population boom that became an impetus to the creation of Nevada Territory out of western Utah Territory in 1861. Nevada became the 36th state on October 31, 1864, as the second of two states added to the Union during the Civil War. Nevada has a reputation for its libertarian laws. In 1940, with a population of just over 110,000 people, Nevada was by far the least-populated state, with less than half the population of the next least-populated state. However, legalized gambling and lenient marriage and divorce laws transformed Nevada into a major tourist destination in the 20th century.
Nevada is the only U. S. state where prostitution is legal, though it is illegal in Clark County, Washoe County and Carson City. The tourism industry remains Nevada's largest employer, with mining continuing as a substantial sector of the economy: Nevada is the fourth-largest producer of gold in the world; the name "Nevada" comes from meaning "snow-covered", after the Sierra Nevada. Most Nevadans pronounce the second syllable of their state name using the TRAP vowel. Many from outside the Western United States pronounce it with the PALM vowel. Although the latter pronunciation is closer to the Spanish pronunciation, it is not the pronunciation preferred by most Nevadans. State Assemblyman Harry Mortenson proposed a bill to recognize the alternate pronunciation of Nevada, though the bill was not supported by most legislators and never received a vote; the Nevadan pronunciation is the de facto official one, since it is the one used by the state legislature. At one time, the state's official tourism organization, TravelNevada, stylized the name of the state as "Nevăda", with a breve mark over the a indicating the locally preferred pronunciation, available as a license plate design.
Nevada is entirely within the Basin and Range Province, is broken up by many north-south mountain ranges. Most of these ranges have endorheic valleys between them, which belies the image portrayed by the term Great Basin. Much of the northern part of the state is within the Great Basin, a mild desert that experiences hot temperatures in the summer and cold temperatures in the winter. Moisture from the Arizona Monsoon will cause summer thunderstorms; the state's highest recorded temperature was 125 °F in Laughlin on June 29, 1994. The coldest recorded temperature was −52 °F set in San Jacinto in 1972, in the northeastern portion of the state; the Humboldt River crosses the state from east to west across the northern part of the state, draining into the Humboldt Sink near Lovelock. Several rivers drain from the Sierra Nevada eastward, including the Walker and Carson rivers. All of these rivers are endorheic basins, ending in Walker Lake, Pyramid Lake, the Carson Sink, respectively. However, not all of Nevada is within the Great Basin.
Tributaries of the Snake River drain the far north, while the Colorado River, which forms much of the boundary with Arizona, drains much of southern Nevada. The mountain ranges, some of which have peaks above 13,000 feet, harbor lush forests high above desert plains, creating sky islands for endemic species; the valleys are no lower in elevation than 3,000 feet, while some in central Nevada are above 6,000 feet. The southern third of the state, where the Las Vegas area is situated, is within the Mojave Desert; the area is closer to the Arizona Monsoon in the summer. The terrain is lower below 4,000 feet, creating conditions for hot summer days and cool to chilly winter nights. Nevada and California have by far the longest diagonal line as a state boundary at just over 400 miles; this line begins in Lake Tahoe nearly
Las Vegas the City of Las Vegas and known as Vegas, is the 28th-most populated city in the United States, the most populated city in the state of Nevada, the county seat of Clark County. The city anchors the Las Vegas Valley metropolitan area and is the largest city within the greater Mojave Desert. Las Vegas is an internationally renowned major resort city, known for its gambling, fine dining and nightlife; the Las Vegas Valley as a whole serves as the leading financial and cultural center for Nevada. The city bills itself as The Entertainment Capital of the World, is famous for its mega casino–hotels and associated activities, it is a top three destination in the United States for business conventions and a global leader in the hospitality industry, claiming more AAA Five Diamond hotels than any other city in the world. Today, Las Vegas annually ranks as one of the world's most visited tourist destinations; the city's tolerance for numerous forms of adult entertainment earned it the title of Sin City, has made Las Vegas a popular setting for literature, television programs, music videos.
Las Vegas was settled in 1905 and incorporated in 1911. At the close of the 20th century, it was the most populated American city founded within that century. Population growth has accelerated since the 1960s, between 1990 and 2000 the population nearly doubled, increasing by 85.2%. Rapid growth has continued into the 21st century, according to a 2018 estimate, the population is 648,224 with a regional population of 2,227,053; as with most major metropolitan areas, the name of the primary city is used to describe areas beyond official city limits. In the case of Las Vegas, this applies to the areas on and near the Las Vegas Strip, located within the unincorporated communities of Paradise and Winchester; the earliest visitors to the Las Vegas area were nomadic Paleo-Indians, who traveled there 10,000 years ago, leaving behind petroglyphs. Anasazi and Paiute tribes followed at least 2,000 years ago. A young Mexican scout named Rafael Rivera is credited as the first non-Native American to encounter the valley, in 1829.
Trader Antonio Armijo led a 60-man party along the Spanish Trail to Los Angeles, California in 1829. The area was named Las Vegas, Spanish for "the meadows," as it featured abundant wild grasses, as well as the desert spring waters needed by westward travelers; the year 1844 marked the arrival of John C. Frémont, whose writings helped lure pioneers to the area. Downtown Las Vegas's Fremont Street is named after him. Eleven years members of the LDS Church chose Las Vegas as the site to build a fort halfway between Salt Lake City and Los Angeles, where they would travel to gather supplies; the fort was abandoned several years afterward. The remainder of this Old Mormon Fort can still be seen at the intersection of Las Vegas Boulevard and Washington Avenue. Las Vegas was founded as a city in 1905, when 110 acres of land adjacent to the Union Pacific Railroad tracks were auctioned in what would become the downtown area. In 1911, Las Vegas was incorporated as a city. 1931 was a pivotal year for Las Vegas.
At that time, Nevada legalized casino gambling and reduced residency requirements for divorce to six weeks. This year witnessed the beginning of construction on nearby Hoover Dam; the influx of construction workers and their families helped Las Vegas avoid economic calamity during the Great Depression. The construction work was completed in 1935. In 1941, the Las Vegas Army Air Corps Gunnery School was established. Known as Nellis Air Force Base, it is home to the aerobatic team called the Thunderbirds. Following World War II, lavishly decorated hotels, gambling casinos, big-name entertainment became synonymous with Las Vegas. In the 1950s the Moulin Rouge opened and became the first racially integrated casino-hotel in Las Vegas. In 1951, nuclear weapons testing began at the Nevada Test Site, 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas. During this time the city was nicknamed the "Atomic City". Residents and visitors were able to witness the mushroom clouds until 1963, when the limited Test Ban Treaty required that nuclear tests be moved underground.
The iconic "Welcome to Las Vegas" sign, never located within municipal limits, was created in 1959 by Betty Willis. During the 1960s, corporations and business powerhouses such as Howard Hughes were building and buying hotel-casino properties. Gambling was referred to as "gaming"; the year 1995 marked the opening of the Fremont Street Experience in Las Vegas's downtown area. This canopied five-block area features 12.5 million LED lights and 550,000 watts of sound from dusk until midnight during shows held on the top of each hour. Due to the realization of many revitalization efforts, 2012 was dubbed "The Year of Downtown." Hundreds of millions of dollars' worth of projects made their debut at this time. They included The Smith Center for the Performing Arts and DISCOVERY Children's Museum, Mob Museum, Neon Museum, a new City Hall complex and renovations for a new Zappos.com corporate headquarters in the old City Hall building. Las Vegas is situated within Clark County in a basin on the floor of the Mojave Desert and is surrounded by mountain ranges on all sides.
Much of the landscape is arid with desert vegetation and wildlife. It can be subjected to torrential flash floods, although much has been done to mitigate the effects of flash floods through improved drainage systems; the peaks surrounding Las Vegas reach elevations of o