Aliano is a town and comune in the province of Matera, located about 90 kilometres southwest of Matera, in the Southern Italian region of Basilicata. Aliano is most famous for being the setting of Carlo Levi's book Christ Stopped at Eboli, where the book is called Gagliano according to the local pronunciation. Published in 1945, it gives an account of his exile in 1935–1936 in Aliano. Like many towns in rural Italy it has suffered from migration to the cities and overseas where employment opportunities are better. Aliano is located atop calanchi. Over the town's history, many homes were lost to landslides resulting from deforestation. In 1980 an earthquake shook the region and destroyed or made uninhabitable many of the town's historic buildings. Recent funding from the European Union, has made renovations possible, parts of the town's historic centre are once again habitable. Aliano has its own dialect and the population keep many old traditions. One particular example is that, during carnevale male townspeople, dressed in paper mache masks and hats covered with streamers, wearing long underwear and cow bells, march down the town's main street, throwing flour at gathered crowds and making grunting noises.
Some believe. Another tradition is the use of architecture to ward off the malocchio. Many of the town's older homes, including one in the town's historic square called casa con gli occhi are formed with two forward windows and a staircase leading from the ground up to the home's main floor; the combination of stairs and windows make. When lit from the inside, the windows may look like burning eyes, enough to scare away any bad spirits. Population decline is a major problem in Aliano and other sized towns in the poor regions of southern Italy. Lack of employment opportunities, lack of fertile land and a decrease in interest in continuing the farm life of one's parents are major reasons for population loss. A higher percentage of young people from the South of Italy complete a university education than their peers in the north due to unemployment situation. Professional jobs are few in southern Italian cities, thus considerable numbers of the villages' most promising young people move their families to the big industrial cities of the North Milan and Bologna.
Some 4.2 kilometres south of Aliano is the tiny hamlet of Alianello, now a complete ghost town, after it was destroyed in the 1980 earthquake. Only a shepherd has been known to use some of the vacant homes to house some of his animals, where he keeps guinea pigs for food, grazes his sheep and goats. Official website
We Still Kill the Old Way
We Still Kill the Old Way is a 1967 Italian crime film directed by Elio Petri. It was entered into the 1967 Cannes Film Festival, it is based on the novel To Each His Own by Leonardo Sciascia. The death threats against the local pharmacist Arturo Manno do not surprise any of his friends because he is a known womanizer in his small town, they do not take his reports of the threats until Manno, together with his friend Dr. Antonio Roscio, are killed while hunting one early morning. Suspicion falls on the father and two brothers of a 16-year-old girl who had relations with Manno, but Professor Laurana, who had seen one of the extortion letters, does not believe in the guilt of these illiterates from a rundown neighborhood since the letters of the anonymous notes have been made with clippings from the Osservatore Romano - a Vatican newspaper with few local subscribers. He asks his lawyer friend Rosello to take care of the prisoners, begins his own research motivated by his secret love for Luisa Roscio, the widow of one of the murdered men.
His trail leads him to Palermo, but he realizes that Luisa Roscio does not reciprocate his feelings and that his detective work is not delivering results. Shortly after his rejection by Luisa, he is murdered and his body disappears. Life in his native village continues unchanged maintained through the close link between Luisa Roscio and the lawyer Rosello. Gian Maria Volontè - Prof. Paolo Laurana Irene Papas - Luisa Roscio Gabriele Ferzetti - Avvocato Rosello Salvo Randone - Prof. Roscio Luigi Pistilli - Arturo Manno Laura Nucci - Roscio's mother Mario Scaccia - Curato di Sant'Amo Luciana Scalise - Rosina Leopoldo Trieste - Il deputato comunista Giovanni Pallavicino - Ragana Franco Tranchina - Dr. Antonio Roscio Ana Rivero - Arturo's wife Orio Cannarozzo - Ispettore di polizia La Marca Carmelo Oliviero - Arciprete Rosello Carlo Ferro Tanina Zappala Valentino Macchi Michele Vannucci Aldo Cascino - Police commissary We Still Kill the Old Way on IMDb
Christ Stopped at Eboli
Christ Stopped at Eboli is a memoir by Carlo Levi, published in 1945, giving an account of his exile from 1935-1936 to Grassano and Aliano, remote towns in southern Italy, in the region of Lucania, known today as Basilicata. In the book he gives Aliano the invented name'Gagliano'. "The title of the book comes from an expression by the people of'Gagliano' who say of themselves,'Christ stopped short of here, at Eboli' which means, in effect, that they feel they have been bypassed by Christianity, by morality, by history itself—that they have somehow been excluded from the full human experience." Levi explained that Eboli, a location in the region of Campania to the west near the seacoast, is where the road and railway to Basilicata branched away from the coastal north-south routes. Carlo Levi was a doctor and painter, a native of Turin. In 1935, Levi's anti-fascist beliefs and activism led to his banishment by Benito Mussolini's fascist government to a period of internal exile in a remote region of southern Italy.
Despite his status as a political exile Levi was welcomed with open arms, for the people of this area were gracious hosts. His book, Christ Stopped At Eboli, focuses on his year in the villages of the Lucania region and the people he encountered there; the villages of Grassano and'Gagliano' were poor. They lacked basic goods. A typical though meagre diet consisted of bread, crushed tomatoes, peppers; the villages did not have many modern items, those they did were not utilized. One working bathroom in the town stood as a retreat for animals rather than people. Only one car was found in the area. Homes were sparsely furnished. Healthcare was atrocious; the two doctors in town were invariably inept. The peasants did not trust the in-town physicians and therefore counted on Levi's medical skills instead. Malaria took the lives of many villagers. Education was available, but as Levi stated, the mayor who taught class spent more time overlooking the balcony than educating the children; the religious values of the villages Levi visited were a mixture of mysticism.
While the people were pious in the sense that they were moral and kind, they were not religious. They did not avidly attend church, in fact ostracized their priest, a drunk and had sexual relations of a profane nature; the priest, had just as much dislike for the people, as evident by his statement "The people here are donkeys, not Christians." It seems that Christianity was not embraced. Superstitions and spells seemed to shape day-to-day tasks, not Christ and the belief in God. People did, attend church on holidays like Christmas, did respect the Madonna; when reading this it becomes apparent that Christianity was an idea introduced but never adopted. The southern half of Italy was not on board with Mussolini and his fascist government; the southerners were looked upon as inferior citizens. Levi recalls one local man's view that he and his fellow people were not considered humans, rather dogs, he tells how Northerners viewed the southerners with "inherent racial inferiority". The people felt torn from Italy, looked to America as a beacon of hope and prosperity rather than Rome.
Levi writes "Yes, New York, rather than Rome or Naples would be the real capital of the peasants of Lucania, if these men without a country could have a capital at all." He is insinuating that the people of Lucania have no country which cares for them. The people were in dire shape, they lived in complete destitution and yet nothing was being done to provide for them; the war with Abyssinia only served to remind them of the impossibility of emigrating to America. In 1935 Italy began a quick war in Abyssinia; the people in Levi's village thought little to nothing about it. It did not faze them and they had no hope of any gain because of it. Levi refers to them as being indifferent to the war cause, mentions only one man who enlisted to escape a troubled home life, he does notice, that they do not talk about World War I despite the fact that a large number of men in the village lost their lives. Near the end of his stay Levi takes a trip to the north to attend a funeral. After spending a year in Lucania he feels an awkwardness he had not experienced before.
As he talks with friends and acquaintances about politics he begins to uncover a common ignorance about the issue of Southern Italy. He listens as people share their opinions on "the problems of the south" about, to blame and what can be done. A commonality is found amongst all their answers, the state must take action! They must do "something concretely useful, beneficent, miraculous." Levi chalks this response up to having fourteen years worth of fascist notions in their heads. He goes on to explain how the idea of a united "utopian" Italy has been subconsciously ingrained in all of them. In 1979, the book was adapted into a film, directed by Francesco Rosi and starring Gian Maria Volontè as Carlo Levi. Christ Stopped at Eboli — a brief review, The Booklocker Carlo Levi's Book Christ Stopped at Eboli Museum in former house filled with memories from Levi's involuntary stay Has some of Levi's paintings'post-impressionist in style, a million miles away from the galumphing futurism Mus
Rome is the capital city and a special comune of Italy. Rome serves as the capital of the Lazio region. With 2,872,800 residents in 1,285 km2, it is the country's most populated comune, it is the fourth most populous city in the European Union by population within city limits. It is the centre of the Metropolitan City of Rome, which has a population of 4,355,725 residents, thus making it the most populous metropolitan city in Italy. Rome is located in the central-western portion of the Italian Peninsula, within Lazio, along the shores of the Tiber; the Vatican City is an independent country inside the city boundaries of Rome, the only existing example of a country within a city: for this reason Rome has been defined as capital of two states. Rome's history spans 28 centuries. While Roman mythology dates the founding of Rome at around 753 BC, the site has been inhabited for much longer, making it one of the oldest continuously occupied sites in Europe; the city's early population originated from a mix of Latins and Sabines.
The city successively became the capital of the Roman Kingdom, the Roman Republic and the Roman Empire, is regarded by some as the first metropolis. It was first called The Eternal City by the Roman poet Tibullus in the 1st century BC, the expression was taken up by Ovid and Livy. Rome is called the "Caput Mundi". After the fall of the Western Empire, which marked the beginning of the Middle Ages, Rome fell under the political control of the Papacy, in the 8th century it became the capital of the Papal States, which lasted until 1870. Beginning with the Renaissance all the popes since Nicholas V pursued over four hundred years a coherent architectural and urban programme aimed at making the city the artistic and cultural centre of the world. In this way, Rome became first one of the major centres of the Italian Renaissance, the birthplace of both the Baroque style and Neoclassicism. Famous artists, painters and architects made Rome the centre of their activity, creating masterpieces throughout the city.
In 1871, Rome became the capital of the Kingdom of Italy, which, in 1946, became the Italian Republic. Rome has the status of a global city. In 2016, Rome ranked as the 14th-most-visited city in the world, 3rd most visited in the European Union, the most popular tourist attraction in Italy, its historic centre is listed by UNESCO as a World Heritage Site. The famous Vatican Museums are among the world's most visited museums while the Colosseum was the most popular tourist attraction in world with 7.4 million visitors in 2018. Host city for the 1960 Summer Olympics, Rome is the seat of several specialized agencies of the United Nations, such as the Food and Agriculture Organization, the World Food Programme and the International Fund for Agricultural Development; the city hosts the Secretariat of the Parliamentary Assembly of the Union for the Mediterranean as well as the headquarters of many international business companies such as Eni, Enel, TIM, Leonardo S.p. A. and national and international banks such as Unicredit and BNL.
Its business district, called EUR, is the base of many companies involved in the oil industry, the pharmaceutical industry, financial services. Rome is an important fashion and design centre thanks to renowned international brands centered in the city. Rome's Cinecittà Studios have been the set of many Academy Award–winning movies. According to the founding myth of the city by the Ancient Romans themselves, the long-held tradition of the origin of the name Roma is believed to have come from the city's founder and first king, Romulus. However, it is a possibility that the name Romulus was derived from Rome itself; as early as the 4th century, there have been alternative theories proposed on the origin of the name Roma. Several hypotheses have been advanced focusing on its linguistic roots which however remain uncertain: from Rumon or Rumen, archaic name of the Tiber, which in turn has the same root as the Greek verb ῥέω and the Latin verb ruo, which both mean "flow". There is archaeological evidence of human occupation of the Rome area from 14,000 years ago, but the dense layer of much younger debris obscures Palaeolithic and Neolithic sites.
Evidence of stone tools and stone weapons attest to about 10,000 years of human presence. Several excavations support the view that Rome grew from pastoral settlements on the Palatine Hill built above the area of the future Roman Forum. Between the end of the bronze age and the beginning of the Iron age, each hill between the sea and the Capitol was topped by a village. However, none of them had yet an urban quality. Nowadays, there is a wide consensus that the city developed through the aggregation of several villages around the largest one, placed above the Palatine; this aggregation was facilitated by the increase of agricultural productivity above the subsistence level, which allowed the establishment of secondary and tertiary activities. These in turn boosted the development of trade with the Greek colonies of southern Italy; these developments, which according to archaeological ev
Sacco & Vanzetti (1971 film)
Sacco & Vanzetti is an Italian docudrama written and directed by Giuliano Montaldo that premiered in Italy on 16 March 1971. The story is based on the events surrounding the trial and judicial execution of Nicola Sacco and Bartolomeo Vanzetti, two anarchists of Italian origin, who were sentenced to death by a United States court in the 1920s; the film's musical score was composed and conducted by Ennio Morricone with the three-part ballad sung by Joan Baez. The film is shot in colour although it both starts and finishes in black and white, includes period black and white newsreels. Gian Maria Volontè – Bartolomeo Vanzetti Riccardo Cucciolla – Nicola Sacco Cyril Cusack – Frederick Katzmann Rosanna Fratello – Rosa Sacco Geoffrey Keen – Judge Webster Thayer Milo O'Shea – Fred Moore William Prince – William Thompson Claude Mann – Journalist Edward Jewesbury Armenia Balducci – Virginia Pier Giovanni Anchisi – Member of the Defense Committee Valentino Orfeo Desmond Perry John Harvey The film's soundtrack was composed and conducted by Ennio Morricone with song lyrics by the American folk singer Joan Baez.
For the lyrics of The Ballad of Sacco and Vanzetti Part 1, Baez makes use of Emma Lazarus' 1883 sonnet The New Colussus the lines of which appear inscribed on a bronze plaque in the pedestal of the Statue of Liberty. The song, Here's to You, is sung at the end of the film. For the lyrics of Here's to You Baez made use of a statement attributed to Vanzetti by Philip D. Strong, a reporter for the North American Newspaper Alliance who visited him in prison in May 1927, three months before his execution. If it had not been for these things, I might have live out my life talking at street corners to scorning men. I might have died, unknown, a failure. Now we are not a failure; this is our triumph. Never in our full life could we hope to do such work for tolerance, for justice, for man's understanding of man as we now do by accident. Our words—our lives—our pains—nothing! The taking of our lives—lives of a good shoemaker and a poor fish peddler—all! That last moment belongs to us—that agony is our triumph.
Here's to You is included in several films notably in the 1978 quasi-documentary film Germany in Autumn where it accompanies footage of the funeral march for Red Army Faction members Andreas Baader, Gudrun Ensslin, Jan-Carl Raspe who had committed suicide in prison. The song became known to a younger video game playing generation, due to its appearance in the Metal Gear Solid series where it was featured in Metal Gear Solid 4 and Metal Gear Solid V: Ground Zeroes, where it is featured within the latter game's story; the soundtrack was released in a downloadable format in 2005 featuring fourteen tracks: Speranze di libertà La ballata di Sacco e Vanzetti, Pt. 1 Nel carcere La ballata di Sacco e Vanzetti, Pt. 2 Sacco e il figlio Speranze di libertà Nel carcere La ballata di Sacco e Vanzetti, Pt. 3 Libertà nella speranza E dover morire Sacco e il figlio La sedia elettrica Libertà nella speranza Here's to You Roger Ebert described the film as'one of the best' of the year. Ebert draws particular attention to the way.
Ebert writes' has made us aware of the crowds surging outside the courthouse, in the streets of world capitals. Inside the courtroom, he stays away from the conventional straight-on shots of the observers. Instead, the people on the other side of the railing are seen in angular long-shots, so that when outbursts and commotions take place, the courtroom railing itself acts like a police line and the crowd seems to yearn against it. Without making too much of a point of it, Montaldo visually equates the inside and the outside action, it works.' With regard to the historical accuracy of the film Ebert considers the film to be'sometimes accurate, sometimes biased and sometimes fictional in its telling of the story, but no matter. The versions of the "truth" in the Sacco-Vanzetti case are so various, that a factual retelling would be beyond the capabilities of a feature film. Sacco and Vanzetti are beyond being helped by any film, for that matter, the purpose of this film... is more to alert us to how law can be used as a blunt instrument of politics'.
Despite his friends' criticism that the film is'just another left-wing, European blast at the United States', Vincent Canby, in a review for The New York Times, praises the film, if for nothing more than calling'to our attention a terrible chapter in American history'. Canby, dismisses the film as a simplication that'takes the form of not stylish political cartooning; this is true of the supporting performances he has gotten from Cyril Cusack as Katzman, the prosecuting attorney, Geoffrey Keen, as Judge Thayer, the judge who presided at the trial and, under Massachusetts law, had the unfortunate right to rule on a second trial when new evidence was presented to him. They are blandly evil, cutout figures, as are all of the intimidated witnesses, bigoted observers and political opportunists who swarm across the film.' Canby decries the film's soundtrack which he describes as'absolutely dreadful' with Baez's voice'used to certify the movie's noble intentions, but through the cheapest of means'.
In May 1971, Sacco & Vanzetti was a competition entry at the 24th International Film Festival of Cannes where, for his portrayal of Nicola Sacco, Riccardo Cucciolla won the award for Best Actor. That year, Rosanna Fratello was awarded Best Young Actress by the Association of Italian Film Journali
Giuliano Montaldo is an Italian film director. While he was still a young student, Montaldo was recruited by the director Carlo Lizzani for the role of leading actor in the film Achtung! Banditi!. Following this experience he began an apprenticeship as an assistant director of Lizzani and Gillo Pontecorvo, as well as appearing in the 1955 Gli Sbandati. In 1960 he made his debut as a director with Tiro al piccione, a film about the partisan resistance, which entered for a competition in Venice Film Festival in 1961. In 1965 he wrote and directed Una bella grinta, a cynical representation of the economic boom of Italy, winning the Special Prize of the Jury at 15th Berlin International Film Festival, he directed the production Grand Slam which starred an international cast including Edward G. Robinson, Klaus Kinski, Janet Leigh, his cinema career continued with Gott mit uns and Vanzetti, Giordano Bruno, a trilogy about the abuses of the military and religious power. In 1982 he directed the television miniseries Marco Polo, which won the Emmy Award for Outstanding Miniseries.
In 1971 he was a member of the jury at the 7th Moscow International Film Festival. Giuliano Montaldo on IMDb Il Dizionario online del cinema
Carlo Osvaldo Goldoni was an Italian playwright and librettist from the Republic of Venice. His works include some of Italy's most best-loved plays. Audiences have admired the plays of Goldoni for their ingenious mix of honesty, his plays offered his contemporaries images of themselves dramatizing the lives and conflicts of the emerging middle classes. Though he wrote in French and Italian, his plays make rich use of the Venetian language, regional vernacular, colloquialisms. Goldoni wrote under the pen name and title "Polisseno Fegeio, Pastor Arcade," which he claimed in his memoirs the "Arcadians of Rome" bestowed on him. One of his best known works is the comic play Servant of Two Masters, translated and adapted internationally numerous times. In 1966 it was adapted into an opera buffa by the American composer Vittorio Giannini. In 2011, Richard Bean adapted the play for the National Theatre of Great Britain as One Man, Two Guvnors, its popularity led in 2012 to Broadway. There is an abundance of autobiographical information on Goldoni, most of which comes from the introductions to his plays and from his Memoirs.
However, these memoirs are known to contain many errors of fact about his earlier years. In these memoirs, he paints himself as a born comedian, light-hearted and with a happy temperament, proof against all strokes of fate, yet respectable and honorable. Goldoni was born in Venice in the son of Margherita and Giulio Goldoni. In his memoirs, Goldoni describes his father as a physician, claims that he was introduced to theatre by his grandfather Carlo Alessandro Goldoni. In reality, it seems. In any case, Goldoni was interested in theatre from his earliest years, all attempts to direct his activity into other channels were of no avail, his father placed him under the care of the philosopher Caldini at Rimini but the youth soon ran away with a company of strolling players and returned to Venice. In 1723 his father matriculated him into the stern Collegio Ghislieri in Pavia, which imposed the tonsure and monastic habits on its students. However, he relates in his Memoirs that a considerable part of his time was spent in reading Greek and Latin comedies.
He had begun writing at this time and, in his third year, he composed a libellous poem in which he ridiculed the daughters of certain Pavian families. As a result of that incident he had to leave the city, he studied law at Udine, took his degree at University of Modena. He was employed as a law clerk at Chioggia and Feltre, after which he returned to his native city and began practicing. Educated as a lawyer, holding lucrative positions as secretary and counsellor, he seemed, indeed, at one time to have settled down to the practice of law, but following an unexpected summons to Venice, after an absence of several years, he changed his career, thenceforth he devoted himself to writing plays and managing theatres, his father died in 1731. In 1732, to avoid an unwanted marriage, he left the town for Milan and for Verona where the theatre manager Giuseppe Imer helped him on his way to becoming a comical poet as well as introducing him to his future wife, Nicoletta Conio. Goldoni returned with her to Venice, where he stayed until 1743.
Goldoni entered the Italian theatre scene with a tragedy, produced in Milan. The play was a financial failure. Submitting it to Count Prata, director of the opera, he was told that his piece "was composed with due regard for the rules of Aristotle and Horace, but not according to those laid down for the Italian drama." "In France", continued the count, "you can try to please the public, but here in Italy it is the actors and actresses whom you must consult, as well as the composer of the music and the stage decorators. Everything must be done according to a certain form which I will explain to you." Goldoni thanked his critic, went back to his inn and ordered a fire, into which he threw the manuscript of his Amalasunta. His next play, written in 1734, was more successful, though of its success he afterward professed himself ashamed. During this period he wrote librettos for opera seria and served for a time as literary director of the San Giovanni Grisostomo, Venice's most distinguished opera house.
He wrote other tragedies for a time, but he was not long in discovering that his bent was for comedy. He had come to realize. During his many wanderings and adventures in Italy, he was at work and when, at Livorno, he became acquainted with the manager Medebac, he determined to pursue the profession of playwriting in order to make a living, he was employed by Medebac to write plays for his theater in Venice. He worked for other managers and produced during his stay in that city some of his most characteristic works, he wrote Momolo Cortesan in 1738. By 1743, he had perfected his hybrid style of playwriting; this style was typified in the first Italian comedy of its kind. After 1748, Goldoni collaborated with the composer Baldassare Galuppi, making significant contributions to the new form of'opera buffa'. Galuppi composed the score for more