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Giant planet

A giant planet is any planet much larger than Earth. They are primarily composed of low-boiling-point materials, rather than rock or other solid matter, but massive solid planets can exist. There are four known giant planets in the Solar System: Jupiter, Saturn and Neptune. Many extrasolar giant planets have been identified orbiting other stars. Giant planets are sometimes called jovian planets, after Jupiter, they are sometimes known as gas giants. However, many astronomers now apply the latter term only to Jupiter and Saturn, classifying Uranus and Neptune, which have different compositions, as ice giants. Both names are misleading: all of the giant planets consist of fluids above their critical points, where distinct gas and liquid phases do not exist; the principal components are hydrogen and helium in the case of Jupiter and Saturn, water and methane in the case of Uranus and Neptune. The defining differences between a low-mass brown dwarf and a gas giant are debated. One school of thought is based on formation.

Part of the debate concerns whether "brown dwarfs" must, by definition, have experienced nuclear fusion at some point in their history. The term gas giant was coined in 1952 by the science fiction writer James Blish and was used to refer to all giant planets. Arguably it is something of a misnomer, because throughout most of the volume of these planets the pressure is so high that matter is not in gaseous form. Other than the upper layers of the atmosphere and solids in the core, all matter is above the critical point, where there is no distinction between liquids and gases. Fluid planet would be a more accurate term. Jupiter has metallic hydrogen near its center, but much of its volume is hydrogen and traces of other gases above their critical points; the observable atmospheres of all these planets are quite thin compared to their radii, only extending one percent of the way to the center. Thus the observable portions are gaseous; the rather misleading term has caught on because planetary scientists use rock and ice as shorthands for classes of elements and compounds found as planetary constituents, irrespective of the matter's phase.

In the outer Solar System and helium are referred to as gases. When deep planetary interiors are considered, it may not be far off to say that, by ice astronomers mean oxygen and carbon, by rock they mean silicon, by gas they mean hydrogen and helium; the many ways in which Uranus and Neptune differ from Jupiter and Saturn have led some to use the term only for the planets similar to the latter two. With this terminology in mind, some astronomers have started referring to Uranus and Neptune as ice giants to indicate the predominance of the ices in their interior composition; the alternative term jovian planet refers to the Roman god Jupiter—the genitive form of, Jovis, hence Jovian—and was intended to indicate that all of these planets were similar to Jupiter. Objects large enough to start deuterium fusion are called brown dwarfs, these occupy the mass range between that of large giant planets and the lowest-mass stars; the 13-Jupiter-mass cutoff is a rule of thumb rather than something of precise physical significance.

Larger objects will burn most of their deuterium and smaller ones will burn only a little, the 13 MJ value is somewhere in between. The amount of deuterium burnt depends not only on the mass but on the composition of the planet on the amount of helium and deuterium present; the Extrasolar Planets Encyclopaedia includes objects up to 60 Jupiter masses, the Exoplanet Data Explorer up to 24 Jupiter masses. A giant planet has a thick atmosphere of hydrogen and helium, they may have a dense molten core of rocky elements, or the core may have dissolved and dispersed throughout the planet if the planet is hot enough. In "traditional" giant planets such as Jupiter and Saturn hydrogen and helium constitute most of the mass of the planet, whereas they only make up an outer envelope on Uranus and Neptune, which are instead composed of water and methane and therefore referred to as "ice giants". Extrasolar giant planets that orbit close to their stars are the exoplanets that are easiest to detect; these are called hot Jupiters and hot Neptunes because they have high surface temperatures.

Hot Jupiters were, until the advent of space-borne telescopes, the most common form of exoplanet known, due to the relative ease of detecting them with ground-based instruments. Giant planets are said to lack solid surfaces, but it is more accurate to say that they lack surfaces altogether since the gases that constitute them become thinner and thinner with increasing distance from the planets' centers becoming indistinguishable from the interplanetary medium. Therefore, landing on a giant planet may or may not be possible, depending on the size and composition of its core. Gas giants consist of hydrogen and helium; the Solar System's gas giants and Saturn, have heavier elements making up between 3 and 13 percent of their mass. Gas giants are thought to consist of an outer layer of molecular hydrogen, surrounding a layer of liquid metallic hydrogen, with a probable molten core with a rocky composition. Jupiter and Saturn's outermost portion of the hydrogen

Colin McDonald (ice hockey)

Colin J. McDonald is an American professional ice hockey player for the Bridgeport Sound Tigers of the American Hockey League, he was selected by the Edmonton Oilers in the second round, 51st overall, of the 2003 NHL Entry Draft. He played only two games with the team before signing with the Pittsburgh Penguins for the 2011–12 season, his time with the Penguins was short-lived, as he proceeded to sign with the Islanders the following season. He is the son of a former NHL player, who played for the Hartford Whalers. McDonald began his career playing for the New England Junior Coyotes of the Eastern Junior Hockey League during the 2002–03 season, where he led the league in scoring with 58 points and was named "Junior Coyote of the Year", received the "EJHL Offensive Player of the Year Award" and League MVP, he was selected MVP of the Top Prospects Tournament in 2002, as well as "Hockey Night In Boston Junior Player of the Year". He was chosen to the U. S. National Junior Team Evaluation Camp in August 2003.

After being selected 51st overall in the National Hockey League's 2003 draft by the Edmonton Oilers, McDonald spent four seasons with Providence College. During his freshman year, McDonald led Providence Friar freshmen with 10 goals, his performance earned him Providence's "Most Valuable Freshman" Award as well as a selection to the Hockey East All-Rookie Team. As a sophomore, McDonald missed time due to injury but still managed to match his point total from freshman year as he tallied up 11 goals and added 5 assists; as a junior, he served as an alternate captain and reached career highs in points and assists, finishing fourth on his team in scoring. He was named co-captain for the 2006-07 season at the end of the year. In his senior year he had a career high of 13 goals, along with 4 assists, totaling 17 points. McDonald joined the Edmonton Oilers organization in 2007 and was assigned to their minor league affiliate, the American Hockey League's Springfield Falcons, he played 73 games in 11 assists for 23 points.

The following season, McDonald played 77 games, scoring 10 goals and 12 assists for 22 points and played 3 games in the ECHL for the Stockton Thunder. He was first called up to the Oilers on November 26, 2009, he played in his first career NHL game the next night against the San Jose Sharks. His first NHL goal came in his second game on November 28, 2009 against Roberto Luongo of the Vancouver Canucks. On July 1, 2011, McDonald was signed by the Pittsburgh Penguins to $525,000 contract. In the 2011–12 season, he was assigned to the Penguins' AHL affiliate, the Wilkes-Barre/Scranton Penguins, but was recalled to play in five games with the Penguins. On July 2, 2012, McDonald signed as a free agent to a one-year, two-way contract with the New York Islanders. During the season, on March 15, 2013, he agreed to a one-way contract extension, he played most of the season on a line with Casey Cizikas. In the 2013 playoffs against his former Penguins team, he played on a line with Michael Grabner and Keith Aucoin, scoring two goals and one assist as the Islanders were defeated in six games.

Early on in the 2014–15 season, on October 22, 2014, McDonald was placed on waivers. On July 3, 2015, having left the Islanders as a free agent, McDonald signed a one-year, two-way contract with the Philadelphia Flyers. On June 19, 2018, McDonald signed a one-year AHL contract to remain with the Flyers AHL affiliate, the Lehigh Valley Phantoms. Biographical information and career statistics from NHL.com, or Hockey-Reference.com, or The Internet Hockey Database

Rogers Hollow

Rogers Hollow is a tributary of Mehoopany Creek in Wyoming County, Pennsylvania, in the United States. It is 2.2 miles long and flows through Mehoopany Township. The watershed of the creek has an area of 2.44 square miles. The creek is classified as a Coldwater Fishery and is in the vicinity of Mehoopany Mountain and Doll Mountain. Rogers Hollow begins in a broad valley next to Mehoopany Mountain and Doll Mountain in Forkston Township, it flows northwest for a short distance before turning north-northwest for a few tenths of a mile. It turns west-northwest for more than a mile, reaching the end of its valley and crossing Pennsylvania Route 87; the stream turns west-northwest along the base of Mehoopany Mountain turning north-northwest over the next few tenths of a mile before reaching its confluence with Mehoopany Creek. Rogers Hollow is 2.2 miles long. The stream joins Mehoopany Creek 4.58 miles upstream of its mouth. The elevation near the mouth of Rogers Hollow is 712 feet above sea level, while the elevation near the mouth of the valley is 728 feet above sea level.

The elevation near the creek's source is 1,253 feet above sea level. The valley of Rogers Hollow is broad for its length; the mountains that border it on three sides form a U-shaped boundary. The watershed of Rogers Hollow has an area of 2.44 square miles. The stream is within the United States Geological Survey quadrangle of Meshoppen, its mouth is located near Forkston. The entirety of Rogers Hollow is classified as a Coldwater Fishery, it is one of only three named direct tributaries of Mehoopany Creek to have this classification. The valley of Rogers Hollow was entered into the Geographic Names Information System on August 2, 1979, its identifier in the Geographic Names Information System is 1185392. The stream does not have a name of its own, but instead takes the name of the valley through which it flows. Appalachia Midstream Services, LLC. has been issued an Erosion and Sediment Control permit for which one of the receiving waterbodies is Rogers Hollow. In 2015 and in 2016, Rogers Hollow served as the downstream boundary for stocking of brook trout and brown trout on Mehoopany Creek.

Fox Hollow, next tributary of Mehoopany Creek going downstream North Branch Mehoopany Creek, next tributary of Mehoopany Creek going upstream List of rivers of Pennsylvania

Opoku Ware School

Opoku Ware School referred to as OWASS, is an all-boys high school in Santasi, a suburb of Kumasi, the capital of the Ashanti region of Ghana. It was established in 1952, as one of the five Catholic schools in Ghana that year; the school was named after Asante King Opoku Ware I. It is located in Santasi, along the Kumasi-Obuasi road; the patron saint of the school is Saint Thomas Aquinas. The motto of the school is "Deus Lux Scientiae", meaning "God is the Light of Knowledge"; the school is governed by a board, who appoints a headmaster. It has 10 houses, each headed by a housemaster, selected from the senior members of the teaching staff; every year an overwhelming number of the school's students qualify for admission into the various universities in Ghana and the world over. The current headmaster, Fr. Stephen Owusu Sekyere is a member of the Conference of Heads of Assisted Senior Secondary schools in Ghana. OWASS today is a much larger than its inception. In 1952, the school began with 60 boys and this number has risen to over 3,000 boys presently.

OWASS opened its doors on 28 February 1952 to 60 young boys to the school called Yaa Asantewaa College. Two weeks after the school opened, the name was changed to Opoku Ware School following consultations with and instructions from the Manhyia Palace; this was to honour one of the most illustrious Asante Kings, who in May 1744 approached the Roman Catholic Mission at the Elmina Castle to educate Asante youth. Katakyie Opoku Ware I, ruled Asanteman between 1720 and 1750. A past student of the school is known as Katakyie the title by which Nana Opoku Ware I was known, principally for the expansionist drive of Asanteman's frontiers, for which he became famously known; the late Rev. Fr. P. R. Burgess, An Oxford University graduate, was the first headmaster of the school, he was the son of an Irish draper and a former major in the British Army. He was a Polyglot and spoke Italian and French fluently, he spoke Aramaic. The boys spent their first night at St. Paul's house, the only dormitory in what was a desolate clearing.

Two small rooms next to that house served as their dining hall, their assembly hall and their classroom. By 1955, the school had five dormitories, ten classrooms, three science laboratories, an administration block, dining hall, library, 17 staff bungalows. There were 450 students attending the school. A Sixth Form was established in 1958, to provide courses in both the arts and sciences. A Cadet Corps was formed in 1960. Presently, the boys are housed in ten houses. There are over 74 classrooms, six science laboratories, two libraries, a science resource center, computer centre, language laboratory, French and German languages teaching centres. There are 36 staff bungalows, a block of eight flats and quarters for junior administrative staff and pantry boys. There is a staff canteen, a chapel, a dining hall, a sick bay. There are 10 houses named after various Saints in the Catholic faith, they are St. John, St Mathew, St Mark, St Luke, St Paul, St Peter, St James, St Andrews, St Philip and St Thomas.

The idea of sustainability was incorporated not only in the architecture of the houses but most buildings in the school. Each of the houses as well as most of the staff bungalow has an underground well which provides water for the boys when there is shortage of water; each house has a special sets of numbers it accepts. In addition to the housemaster, each house has a House Prefect and an assistant who are chosen from the oldest year. There are house gatherings once a week and happens in the morning before classes; the housemaster and boys have an opportunity to make announcements during house meetings. Each house participates in weekly morning mass at the school chapel on rotational basis. Many inter-house competitions occur in the field of sport. For much of the school's history, first year boys have to act as servants, to older boys, their duties includes cleaning, running errands. Rev. Father Burges In March 1961, Father Burgess was given his marching orders from Ghana, having preposterously been accused of interfering in the nation's politics.

In reality, he had refused to admit the son of a government minister who had not made the required grade. His principled stand cost him his job and parted him from his dear school, but his values continue to inspire. Leo Kalinauckas An Englishman of Lithuanian heritage, who ran the school between 1961 and 1963. Kwame Adu-Amankwah In 1963, the school had its first Ghanaian headmaster in the person of the late Mr. Kwame Adu-Amankwah, headmaster until 1969, when he left to join the new government of Dr. K. A. Busia as the Eastern Regional Minister, subsequently Ghana's Ambassador to Mexico. During his time, the school's academic performance improved remarkably, St. Peter House and the Gambrah Library were both constructed in 1966, he had a reputation as strict disciplinarian and dedicated Catholic. Stephen Oduro During his time, OWASS saw another wave of expansion, with a new dining hall, the Soweto classroom block, new staff bungalows and another dormitory, St. Andrew House. A new assembly hall and a new headmaster's bungalow were commenced.

Peter Owusu-Donkor He steered the school through the difficult mid-1980s, which saw unprecedented bush fires, fuel shortages and food crisis in the country A strong disciplinarian, he managed to guide the school during these stormy waters with great help from the Catholic Church. James Dapaah Berko As the first alumnus headmaster of the school, Mr. Berko went on to hold the post for a re

Coniferous resin salve

Spruce resin salve is a traditional wound treatment method that has gained new popularity again after clinical studies in the 21st century. The pure coniferous resin from Norway spruce is antimicrobial against a wide range of bacteria and fungi and positively associates with progressive healing of the wound; the improvement is not limited to the healing of the infected wounds only, suggesting that the resin has positive influences on mechanisms that play a role in wound repair. The first reports of using resins or rosins in medicine are from antiquity. Resins have been used for nearly every kind of human disease. First medical publication of the use of coniferous resin in medical practice in Finland is from 1578. Swedish physician Benedictus Olai wrote about natural resin in treatment of old leg wounds in the first medical textbook of the Swedish kingdom. Elias Lönnrot presented the first recipe for resin salve in the Flora Fennica book 1866. Natural resin is a complex composition of components such as resin acids and coumaric acid.

The levels of these components are dependent on what type of coniferous tree resin it is and when it is collected i.e. fresh physiological resin or matured resin collected from trunk of the treeIn vitro studies have shown that natural resin is antimicrobial against a broad spectrum of common bacteria and yeasts. The antimicrobial effect is based on resin acid that breaks down the cell wall and the cell membrane and because of that the cell can no longer produce energy and it dies. Microbiological studies have proven that resin is effective on antibiotic resistant microbes. Spruce resin gram negative bacteria. Reducing the bacterial and fungal contamination of the wound is known to improve the wound healing. In clinical tests, Resin salve has shown to improve wound healing and reduce pain on various wounds including pressure ulcers, complicated surgical wounds and diabetic foot ulcers. Persons allergic to resin acids should not use these types of product since it may cause them to develop a topical skin rash.

One unselected general population study of 793 Danish adults in 1992 shows a prevalence of colophony allergy of 0.4% in men and 1.0% in women

Harry P. Cross

Harry Parsons Cross was an American football player and coach. Cross played center for Yale University's football team from 1893 to 1895, he was an accomplished track and field athlete, competing in the hammer throw. In 1896, he was ranked as the second-best hammer thrower behind James Mitchell. In 1896, Cross became the head football coach at Stanford, guiding the team to a 2–1–1 record and a Big Game victory over Cal, he coached the team again in 1898. Cross graduated from Harvard Law School in 1900 and settled in Providence, Rhode Island, where he established a law firm and worked as an assistant attorney general for the state of Rhode Island, he died in 1955. List of college football head coaches with non-consecutive tenure Harry P. Cross at Find a Grave