September 11 attacks
The September 11 attacks were a series of four coordinated terrorist attacks by the Islamic terrorist group al-Qaeda against the United States on the morning of Tuesday, September 11, 2001. The attacks killed 2,996 people, injured over 6,000 others, caused at least $10 billion in infrastructure and property damage. Additional people died of 9/11-related cancer and respiratory diseases in the months and years following the attacks. Four passenger airliners operated by two major U. S. passenger air carriers —all of which departed from airports in the northeastern United States bound for California—were hijacked by 19 al-Qaeda terrorists. Two of the planes, American Airlines Flight 11 and United Airlines Flight 175, were crashed into the North and South towers of the World Trade Center complex in Lower Manhattan. Within an hour and 42 minutes, both 110-story towers collapsed. Debris and the resulting fires caused a partial or complete collapse of all other buildings in the World Trade Center complex, including the 47-story 7 World Trade Center tower, as well as significant damage to ten other large surrounding structures.
A third plane, American Airlines Flight 77, was crashed into the Pentagon in Arlington County, which led to a partial collapse of the building's west side. The fourth plane, United Airlines Flight 93, was flown toward Washington, D. C. but crashed into a field in Stonycreek Township near Shanksville, after its passengers thwarted the hijackers. 9/11 is the single deadliest terrorist attack in human history and the single deadliest incident for firefighters and law enforcement officers in the history of the United States, with 343 and 72 killed, respectively. Suspicion fell on al-Qaeda; the United States responded by launching the War on Terror and invaded Afghanistan to depose the Taliban, which had failed to comply with U. S. demands to extradite Osama bin expel al-Qaeda from Afghanistan. Many countries strengthened their anti-terrorism legislation and expanded the powers of law enforcement and intelligence agencies to prevent terrorist attacks. Although Osama bin Laden, al-Qaeda's leader denied any involvement, in 2004 he claimed responsibility for the attacks.
Al-Qaeda and bin Laden cited U. S. support of Israel, the presence of U. S. troops in Saudi Arabia, sanctions against Iraq as motives. After evading capture for a decade, bin Laden was located in Pakistan and killed by SEAL Team Six of the U. S. Navy in May 2011; the destruction of the World Trade Center and nearby infrastructure harmed the economy of Lower Manhattan and had a significant effect on global markets, which resulted in the closing of Wall Street until September 17 and the civilian airspace in the U. S. and Canada until September 13. Many closings and cancellations followed, out of respect or fear of further attacks. Cleanup of the World Trade Center site was completed in May 2002, the Pentagon was repaired within a year. On November 18, 2006, construction of One World Trade Center began at the World Trade Center site; the building was opened on November 3, 2014. Numerous memorials have been constructed, including the National September 11 Memorial & Museum in New York City, the Pentagon Memorial in Arlington County and the Flight 93 National Memorial in a field in Stonycreek Township near Shanksville, Pennsylvania.
Although not confirmed, there is evidence of alleged Saudi Arabian involvement in the attacks. Given as main evidence in these charges are the contents of the 28 redacted pages of the December 2002 Joint Inquiry into Intelligence Community Activities before and after the Terrorist Attacks of September 11, 2001 conducted by the Senate Select Committee on Intelligence and the House Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence; these 28 pages contain information regarding the material and financial assistance given to the hijackers and their affiliates leading up to the attacks by the Saudi Arabian government. The origins of al-Qaeda can be traced to 1979. Osama bin Laden helped organize Arab mujahideen to resist the Soviets. Under the guidance of Ayman al-Zawahiri, bin Laden became more radical. In 1996, bin Laden issued his first fatwā. In a second fatwā in 1998, bin Laden outlined his objections to American foreign policy with respect to Israel, as well as the continued presence of American troops in Saudi Arabia after the Gulf War.
Bin Laden used Islamic texts to exhort Muslims to attack Americans until the stated grievances are reversed. Muslim legal scholars "have throughout Islamic history unanimously agreed that the jihad is an individual duty if the enemy destroys the Muslim countries", according to bin Laden. Bin Laden orchestrated the attacks and denied involvement but recanted his false statements. Al Jazeera broadcast a statement by bin Laden on September 16, 2001, stating, "I stress that I have not carried out this act, which appears to have been carried out by individuals with their own motivation." In November 2001, U. S. forces recovered a videotape from a destroyed house in Afghanistan. In the video, bin Laden admits foreknowledge of the attacks. On December 27, 2001, a second bin Laden video was released. In the video, he said: It has become clear that the West in general and America in particular have an unspeakable hatred for Islam.... It is the hatred of crusaders. Terrorism against America deserves to be praised because it was a response to injustice, aimed at forcing America to stop its support for Israel, which kills our people....
A sister ship is a ship of the same class or of identical design to another ship. Such vessels share a nearly identical hull and superstructure layout, similar size, comparable features and equipment, they share a common naming theme, either being named after the same type of thing or with some kind of alliteration. Sisters become more differentiated during their service as their equipment are separately altered. For instance, the U. S. warships USS Iowa, USS New Jersey, USS Missouri, USS Wisconsin are all sister ships, each being an Iowa-class battleship. The most famous sister ships were RMS Titanic and HMHS Britannic; as with some other liners, the sisters worked as running mates. Other sister ships include the Royal Caribbean International's Explorer of the Seas and Adventure of the Seas. Half-sister refers with some significant differences. One example of half-sisters are the First World War-era British Courageous-class battlecruisers where the first two ships had four 15-inch guns, but the last ship, HMS Furious, had two 18-inch guns instead.
Another example is the American Essex-class aircraft carriers of the Second World War that came in "long-hull" and "short-hull" versions. Notable airships include the American sister ships USS Akron and USS Macon, the German Hindenburg class airship's Hindenburg and Graf Zeppelin II; the accepted commercial distinctions of a sister ship are the following: Type: Identical main type Dry weight: ± 10% on the DWT Builder: Identical shipbuilding company name The critical overriding criteria are the same hull design. For example, the popular TESS-57 standard design built by Tsunishi Shipbuilding are built in Japan and the Philippines. All the ships of this design are classed as sister ships; the International Maritime Organization defined sister ship in IMO resolution MSC/Circ.1158 in 2006. Criteria included these: A sister ship is a ship built by the same yard from the same plans; the acceptable deviation of lightship displacement should be between 1 and 2% of the lightship displacement of the lead ship, depending on the length of the ship.
Ship naming and launching Ship commissioning
Spain the Kingdom of Spain, is a country located in Europe. Its continental European territory is situated on the Iberian Peninsula, its territory includes two archipelagoes: the Canary Islands off the coast of Africa, the Balearic Islands in the Mediterranean Sea. The African enclaves of Ceuta, Peñón de Vélez de la Gomera make Spain the only European country to have a physical border with an African country. Several small islands in the Alboran Sea are part of Spanish territory; the country's mainland is bordered to the south and east by the Mediterranean Sea except for a small land boundary with Gibraltar. With an area of 505,990 km2, Spain is the largest country in Southern Europe, the second largest country in Western Europe and the European Union, the fourth largest country in the European continent. By population, Spain is the fifth in the European Union. Spain's capital and largest city is Madrid. Modern humans first arrived in the Iberian Peninsula around 35,000 years ago. Iberian cultures along with ancient Phoenician, Greek and Carthaginian settlements developed on the peninsula until it came under Roman rule around 200 BCE, after which the region was named Hispania, based on the earlier Phoenician name Spn or Spania.
At the end of the Western Roman Empire the Germanic tribal confederations migrated from Central Europe, invaded the Iberian peninsula and established independent realms in its western provinces, including the Suebi and Vandals. The Visigoths would forcibly integrate all remaining independent territories in the peninsula, including Byzantine provinces, into the Kingdom of Toledo, which more or less unified politically and all the former Roman provinces or successor kingdoms of what was documented as Hispania. In the early eighth century the Visigothic Kingdom fell to the Moors of the Umayyad Islamic Caliphate, who arrived to rule most of the peninsula in the year 726, leaving only a handful of small Christian realms in the north and lasting up to seven centuries in the Kingdom of Granada; this led to many wars during a long reconquering period across the Iberian Peninsula, which led to the creation of the Kingdom of Leon, Kingdom of Castile, Kingdom of Aragon and Kingdom of Navarre as the main Christian kingdoms to face the invasion.
Following the Moorish conquest, Europeans began a gradual process of retaking the region known as the Reconquista, which by the late 15th century culminated in the emergence of Spain as a unified country under the Catholic Monarchs. Until Aragon had been an independent kingdom, which had expanded toward the eastern Mediterranean, incorporating Sicily and Naples, had competed with Genoa and Venice. In the early modern period, Spain became the world's first global empire and the most powerful country in the world, leaving a large cultural and linguistic legacy that includes more than 570 million Hispanophones, making Spanish the world's second-most spoken native language, after Mandarin Chinese. During the Golden Age there were many advancements in the arts, with world-famous painters such as Diego Velázquez; the most famous Spanish literary work, Don Quixote, was published during the Golden Age. Spain hosts the world's third-largest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites. Spain is a secular parliamentary democracy and a parliamentary monarchy, with King Felipe VI as head of state.
It is a major developed country and a high income country, with the world's fourteenth largest economy by nominal GDP and sixteenth largest by purchasing power parity. It is a member of the United Nations, the European Union, the Eurozone, the Council of Europe, the Organization of Ibero-American States, the Union for the Mediterranean, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, the Schengen Area, the World Trade Organization and many other international organisations. While not an official member, Spain has a "Permanent Invitation" to the G20 summits, participating in every summit, which makes Spain a de facto member of the group; the origins of the Roman name Hispania, from which the modern name España was derived, are uncertain due to inadequate evidence, although it is documented that the Phoenicians and Carthaginians referred to the region as Spania, therefore the most accepted etymology is a Semitic-Phoenician one.
Down the centuries there have been a number of accounts and hypotheses: The Renaissance scholar Antonio de Nebrija proposed that the word Hispania evolved from the Iberian word Hispalis, meaning "city of the western world". Jesús Luis Cunchillos argues that the root of the term span is the Phoenician word spy, meaning "to forge metals". Therefore, i-spn-ya would mean "the land where metals are forged", it may be a derivation of the Phoenician I-Shpania, meaning "island of rabbits", "land of rabbits" or "edge", a reference to Spain's location at the end of the Mediterranean. The word in question means "Hyrax" due to Phoenicians confusing the two animals. Hispania may derive from the poetic use of the term Hesperia, reflecting the Greek perception of Italy as a "western land" or "land of the setting sun" (Hesperia
Experimental Squadron (Royal Navy)
The Experimental Squadrons known as Evolutionary Squadrons of the Royal Navy were groups of ships sent out in the 1830s and 1840s to test new techniques of ship design, armament and propulsion against old ones. They came about as a result of conflict between the "empirical" school of shipbuilding, the "scientific" school led by the first School of Naval Architecture, the "traditional" school led by master shipwrights from the royal dockyards. Admiral Edward Codrington formed a "Squadron of Evolution" for conducting trials on new hull forms; the squadron was formed in 1831 as part of a strategy to sit off the Belgian coast and to encourage a French withdrawal. The French were there to support the Belgians against the Dutch. On the ships had to reinforce a British squadron operating in the Tagus, off Lisbon as constitutionalists and absolutist factions waged a civil war ashore; the Experimental Squadron under command of Sir Pulteney Malcolm held trials in July 1832 off the Irish coast, again on 14 August off the Scilly Islands.
The trial of 13 July was between the Paddy from Cork. The Paddy lengthened to 99 tons, winning by twelve minutes or nearly one mile. Determined to prove William Symonds' designs to be failures, the new Tory Board of Admiralty sent out successive "Experimental Squadrons" in the mid-1840s. In 1844, a brig squadron left Portsmouth on 22 October, followed three days by a ship of the line squadron under Rear-admiral William Bowles; the ships of the line were joined at Lisbon on 3 November by Symonds' two-decker Albion, all four arrived back in Portsmouth on 27 November, 9 days before the brig squadron. On 15 July the following year, the elderly Rear-Admiral Hyde Parker led the pre-Symonds Trafalgar, St Vincent and Canopus, along with Symonds' Queen, Albion and Superb, out of Portsmouth Harbour; the squadron arrived at Cork on 7 September, left on the 18th, arrived in Plymouth on the 20th. In Plymouth, the same squadron was transferred to Rear-Admiral Sir Samuel Pym and sailed on 21 October, returning to the same port on 3 December.
The third and final 1845 cruise lasted 43 days and consisted of the two deckers from the previous two, accompanied by a brig from the 1844 squadron, Daring. It sailed from Plymouth on 21 October, not by an admiral, but by successive captains in the squadron acting as commodore. A final set of cruises occurred in 1846, with a "squadron of evolution" made up of steam-ships and sailing ships of the line. Outside factors in the 1840s tests, such as individual captains' political bias or stowage's influence on how well a ship sailed, were underappreciated and so in October 1847 - in the face of the Board's institution of a "Committee of Reference" the previous year to oversee him and modify his designs according to the Board's wishes - Symonds resigned his role. Experimental Squadrons at the William Loney website Media related to Experimental Squadron at Wikimedia Commons
Civil Guard (Spain)
The Civil Guard is the oldest law enforcement agency covering the whole of Spain. It is organised as a military force charged with police duties under the authority of both the Ministry of the Interior and the Ministry of Defence; the corps is colloquially known as the benemérita. In annual surveys, it ranks as the national institution most valued by Spaniards followed by other law enforcement agencies and the military, it undertakes specific foreign peace-keeping missions. As a national police force, the Guardia Civil is comparable today to the French National Gendarmerie, the Italian Carabinieri, the Portuguese National Republican Guard and the Dutch Royal Marechaussee as it is part of the European Gendarmerie Force; as part of its daily duties, the Guardia Civil patrols rural areas and investigates crimes there, whilst the Policía Nacional deals with safety in urban situations. Most cities have a Policia Municipal; the three forces are nationally coordinated by the Ministry of the Interior.
The Guardia Civil is stationed at casas cuartel, which are both minor residential garrisons and equipped police stations. The Guardia Civil was founded as a national police force in 1844 during the reign of Queen Isabel II of Spain by a Navarrese aristocrat, The 2nd Duque de Ahumada and 5th Marqués de las Amarillas, an 11th generation descendant of Mexican emperor Moctezuma II. Law enforcement had been the responsibility of the "Holy Brotherhood", an organization of municipal leagues. Corruption was pervasive in the Brotherhood, where officials were subject to local political influence, the system was ineffective outside the major towns and cities. Criminals could escape justice by moving from one district to another; the first Guardia police academy was established in the town of Valdemoro, south of Madrid, in 1855. Graduates were given the Guardia's now famous tricorne or Cavaliers hat as part of their duty dress uniform; the Guardia was charged with putting an end to brigandage on the nation's highways in the province of Andalusia, which had become notorious for numerous robberies and holdups of businessmen, peddlers and foreign tourists.
Banditry in this region was so endemic that the Guardia found it difficult to eradicate it completely. As late as 1884, one traveler of the day reported that it still existed in and around the city of Málaga: The favorite and original method of the Malagueño highwayman is to creep up behind his victim, muffle his head and arms in a cloak, relieve him of his valuables. Should he resist, he is disembowelled with the dexterous thrust of a knife... wears a profusion of amulets and charms...all of undoubted efficacy against the dagger of an adversary or the rifle of a Civil Guard. The Guardia Civil was given the political task of restoring and maintaining land ownership and servitude among the peasantry of Spain by the King, who desired to stop the spread of anti-monarchist movements inspired by the French Revolution; the end of the First Carlist War combined with the unequal distribution of land that resulted from prime minister Juan Álvarez Mendizábal's first Desamortización had left the Spanish landscape scarred by the destruction of civil war and social unrest, the government was forced to take drastic action to suppress spontaneous revolts by a restive peasantry.
Based on the model of light infantry used by Napoléon in his European campaigns, the Guardia Civil was transformed into a military force of high mobility that could be deployed irrespective of inhospitable conditions, able to patrol and pacify large areas of the countryside. Its members, called'guardias', maintain to this day a basic patrol unit formed by two agents called a "pareja", in which one of the'guardias' will initiate the intervention while the second'guardia' serves as a backup to the first. During the Spanish Civil War, the Guardia Civil forces split evenly between those who remained loyal to the Republic, 53% of the members and the rebel forces. However, the highest authority of the corps, Inspector General Sebastián Pozas, remained loyal to the republican government, their contribution to the Republican war efforts were invaluable, but proved effective on both sides in urban combat. The proportion of Guardia Civil members that supported the rebel faction at the time of the 1936 coup was high compared to other Spanish police corps such as the Guardias de Asalto and the Carabineros, where when the Civil War began over 70% of their members stayed loyal to the Spanish Republic.
Loyalist General of the Guardia Civil José Aranguren, commander of the 4th Organic Division and Military Governor of Valencia, was arrested by the victorious Francoist troops when they entered the city of Valencia at the end of March 1939. After being court-martialed, General José Aranguren was given the death penalty and was executed on 22 April in the same year. Following the Civil War, under the authoritarian government of General Francisco Franco, the Guardia Civil was reinforced with the members of the Carabineros, the "Royal Corps of Coast and Frontier Carabiniers", following the disbandment of the carabinier corps; the involvement of Guardia Civil figures in politics continued right up until the end of the twentieth century: on 23 February 1981, Lt. Col. Antonio Tejero Molina, a member of the Guardia Civil, participated with other military forces in the failed 23-F coup d'état. Along with 200 members o
Fishery Protection Squadron
The Fishery Protection Squadron is a front-line squadron of the Royal Navy with responsibility for patrolling the UK's Extended Fisheries Zone. The squadron, with headquarters at Portsmouth Naval Base, are equipped with four River-class patrol vessels; the squadron is the oldest front-line squadron in the Royal Navy, boasts Admiral Lord Nelson amongst those who have served in it. The squadron was based on the coast of North America and the UK, patrolling much of the North Atlantic against French and American incursions. Over the past hundred years it has been slimmed down to follow a more policing-oriented approach, dealing with infringements by civilian fishermen. Despite this, it still has a strong military role, as evidenced in its role in the Cod Wars of the 1960s-70s. Royal Navy officers assigned to the Fishery Protection Squadron have a secondary role as British Sea Fisheries officers. There is a formal contract between the Ministry of Defence, the Marine and Fisheries Agency and DEFRA that allows the squadron to conduct inspections of all fishing vessels in all UK waters.
Fishery Protection Squadron vessels can stop British fishing vessels in international waters. In the 2008/09 contract year, the squadron spent 700 days at sea on patrol, conducting 1,102 inspections. From the inspections, 231 ships broke EU law; as a result, 144 verbal warnings, 33 written warnings and 10 financial administrative penalties were handed out. The most serious breaches resulted in eight vessels being detained at UK ports; when a vessel is detained, the captain of the squadron ship contacts the DEFRA operation centre in London, which formulates a decision based on information provided to it by ships, district fishery inspectors and fishermen, relays this decision back to the fishery protection ship. In 2008, 60% of all fish caught in the EU were caught within British jurisdiction. With as many as 500 fishing ships in British waters at any one time, including dozens from other EU countries, it is acknowledged to be a difficult task to patrol UK fishing grounds. There is monthly rotating aerial surveillance of the entire fishing area under call-sign "Watchdog", with aircraft provided by Direct Flight Aviation.
Each aircraft transmits the identity and position of the vessel to squadron ships, combined with satellite data from navigational databases which allows the squadron to build a surface picture of fishing activity. Each day, data from the inspections is sent to fisheries managers; the managers form part of several agencies which co-ordinate on a super-national level to monitor the fish stocks, negotiates fishing agreements and plan conservation measures. A fishing trawler will foul another's nets, or the sensitive border areas in the middle of the English Channel will be the focus of a dispute between trawlers; these disputes can escalate to attempted rammings, disruption of each other's fishing, shining searchlights into bridges and firing flare guns at other trawlers. In these circumstances ships of the squadron are required to separate the trawlers and act as an informal arbitrator in the dispute to prevent further conflict or injury, their rules of engagement reflect this role. When a vessel is inspected, a boarding team from the FPS ship is sent.
The team is formed of a Royal Navy and British Sea Fisheries-qualified officer, an assistant boarding officer, a small security team. The officer sent could include the commanding officer, executive officer or first lieutenant, assisted by the gunnery officer, XO's assistant or operations officer, they work together to examine documentation, ensure the fishing gear are of legal size, liaise with the FPS and DEFRA via radio. The Fishery Protection Squadron is the oldest squadron of the Royal Navy and can be traced back to 1481, although some sources, including the Royal Navy, date it to 1379. Before an organised navy was established, the herring fishermen in Great Yarmouth fought skirmishes with foreign fishermen, who would be hanged as pirates from the gallows at Cross Sands if caught. During the reign of Edward IV and the Wars of the Roses, English fishermen were beginning to fish in the waters around Iceland, the King ordered that minimal protection be provided by and paid for by levies from the fishing industry.
Richard III and Henry VII continued this, but this protection was not enough: 1,200 English herring fishermen were killed in a single action by Flemish warships, the Scots had difficulties with Dutch fishermen. Because of these and other incidents, by the 16th century it was clear that an organised force was required. A petition was put forward to the Lord High Admiral for two; as a result, the first Fishery Protection ship was commissioned for an annual fee to the Admiralty of £100, paid for by the fishermen of Yarmouth. It took the form of a wafting ship, which patrolled the North Sea fishing grounds during the herring season; this ship was replaced in 1659 by a dedicated fishery protection ship for Yarmouth, with a crew of 25 and an armament of "swords, half-pikes, muskets and an ample supply of large stones". In the 18th century a similar arrangement was brokered by Scottish fishermen from George III for an annual payment of £100; this amount is still paid today, although as a token gesture.
Samuel Pepys was connected with Fishery Protection: he received an annual honorarium for efforts to gain similar protection on behalf of English fishermen. Lord Nelson, before he became famous, captained HMS Albemarle in 1781 as part of the Fishery Protection Squadron in North America, capturing the U. S. fis
The Channel Fleet and known as the Channel Squadron was the Royal Navy formation of warships that defended the waters of the English Channel from 1854 to 1909 and 1914 to 1915. Throughout the course of Royal Navy's history there had been different squadrons stationed in home waters. One of the earliest known naval formations to be based at Plymouth was called the Western Squadron, the forerunner of the Channel Squadron, known as the Channel Fleet. In 1650 Captain William Penn, Commander-in-Chief, was charged with guarding the Channel from Beachy Head to Lands End with six ships; this system continued following the Restoration. It was the start of. In 1690 the squadron operated out of Plymouth Dockyard during wartime periods, for most of the 18th century and early 19th century. In 1854 The Channel Squadron and sometimes known as the Particular Service Squadron was established; the Channel Squadron only became a permanent formation in 1858. During the 19th century, as the French developed Cherbourg as a base for steam-powered ships, the Royal Navy developed Portland Harbour as a base for the fleet.
The harbour was built between 1849 and 1872 when the Royal Navy created a breakwater made of blocks from local quarries on the Isle of Portland. With the amelioration of Anglo-French relations, the rise of German militarism towards 1900, the need for a Channel Formation diminished and the main European naval arena shifted to the North Sea. Admiral Sir Arthur Wilson was "Senior Officer in Command of the Channel Squadron" from 1901 to 1903, his subordinate flag officer in that squadron was the Second-in-Command, who commanded a division of battleships. For the period 1858 to 1903 the Channel squadron was incorrectly referred to as the Channel Fleet. On 17 April 1903 The Right Hon. Lord Charles Beresford was appointed Vice-Admiral Commanding, Channel Squadron. On 6 May 1903 Admiral Beresford was informed by the Admiralty "that for the future the Channel Squadron shall be known as the Channel Fleet." On 14 December 1904 the Channel Fleet was re-styled the'Atlantic Fleet' and the Home Fleet became the'Channel Fleet'.
On 24 March 1909, under a fleet re-organisation, the Channel Fleet became the 2nd Division of the Home Fleet. Vice-Admiral Sir Charles Napier, Rear-Admiral, Henry Chads, Rear-Admiral Sir Richard Saunders Dundas, Rear-Admiral Sir Michael Seymour. Post holders have included: Vice Admiral Sir Charles Fremantle Vice Admiral Sir Robert Stopford Vice Admiral Sir Robert Smart Vice Admiral Sir Sydney Dacres Vice Admiral Sir Hastings Yelverton Vice Admiral Frederick Warden Vice Admiral Sir Thomas Symonds Vice Admiral Sir Hastings Yelverton Vice Admiral Sir George Wellesley Vice Admiral Sir Geoffrey Hornby Vice Admiral Sir Beauchamp Seymour Vice Admiral Lord John Hay Vice Admiral Lord Hood Vice Admiral Sir William Dowell Vice Admiral The Duke of Edinburgh Vice Admiral Sir Algernon de Horsey Vice Admiral Charles Fellowes Vice Admiral Sir William Hewett Vice Admiral Sir John Baird Vice Admiral Sir Michael Culme-Seymour Vice Admiral Sir Henry Fairfax Vice Admiral Sir Robert Fitzroy Vice Admiral Lord Walter Kerr Vice Admiral Sir Henry Stephenson Vice Admiral Sir Harry Rawson Note:Channel Squadron - renamed The Channel Fleet, September, 1901 Post holders included: Rear-Admiral Henry Chads, 1 October 1869.
Rear-Admiral William M. Dowell, 1877 Rear-Admiral Henry Boys, 1878 Rear-Admiral The Hon. Henry C. Glyn, 20 June 1881. Rear-Admiral Sir Francis W. Sullivan, 14 August 1882 Rear-Admiral John C. Wilson, 1 April 1883 Rear-Admiral William H. Whyte, 13 May 1884 Rear-Admiral Algernon C. F. Heneage, 3 July 1885 – 7 August 1886 Rear-Admiral The Hon. Edmund R. Fremantle, 9 August 1886 Rear-Admiral Charles J. Rowley, 18 August 1887 Rear-Admiral St. George Caulfield d′Arcy-Irvine, 1 September 1888 Rear-Admiral Richard E. Tracey, 12 September 1889 Rear-Admiral Loftus F. Jones, 12 September 1890 Rear-Admiral Edward S. Adeane, 15 September 1891 Rear-Admiral Edward H. Seymour, 16 September 1892 – 25 April 1894 Rear-Admiral Alfred T. Dale, 25 April 1894 – 20 April 1895 Rear-Admiral Arthur H. Alington, 1 May 1895 Rear-Admiral Armand T. Powlett, 1 May 1896 – 19 May 1897 Rear-Admiral John Fellowes, 19 May 1897 Rear-Admiral John W. Brackenbury, 1 June 1898 Rear-Admiral Arthur D. Fanshawe, 1 June 1899 – 31 May 1900 Rear-Admiral Albert B.
Jenkings, 1 June 1900 - 5 June 1901 Rear-Admiral Sir William A. D. Acland, Bart. 5 June 1901 – September 1901 Vice Admiral Sir Arthur Wilson Admiral Lord Charles Beresford Admiral Sir Arthur Wilson 14 December 1904 Admiral Lord Charles Beresford Note Channel Fleet is re-named Atlantic Fleet 1909-1914 Vice Admiral Sir Lewis Bayly Vice Admiral The Hon. Sir. Alexander E. Bethell Post holders included: Rear-Admiral the Hon. Assheton G. Curzon-Howe: September 1901, - 5 June 1903 Rear-Admiral the Hon. Hedworth Lambton: 5 June 1903 - 25 June 1904 Rear-Admiral Francis C. B. Bridgeman: 25 June 1904 - May, 1905 Rear-Admiral Charles J. Barlow: May, 1905 - December, 1905 Vice-Admiral Sir Arthur W. Moore: December, 1905 - 5 December 1906 Vice-Admiral the Hon. Assheton G. Curzon-Howe: 5 December 1906 - 23 February 1907 Vice-Admiral Sir Reginald N. Custance: 23 February 1907 - 12 June 1908 Vice-Admiral Sir A. Berkeley Milne: 12 June 1908 Post holders included: Rear-Admiral Sir Richard Poore,: February, 1905 - 16 November 1905 Rear-Admiral Robert L. Groome: 16