Niederstotzingen is a small city in the district of Heidenheim in Baden-Württemberg in southern Germany. It is situated 17 km southeast of Heidenheim, 24 km northeast of Ulm; the city consists of villages. There are 4,850 inhabitants; the region around Niederstotzingen has been inhabited since pre-historic times. Finds of mammoth ivory carvings in the area have been dated to 35,000 BC; the main source of these carvings is the Vogelherdhöhle, a cave near modern Niederstotzingen which may have been used as a rest area and shelter for nearly 30,000 years. The cave was discovered in 1931 by a senior railroad clerk and historian, Hermann Mohn, as he explored the hills above the city. An expedition in 1931, led by Gustav Riek, discovered eleven carved animal figures that dated from around 32,000 years ago. A 2005–2006 expedition by the university of Tübingen discovered several additional statues including one, an ivory horse, which may be one of the oldest human artworks in the world. In 2006 another sculpture was discovered.
This one, a mammoth carved from mammoth ivory, was dated from 35,000 years ago, making it the oldest artwork in the world. Additionally, nearby caves in the Lonetal have sources of ancient carvings; the Lone valley may have been home to two different types of humans. It appears that both the Neanderthal and the Cro-Magnon may have occupied the valley. Professor Riek, who discovered many of the early carvings, wrote a documentary novel entitled Die Mammutjäger im Lonetal which included violent conflicts between the Bärentöter and the Mammutjäger. Before the Romans entered Germania, the Celts occupied the Lone Valley. A Celtic Viereckschanze or "four-sided earthworks" has been discovered near modern Niederstotzingen. From the Roman era, a villa rustica has been discovered between Sontheim; the villa was located along the old Roman road. During construction in the south part of town, in 1962, a small cemetery from the half of the 7th century was discovered; the Alamannian cemetery contained the remains of several nobles as well as their animals and valuables.
The name Stotzingin first appears in 1143. During the High Middle Ages, a minor noble family named itself after the city; the family, still in existence, ruled Niederstotzingen until 1330. In 1366 Emperor Charles IV gave Niederstotzingen to Wilhelm von Riedheim with a directive to expand and fortify the city; the city was granted the status of a city which it has held since. In 1400 the von Leimberg family acquired the rights to rule the city. Only fifty years the rights went to the knightly family von Westernach; the von Westernachs traded Niederstotzingen in 1457 to the vom Stain family in exchange for Konzenberg. The Stain family developed their fief over the following centuries, they granted several important privileges including a guarantee that the citizens of the city couldn't be judged in foreign courts. They sought to use the wealth of the city to become free Imperial Knights, to only owe loyalty and taxes to the Emperor. However, in 1550 the inheritance of Bernhard vom Stain was split into two pieces: the burgschlossische and the steinhausische half.
In 1565 Heinrich vom Stain ordered his half of the town to convert. His brother in the steinhausischen half remained Catholic; the citizens of the city were therefore split over religion for centuries. The Niederstotzinger Church was used by both faiths until 1960. After the death of the childless Heinrich vom Stain in 1605 his part of Niederstotzingen was granted to his cousin Leopold Karl, who ruled in the neighboring city of Bächingen. Leopold split his half of Niederstotzingen in 1624, between his two sons. Inside the small city wall of Niederstotzingen there were now three related lords ruling a section of town. There was the burgschlossische and the new freihausische rulers. In 1661 the steinhausische section was sold to the Kaisheim Abbey. In 1799 the last holder of the freihausische section died childless and the section was reunited with the burgschlossische under the Graf Karl Leopold vom Stain, he died in 1809 without any children and his territory as well as his newly built castle went to his nephew Graf Joseph Alexander von Maldeghem.
The Schloss Niederstotzingen is owned by this family, which had purchased the villages of Oberstotzingen and Stetten to expand their holdings. Schloss Niederstotzingen, Neoclassic structure from 1780, built on the location of the old castle by the Graf vom Stain. Although the castle in the property of von Maldeghem family, was declared an indivisible and permanent possession of the family in 1843, the schloss may be sold. Schloss Oberstotzingen, built in the 16th century by the von Jahrsdorf family, today it is a castle hotel. Baroque Church St. Martin in Oberstotzingen, built in 1761 on Roman wall foundations. Andreas Church in Niederstotzingen Schloss Stetten, built in 1583 for the von Riedheim family. In 1712 rebuilt in the baroque style by Valerian Brenner. Baroque pilgrimage church in Stetten, built in 1733, with a copy of the Black Madonna, found in Einsiedeln, Switzerland Ruins of Burg Kaltenburg in Lonetal Vogelherdhöhle in Loneta
A teddy bear is a soft toy in the form of a bear. Developed simultaneously by toymakers Morris Michtom in the U. S. and Richard Steiff in Germany in the early years of the 20th century, named after President Theodore "Teddy" Roosevelt, the teddy bear became an iconic children's toy, celebrated in story and film. Since the creation of the first teddy bears which sought to imitate the form of real bear cubs, "teddies" have varied in form, style and material, they have become collector's items, with rarer "teddies" appearing at public auctions. Teddy bears are among the most popular gifts for children and are given to adults to signify love, congratulations, or sympathy; the name teddy bear comes from former United States President Theodore Roosevelt, known as "Teddy". The name originated from an incident on a bear hunting trip in Mississippi in November 1902, to which Roosevelt was invited by Mississippi Governor Andrew H. Longino. There were several other hunters competing, most of them had killed an animal.
A suite of Roosevelt's attendants, led by Holt Collier, cornered and tied an American black bear to a willow tree after a long exhausting chase with hounds. They suggested that he should shoot it, he refused to shoot the bear himself, deeming this unsportsmanlike, but instructed that the bear be killed to put it out of its misery, it became the topic of a political cartoon by Clifford Berryman in The Washington Post on November 16, 1902. While the initial cartoon of an adult black bear lassoed by a handler and a disgusted Roosevelt had symbolic overtones issues of that and other Berryman cartoons made the bear smaller and cuter. Morris Michtom was inspired to create a teddy bear, he created a tiny soft bear cub and put it in the shop window with a sign "Teddy's bear," after sending a bear to Roosevelt and receiving permission to use his name. The toys were an immediate success and Michtom founded the Ideal Novelty and Toy Co. At the same time in Germany, the Steiff firm, unaware of Michtom's bear, produced a stuffed bear from Richard Steiff's designs.
Steiff exhibited the toy at the Leipzig Toy Fair in March 1903, where it was seen by Hermann Berg, a buyer for George Borgfeldt & Company in New York. He ordered 3,000 to be sent to the United States. Although Steiff's records show that the bears were produced, they are not recorded as arriving in the U. S. and no example of the type, "55 PB", has been seen, leading to the story that the bears were shipwrecked. However, the story is disputed – author Günther Pfeiffer notes that it was only recorded in 1953 and says it is more that the 55 PB was not sufficiently durable to survive until the present day. Although Steiff and Michtom were both making teddy bears at around the same time, neither would have known of the other's creation due to poor transatlantic communication. North American educator Seymour Eaton wrote the children's book series The Roosevelt Bears, while composer John Walter Bratton wrote an instrumental "The Teddy Bears' Picnic", a "characteristic two-step", in 1907, which had words written to it by lyricist Jimmy Kennedy in 1932.
Early teddy bears were made to look like real bears, with extended snouts and beady eyes. Modern teddy bears tend to have larger eyes and foreheads and smaller noses, babylike features that enhance the toy's cuteness. Teddy bears are manufactured to represent different species of bear, such as polar bears and grizzly bears, as well as pandas. While early teddy bears were covered in tawny mohair fur, modern teddy bears are manufactured in a wide variety of commercially available fabrics, most synthetic fur, but velour, cotton and canvas. Commercially made, mass-produced teddy bears are predominantly made as toys for children; these bears either have safety joints for attaching arms and heads, or else the joints are sewn and not articulated. They must have securely fastened eyes; these "plush" bears must meet a rigid standard of construction in order to be marketed to children in the United States and in the European Union. There are companies, like Steiff, that sell handmade collectible bears that can be purchased in stores or over the Internet.
The majority of teddy bears are manufactured in countries such as Indonesia. A few small, single-person producers in the United States make unique, non-mass-produced teddy bears. In the United Kingdom one small, traditional teddy bear company remains, established in 1930. Mohair, the fur shorn or combed from a breed of long haired goats, is woven into cloth and trimmed. Alpaca teddy bears are made from the pelt of an alpaca. In addition to mohair and alpaca, there is a huge selection of "plush" or synthetic fur made for the teddy bear market. Both these types of fur are commercially produced. Making of a teddy bear Teddy bears are a favourite form of soft toy for amateur toy makers, with many patterns commercially produced or available online. Many "teddies" are home-made as gifts or for charity, while "teddy bear artists" create "teddies" for retail, decorating them individually with commercial and recycled ornaments such as sequins and ribbons. Sewn teddy bears are made from a wide range of materials including felt and velour.
While many are stitched, others are knitted or crocheted. Michtom's jointed mohair "Teddy's bear" was popular when first designed and remains so with collectors today. Fake bears look suspiciously new and unhandled: their noses are unw
Reichstag (German Empire)
The Reichstag was the Parliament of Germany from 1871 to 1918. Legislation was shared between the Reichstag and the Bundesrat, the Imperial Council of the reigning princes of the German States; the Reichstag had no formal right to appoint or dismiss governments, but by contemporary standards it was considered a modern and progressive parliament. All German men over 25 years of age were eligible to vote, members of the Reichstag were elected by general and secret suffrage. Members were elected in single-member constituencies by majority vote. If no candidate received a majority of the votes, a runoff election took place. In 1871, the Reichstag consisted of 382 members; the term of office was set at three years, in 1888 this was extended to five years. The Reichstag was opened once a year by the Emperor. In order to dissolve parliament, the approval of the Imperial Council and the emperor were required. Members of parliament enjoyed legal indemnity; the Reichstag first met in the Landtag of Prussia building in Berlin.
From 16 October 1871 until 04 November 1894 it met in a former porcelain factory at number 4, Leipziger Straße. That 23-year "temporary" location was the scene of passionate political debates that are associated with names like Bebel and Bismarck; the premises were considered too small, so in 1871 a decision was made to construct a new building. In 1872, there was an architectural competition. However, work did not start for some years, due to problems with purchasing land and to disagreements between Emperor Wilhelm I, Otto von Bismarck, members of the Reichstag, about how the construction should be carried out. Ten years on, in 1882, another architectural competition was announced, this time with some 200 architects participating; the winner of the second competition was the Frankfurt architect Paul Wallot, who would see his plan executed. On 29 June 1884, the building's foundation stone was laid by the Emperor; the new building was acclaimed for its cupola of steel and glass, an engineering masterpiece of the time.
In 1888, before it was completed, Emperor Wilhelm I died, 1888 was the Year of the Three Emperors. The third of these, Wilhelm II, objected to a much greater extent to the concept of parliament as a democratic institution; the new building opened in 1894. The famous inscription – DEM DEUTSCHEN VOLKE – was added in 1916 by Peter Behrens, it still towers above the monumental entrance. Ludwig Bamberger Theodor Barth August Bebel Rudolf von Bennigsen Eduard Bernstein Albert Hänel Wilhelm Hasenclever Wojciech Korfanty Karl Liebknecht Wilhelm Liebknecht Ludwig Löwe Hermann von Mallinckrodt Helmuth Karl Bernhard von Moltke Theodor Mommsen Friedrich von Payer August Reichensperger Peter Reichensperger Eugen Richter Burghard von Schorlemer-Alst Hermann Schulze-Delitzsch Rudolf Virchow Heinrich von Treitschke Ludwig Windthorst Reichstag Weimar National Assembly Reichstag Höfe und Residenzen im spätmittelalterlichen Reich. Ein Handbuch Verhandlungen des Reichstags des Norddeutschen Bundes und des Deutschen Reiches – Stenographische Berichte 1867–1895
Free imperial city
In the Holy Roman Empire, the collective term free and imperial cities worded free imperial city, was used from the fifteenth century to denote a self-ruling city that had a certain amount of autonomy and was represented in the Imperial Diet. An imperial city held the status of Imperial immediacy, as such, was subordinate only to the Holy Roman Emperor, as opposed to a territorial city or town, subordinate to a territorial prince – be it an ecclesiastical lord or a secular prince; the evolution of some German cities into self-ruling constitutional entities of the Empire was slower than that of the secular and ecclesiastical princes. In the course of the 13th and 14th centuries, some cities were promoted by the emperor to the status of Imperial Cities for fiscal reasons; those cities, founded by the German kings and emperors in the 10th through 13th centuries and had been administered by royal/imperial stewards gained independence as their city magistrates assumed the duties of administration and justice.
The Free Cities were those, such as Basel, Cologne or Strasbourg, that were subjected to a prince-bishop and progressively gained independence from that lord. In a few cases, such as in Cologne, the former ecclesiastical lord continued to claim the right to exercise some residual feudal privileges over the Free City, a claim that gave rise to constant litigation until the end of the Empire. Over time, the difference between Imperial Cities and Free Cities became blurred, so that they became collectively known as "Free Imperial Cities", or "Free and Imperial Cities", by the late 15th century many cities included both "Free" and "Imperial" in their name. Like the other Imperial Estates, they could wage war, make peace, control their own trade, they permitted little interference from outside. In the Middle Ages, a number of Free Cities formed City Leagues, such as the Hanseatic League or the Alsatian Décapole, to promote and defend their interests. In the course of the Middle Ages, cities gained, sometimes — if — lost, their freedom through the vicissitudes of power politics.
Some favored cities gained a charter by gift. Others purchased one from a prince in need of funds; some won it by force of arms during the troubled 13th and 14th centuries and others lost their privileges during the same period by the same way. Some cities became free through the void created by the extinction of dominant families, like the Swabian Hohenstaufen; some voluntarily placed themselves under the protection of a territorial ruler and therefore lost their independence. A few, like Protestant Donauwörth, which in 1607 was annexed to the Catholic Duchy of Bavaria, were stripped by the Emperor of their status as a Free City — for genuine or trumped-up reasons. However, this happened after the Reformation, of the sixty Free Imperial Cities that remained at the Peace of Westphalia, all but the ten Alsatian cities continued to exist until the mediatization of 1803. There were four thousand towns and cities in the Empire, although around the year 1600 over nine-tenths of them had fewer than one thousand inhabitants.
During the late Middle Ages, fewer than two hundred of these places enjoyed the status of Free Imperial Cities, some of those did so only for a few decades. The military tax register of 1521 listed eighty-five such cities, this figure had fallen to sixty-five by the time of the Peace of Augsburg in 1555. From the Peace of Westphalia of 1648 to 1803, their number oscillated at around fifty. Unlike the Free Imperial Cities, the second category of towns and cities, now called "territorial cities" were subject to an ecclesiastical or lay lord, while many of them enjoyed self-government to varying degrees, this was a precarious privilege which might be curtailed or abolished according to the will of the lord. Reflecting the extraordinarily complex constitutional set-up of the Holy Roman Empire, a third category, composed of semi-autonomous cities that belonged to neither of those two types, is distinguished by some historians; these were cities whose size and economic strength was sufficient to sustain a substantial independence from surrounding territorial lords for a considerable time though no formal right to independence existed.
These cities were located in small territories where the ruler was weak. They were the exception among the multitude of territorial towns and cities. Cities of both latter categories had representation in territorial diets, but not in the Imperial Diet. Free imperial cities were not admitted as own Imperial Estates to the Imperial Diet until 1489, then their votes were considered only advisory compared to the Benches of the electors and princes; the cities divided themselves into two groups, or benches, in the Imperial Diet, the Rhenish and the Swabian Bench. The following list contains the 50 Free imperial cities that took part in the Imperial Diet of 1792, they are listed according to their voting order on the Swabian benches. These same cities were among the 85 free imperial cities listed on the Reichsmatrikel of 1521: the federal civil and military tax-schedule used for more than a century to assess the contributions of all the Imperial Estates in case
Vehicle registration plate
A vehicle registration plate known as a number plate or a license plate, is a metal or plastic plate attached to a motor vehicle or trailer for official identification purposes. All countries require registration plates for road vehicles such as cars and motorcycles. Whether they are required for other vehicles, such as bicycles, boats, or tractors, may vary by jurisdiction; the registration identifier is a numeric or alphanumeric ID that uniquely identifies the vehicle owner within the issuing region's vehicle register. In some countries, the identifier is unique within the entire country, while in others it is unique within a state or province. Whether the identifier is associated with a vehicle or a person varies by issuing agency. There are electronic license plates. Most governments require a registration plate to be attached to both the front and rear of a vehicle, although certain jurisdictions or vehicle types, such as motorboats, require only one plate, attached to the rear of the vehicle.
National databases relate this number to other information describing the vehicle, such as the make, colour, year of manufacture, engine size, type of fuel used, mileage recorded, vehicle identification number, the name and address of the vehicle's registered owner or keeper. In the vast majority of jurisdictions, the government holds a monopoly on the manufacturing of vehicle registration plates for that jurisdiction. Either a government agency or a private company with express contractual authorization from the government makes plates as needed, which are mailed to, delivered to, or picked up by the vehicle owners. Thus, it is illegal for private citizens to make and affix their own plates, because such unauthorized private manufacturing is equivalent to forging an official document. Alternatively, the government will assign plate numbers, it is the vehicle owner's responsibility to find an approved private supplier to make a plate with that number. In some jurisdictions, plates will be permanently assigned to that particular vehicle for its lifetime.
If the vehicle is either destroyed or exported to a different country, the plate number is retired or reissued. China requires the re-registration of any vehicle that crosses its borders from another country, such as for overland tourist visits, regardless of the length of time it is due to remain there. Other jurisdictions follow a "plate-to-owner" policy, meaning that when a vehicle is sold the seller removes the current plate from the vehicle. Buyers must either obtain new plates or attach plates they hold, as well as register their vehicles under the buyer's name and plate number. A person who sells a car and purchases a new one can apply to have the old plates put onto the new car. One who sells a car and does not buy a new one may, depending on the local laws involved, have to turn the old plates in or destroy them, or may be permitted to keep them; some jurisdictions permit the registration of the vehicle with "personal" plates. In some jurisdictions, plates require periodic replacement associated with a design change of the plate itself.
Vehicle owners may or may not have the option to keep their original plate number, may have to pay a fee to exercise this option. Alternately, or additionally, vehicle owners have to replace a small decal on the plate or use a decal on the windshield to indicate the expiration date of the vehicle registration, periodic safety and/or emissions inspections or vehicle taxation. Other jurisdictions have replaced the decal requirement through the use of computerization: a central database maintains records of which plate numbers are associated with expired registrations, communicating with automated number plate readers to enable law-enforcement to identify expired registrations in the field. Plates are fixed directly to a vehicle or to a plate frame, fixed to the vehicle. Sometimes, the plate frames contain advertisements inserted by the vehicle service centre or the dealership from which the vehicle was purchased. Vehicle owners can purchase customized frames to replace the original frames. In some jurisdictions registration plate frames have design restrictions.
For example, many states, like Texas, allow plate frames but prohibit plate frames from covering the name of the state, district, Native American tribe or country that issued of license plate. Plates are designed to conform to standards with regard to being read by eye in day or at night, or by electronic equipment; some drivers purchase clear, smoke-colored or tinted covers that go over the registration plate to prevent electronic equipment from scanning the registration plate. Legality of these covers varies; some cameras incorporate filter systems that make such avoidance attempts unworkable with infra-red filters. Vehicles pulling trailers, such as caravans and semi-trailer trucks, are required to display a third registration plate on the rear of the trailer. An engineering study by the University of Illinois published in 1960 recommended that the state of Illinois adopt a numbering system and plate design "composed of combinations of characters which can be perceived and are legible at a distance of 125 feet under daylight conditions, are adapted to filing and administrative procedures".
It recommended that a standard plate size of 6 inches by 14 inches be adopte
Martin Bucer was a German Protestant reformer in the Reformed tradition based in Strasbourg who influenced Lutheran and Anglican doctrines and practices. Bucer was a member of the Dominican Order, but after meeting and being influenced by Martin Luther in 1518 he arranged for his monastic vows to be annulled, he began to work for the Reformation, with the support of Franz von Sickingen. Bucer's efforts to reform the church in Wissembourg resulted in his excommunication from the Roman Catholic Church, he was forced to flee to Strasbourg. There he joined a team of reformers which included Matthew Zell, Wolfgang Capito, Caspar Hedio, he acted as a mediator between the two leading reformers, Martin Luther and Huldrych Zwingli, who differed on the doctrine of the eucharist. Bucer sought agreement on common articles of faith such as the Tetrapolitan Confession and the Wittenberg Concord, working with Philipp Melanchthon on the latter. Bucer believed that the Catholics in the Holy Roman Empire could be convinced to join the Reformation.
Through a series of conferences organised by Charles V, he tried to unite Protestants and Catholics to create a German national church separate from Rome. He did not achieve this, as political events led to the Schmalkaldic War and the retreat of Protestantism within the Empire. In 1548, Bucer was persuaded, under duress, to sign the Augsburg Interim, which imposed certain forms of Catholic worship. However, he continued to promote reforms until the city of Strasbourg accepted the Interim, forced him to leave. In 1549, Bucer was exiled to England, under the guidance of Thomas Cranmer, he was able to influence the second revision of the Book of Common Prayer, he died in Cambridge, England, at the age of 59. Although his ministry did not lead to the formation of a new denomination, many Protestant denominations have claimed him as one of their own, he is remembered as an early pioneer of ecumenism. In the 16th century, the Holy Roman Empire was a centralised state in name only; the Empire was divided into many princely and city states that provided a powerful check on the rule of the Holy Roman Emperor.
The division of power between the emperor and the various states made the Reformation in Germany possible, as individual states defended reformers within their territories. In the Electorate of Saxony, Martin Luther was supported by the elector Frederick III and his successors John and John Frederick. Philip I, Landgrave of Hesse—whose lands lay midway between Saxony and the Rhine—also supported the Reformation, he figured prominently in the lives of both Luther and Bucer; the Emperor Charles V had to balance the demands of his imperial subjects. At the same time, he was distracted by war with France and the Ottoman Empire and in Italy; the political rivalry among all the players influenced the ecclesiastical developments within the Empire. In addition to the princely states, free imperial cities, nominally under the control of the Emperor but ruled by councils that acted like sovereign governments, were scattered throughout the Empire; as the Reformation took root, clashes broke out in many cities between local reformers and conservative city magistrates.
It was in a free imperial city, that Martin Bucer began his work. Located on the western frontier of the Empire, Strasbourg was allied with the Swiss cities that had thrown off the imperial yoke; some had adopted a reformed religion distinct from Lutheranism, in which humanist social concepts and the communal ethic played a greater role. Along with a group of free imperial cities in the south and west of the German lands, Strasbourg followed this pattern of Reformation, it was ruled by a complex local government under the control of a few powerful families and wealthy guildsmen. In Bucer's time, social unrest was growing as lower-level artisans resented their social immobility and the widening income gap; the citizens may not have planned revolution, but they were receptive to new ideas that might transform their lives. Martin Bucer was born in a free imperial city of the Holy Roman Empire, his father and grandfather, both named Claus Butzer, were coopers by trade. Nothing is known about Bucer's mother.
Bucer attended Sélestat's prestigious Latin school, where artisans sent their children. He joined the Dominican Order as a novice. Bucer claimed his grandfather had forced him into the order. After a year, he was consecrated as an acolyte in the Strasbourg church of the Williamites, he took his vows as a full Dominican friar. In 1510, he was ordained as a deacon. By 1515, Bucer was studying theology in the Dominican monastery in Heidelberg; the following year, he took a course in dogmatics in Mainz, where he was ordained a priest, returning to Heidelberg in January 1517 to enroll in the university. Around this time, he became influenced by humanism, he started buying books published by Johannes Froben, some by the great humanist Erasmus. A 1518 inventory of Bucer's books includes the major works of Thomas Aquinas, leader of medieval scholasticism in the Dominican order. In April 1518, Johannes von Staupitz, the vicar-general of the Augustinians, invited the Wittenberg reformer Martin Luther to argue his theology at the Heidelberg Disputation.
Here Bucer met Luther for the first time. In a long letter to his mentor, Beatus Rhenanus, Bucer recounted what he learned, he commented on several of Luther's Ninety-Five Theses, he agreed with them and perceived the ideas of Luther and Erasmus to be in concordance. Because meeting Luther posed certain risks, he asked Rhenanus to ensure his letter did not