Geographic coordinate system
A geographic coordinate system is a coordinate system that enables every location on Earth to be specified by a set of numbers, letters or symbols. The coordinates are chosen such that one of the numbers represents a vertical position and two or three of the numbers represent a horizontal position. A common choice of coordinates is latitude and elevation. To specify a location on a plane requires a map projection; the invention of a geographic coordinate system is credited to Eratosthenes of Cyrene, who composed his now-lost Geography at the Library of Alexandria in the 3rd century BC. A century Hipparchus of Nicaea improved on this system by determining latitude from stellar measurements rather than solar altitude and determining longitude by timings of lunar eclipses, rather than dead reckoning. In the 1st or 2nd century, Marinus of Tyre compiled an extensive gazetteer and mathematically-plotted world map using coordinates measured east from a prime meridian at the westernmost known land, designated the Fortunate Isles, off the coast of western Africa around the Canary or Cape Verde Islands, measured north or south of the island of Rhodes off Asia Minor.
Ptolemy credited him with the full adoption of longitude and latitude, rather than measuring latitude in terms of the length of the midsummer day. Ptolemy's 2nd-century Geography used the same prime meridian but measured latitude from the Equator instead. After their work was translated into Arabic in the 9th century, Al-Khwārizmī's Book of the Description of the Earth corrected Marinus' and Ptolemy's errors regarding the length of the Mediterranean Sea, causing medieval Arabic cartography to use a prime meridian around 10° east of Ptolemy's line. Mathematical cartography resumed in Europe following Maximus Planudes' recovery of Ptolemy's text a little before 1300. In 1884, the United States hosted the International Meridian Conference, attended by representatives from twenty-five nations. Twenty-two of them agreed to adopt the longitude of the Royal Observatory in Greenwich, England as the zero-reference line; the Dominican Republic voted against the motion, while Brazil abstained. France adopted Greenwich Mean Time in place of local determinations by the Paris Observatory in 1911.
In order to be unambiguous about the direction of "vertical" and the "horizontal" surface above which they are measuring, map-makers choose a reference ellipsoid with a given origin and orientation that best fits their need for the area they are mapping. They choose the most appropriate mapping of the spherical coordinate system onto that ellipsoid, called a terrestrial reference system or geodetic datum. Datums may be global, meaning that they represent the whole Earth, or they may be local, meaning that they represent an ellipsoid best-fit to only a portion of the Earth. Points on the Earth's surface move relative to each other due to continental plate motion and diurnal Earth tidal movement caused by the Moon and the Sun; this daily movement can be as much as a metre. Continental movement can be up to 10 m in a century. A weather system high-pressure area can cause a sinking of 5 mm. Scandinavia is rising by 1 cm a year as a result of the melting of the ice sheets of the last ice age, but neighbouring Scotland is rising by only 0.2 cm.
These changes are insignificant if a local datum is used, but are statistically significant if a global datum is used. Examples of global datums include World Geodetic System, the default datum used for the Global Positioning System, the International Terrestrial Reference Frame, used for estimating continental drift and crustal deformation; the distance to Earth's center can be used both for deep positions and for positions in space. Local datums chosen by a national cartographical organisation include the North American Datum, the European ED50, the British OSGB36. Given a location, the datum provides the latitude ϕ and longitude λ. In the United Kingdom there are three common latitude and height systems in use. WGS 84 differs at Greenwich from the one used on published maps OSGB36 by 112 m; the military system ED50, used by NATO, differs from about 120 m to 180 m. The latitude and longitude on a map made against a local datum may not be the same as one obtained from a GPS receiver. Coordinates from the mapping system can sometimes be changed into another datum using a simple translation.
For example, to convert from ETRF89 to the Irish Grid add 49 metres to the east, subtract 23.4 metres from the north. More one datum is changed into any other datum using a process called Helmert transformations; this involves converting the spherical coordinates into Cartesian coordinates and applying a seven parameter transformation, converting back. In popular GIS software, data projected in latitude/longitude is represented as a Geographic Coordinate System. For example, data in latitude/longitude if the datum is the North American Datum of 1983 is denoted by'GCS North American 1983'; the "latitude" of a point on Earth's surface is the angle between the equatorial plane and the straight line that passes through that point and through the center of the Earth. Lines joining points of the same latitude trace circles on the surface of Earth called parallels, as they are parallel to the Equator and to each other; the North Pole is 90° N. The 0° parallel of latitude is designated the Equator, the fun
The Cascade Range or Cascades is a major mountain range of western North America, extending from southern British Columbia through Washington and Oregon to Northern California. It includes both non-volcanic mountains, such as the North Cascades, the notable volcanoes known as the High Cascades; the small part of the range in British Columbia is referred to as the Canadian Cascades or, locally, as the Cascade Mountains. The latter term is sometimes used by Washington residents to refer to the Washington section of the Cascades in addition to North Cascades, the more usual U. S. term, as in North Cascades National Park. The highest peak in the range is Mount Rainier in Washington at 14,411 feet; the Cascades are part of the Pacific Ocean's Ring of Fire, the ring of volcanoes and associated mountains around the Pacific Ocean. All of the eruptions in the contiguous United States over the last 200 years have been from Cascade volcanoes; the two most recent were Lassen Peak from 1914 to 1921 and a major eruption of Mount St. Helens in 1980.
Minor eruptions of Mount St. Helens have occurred since, most from 2004 to 2008; the Cascade Range is a part of the American Cordillera, a nearly continuous chain of mountain ranges that form the western "backbone" of North America, Central America, South America. The Cascades extend northward from Lassen Peak in northern California to the confluence of the Nicola and Thompson rivers in British Columbia; the Fraser River separates the Cascades from the Coast Mountains in Canada, as does the Willamette Valley from the upper portion of the Oregon Coast Range. The highest volcanoes of the Cascades, known as the High Cascades, dominate their surroundings standing twice the height of the nearby mountains, they have a visual height of one mile or more. The highest peaks, such as the 14,411-foot Mount Rainier, dominate their surroundings for 50 to 100 miles; the northern part of the range, north of Mount Rainier, is known as the North Cascades in the United States but is formally named the Cascade Mountains north of the Canada–United States border, reaching to the northern extremity of the Cascades at Lytton Mountain.
Overall, the North Cascades and Canadian Cascades are rugged. The southern part of the Canadian Cascades the Skagit Range, is geologically and topographically similar to the North Cascades, while the northern and northeastern parts are less glaciated and more plateau-like, resembling nearby areas of the Thompson Plateau; because of the range's proximity to the Pacific Ocean and the region's prevailing westerly winds, precipitation is substantial on the western slopes due to orographic lift, with annual snow accumulations of up to 1,000 inches in some areas. Mount Baker in Washington recorded a national record single-season snowfall in the winter of 1998–99 with 1,140 inches. Prior to that year, Mount Rainier held the American record for snow accumulation at Paradise in 1978, it is not uncommon for some places in the Cascades to have over 500 inches of annual snow accumulation, such as at Lake Helen, near Lassen Peak. Most of the High Cascades are therefore white with ice year-round; the western slopes are densely covered with Douglas-fir, western hemlock and red alder, while the drier eastern slopes feature ponderosa pine, with some western larch, mountain hemlock and subalpine fir and subalpine larch at higher elevations.
Annual rainfall is as low as 9 inches on the eastern foothills due to a rain shadow effect. Beyond the eastern foothills is an arid plateau, created 17 to 14 million years ago by the many flows of the Columbia River Basalt Group. Together, these sequences of fluid volcanic rock form the 200,000-square-mile Columbia Plateau in eastern Washington and parts of western Idaho; the Columbia River Gorge is the only major break of the range in the United States. When the Cascades began to rise 7 million years ago in the Pliocene, the Columbia River drained the low Columbia Plateau; as the range grew, erosion from the Columbia River was able to keep pace, creating the gorge and major pass seen today. The gorge exposes uplifted and warped layers of basalt from the plateau. Indigenous peoples have inhabited the area for thousands of years and developed their own myths and legends about the Cascades. In these legends, St. Helens with its pre-1980 graceful appearance, was regarded as a beautiful maiden for whom Hood and Adams feuded.
Native tribes developed their own names for the High Cascades and many of the smaller peaks, including "Tahoma", the Lushootseed name for Mount Rainier, "Koma Kulshan" or "Kulshan" for Mount Baker, "Louwala-Clough", meaning "smoking mountain" for Mount St. Helens. In early 1792, British navigator George Vancouver explored Puget Sound and gave English names to the high mountains he saw. Mount Baker was named for Vancouver's third lieutenant, Joseph Baker, although the first European to see it was Manuel Quimper, who named it la gran montaña del Carmelo in 1790. Mount Rainier was named after Admiral Peter Rainier. In 1792, Vancouver had his lieutenant William Robert Broughton explore the lower Columbia River, he named Mount Hood after an admiral of the Royal Navy. Mount St. Helens was sighted by Vancouver from near the mouth of the Columbia River, it was named for Al
White Salmon River
The White Salmon River is a 44-mile tributary of the Columbia River in the U. S. state of Washington. Originating on the slopes of Mount Adams, it flows into the Columbia Gorge near the community of Underwood. Parts of the river have been designated Scenic; the principal tributaries of the White Salmon River include Trout Lake and Buck, Dry and Rattlesnake Creeks. In 1986, the lower White Salmon River was designated Wild and Scenic between Gilmer Creek and Buck Creek. In 2005, the upper river between the headwaters and the boundary of the Gifford Pinchot National Forest was added to the designation; the two reaches, which are not contiguous, total 27.7 miles, of which 6.7 miles are "wild" and 22.3 miles are "scenic." The White Salmon River is used for whitewater boating nearly year-round. A popular spot to launch a raft or kayak is the public put-in at the unincorporated community of BZ Corner; the day-use area at the put-in includes parking and toilets. Guided whitewater trips can be arranged with commercial outfitters with special-use permits for the White Salmon.
On October 26, 2011, the Condit Dam on the White Salmon River was intentionally breached as part of the dam's decommissioning by PacifiCorp. The breach allowed the river to flow unimpeded for the first time in nearly a century. List of Washington rivers List of National Wild and Scenic Rivers Condit Hydroelectric Project Tributaries of the Columbia River Rafting White Salmon River Dam-breaching video - YouTube Friends of the White Salmon Photo of the river below the dam USGS map of the area The White Salmon River Runs Free: Breaching the Condit Dam Documentary produced by Oregon Field Guide
Klickitat County, Washington
Klickitat County is a county located in the U. S. state of Washington. As of the 2010 census, the population was 20,318; the county seat and largest city is Goldendale. The county is named after the Klickitat tribe of the Yakama Native Americans. Klickitat County was created out of Walla Walla County on December 20, 1859. Samuel Hill was an early promoter of the area, promoting better roads and building local landmarks such as a war memorial replica of Stonehenge and a mansion that would become the Maryhill Museum of Art; the Sam Hill Memorial Bridge across the Columbia River is named after him. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 1,904 square miles, of which 1,871 square miles is land and 33 square miles is water. Cascade Mountains Columbia River U. S. Route 97 State Route 14 State Route 142 Conboy Lake National Wildlife Refuge Gifford Pinchot National Forest As of the census of 2000, there were 19,161 people, 7,473 households, 5,305 families residing in the county.
The population density was 10 people per square mile. There were 8,633 housing units at an average density of 5 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 87.56% White, 0.27% Black or African American, 3.47% Native American, 0.73% Asian, 0.21% Pacific Islander, 5.02% from other races, 2.75% from two or more races. 7.81 % of the population were Latinos of any race. 17.7% were of German, 14.0% United States or American, 11.1% English and 9.6% Irish ancestry. 90.3% spoke English and 7.8% Spanish as their first language. There were 7,473 households out of which 32.30% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 57.70% were married couples living together, 9.10% had a female householder with no husband present, 29.00% were non-families. 23.80% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.00% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.54 and the average family size was 2.99. The age distribution was 27.10% under the age of 18, 6.50% from 18 to 24, 25.70% from 25 to 44, 27.00% from 45 to 64, 13.80% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 40 years. For every 100 females there were 99.50 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 98.80 males. The median income for a household in the county was $34,267, the median income for a family was $40,414. Males had a median income of $36,067 versus $21,922 for females; the per capita income for the county was $16,502. About 12.60% of families and 17.00% of the population were below the poverty line, including 22.50% of those under age 18 and 15.10% of those age 65 or over. As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 20,318 people, 8,327 households, 5,626 families residing in the county; the population density was 10.9 inhabitants per square mile. There were 9,786 housing units at an average density of 5.2 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 87.7% white, 2.4% American Indian, 0.6% Asian, 0.2% black or African American, 0.1% Pacific islander, 5.6% from other races, 3.3% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 10.7% of the population.
In terms of ancestry,Of the 8,327 households, 27.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 54.5% were married couples living together, 8.5% had a female householder with no husband present, 32.4% were non-families, 26.4% of all households were made up of individuals. The average household size was 2.42 and the average family size was 2.88. The median age was 45.3 years. The median income for a household in the county was $37,398 and the median income for a family was $46,012. Males had a median income of $43,588 versus $31,114 for females; the per capita income for the county was $21,553. About 13.7% of families and 19.5% of the population were below the poverty line, including 33.9% of those under age 18 and 9.4% of those age 65 or over. Bingen Goldendale White Salmon Appleton BZ Corner Husum Wahkiacus Klickitat is located in Washington's 3rd congressional district, which has a Cook Partisan Voting Index of R+2 and has been represented by Republican Jaime Herrera Beutler since 2011.
In state government the county is part of the fourteenth district so is represented by representative Gina McCabe and Norm Johnson in the Washington House of Representatives and Curtis King in the Washington State Senate. In Presidential elections Klickitat is something of a "swing county." In 1988 Michael Dukakis narrowly won the county with 49.15% of the vote. Richard Nixon, Ronald Reagan, Bill Clinton, George W. Bush all won the county twice. In 2008 Democrat Barack Obama won Klickitat County over Republican John McCain by only 21 votes or percentage wise 48.85% to 48.64%. In 2012 Republican candidate Mitt Romney won the county by a greater margin than in the previous election, with 51.74% of the vote compared to President Obamas 44.75%, Donald Trump doubled Romney’s margin in 2016. National Register of Historic Places listings in Klickitat County, Washington Official County website Klickitat County, Washington at HistoryLink.org
Spirit Lake (Washington)
Spirit Lake is a lake north of Mount St. Helens in Washington State; the lake was a popular tourist destination for many years until the 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens. Prior to 1980, there were six camps on the shore of Spirit Lake: a Boy Scout camp, a Girl Scout camp, two YMCA camps, Harmony Fall Lodge, another for the general public. There were a number of lodges catering to visitors, including Spirit Lake Lodge and Mt. St. Helens Lodge. Prior to 1980, Spirit Lake consisted of two arms that occupied what had been the valleys of the North Fork Toutle River and a tributary. About 4,000 years ago, these valleys were blocked by lahars and pyroclastic flow deposits from Mount St. Helens to form the pre-1980 Spirit Lake; the longest branch of Spirit Lake was about 2.1 miles long. A stable outlet channel flowed from the lake to the North Fork Toutle River across a natural dam composed of volcanic material; the level of Spirit Lake remained stable, at an altitude of about 3,198 ft. Pre-eruption weather data from the Spirit Lake Ranger Station indicates the area had the rare dry-summer variant of the subarctic climate, found in only in small areas across the world.
Recent climate data for the area is not available to confirm whether the post-eruption site still has this rare climate type. During the 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens, Spirit Lake received the full impact of the lateral blast from the volcano; the blast and the debris avalanche associated with this eruption temporarily displaced much of the lake from its bed and forced lake waters as a wave as much as 850 ft above lake level on the mountain slopes along the north shoreline of the lake. The debris avalanche deposited about 430,000,000 cubic metres of pyrolized trees, other plant material, volcanic ash, volcanic debris of various origins into Spirit Lake; the deposition of this volcanic material decreased the lake volume by 56,000,000 cubic metres. Lahar and pyroclastic flow deposits from the eruption blocked its natural pre-eruption outlet to the North Fork Toutle River valley at its outlet, raising the surface elevation of the lake by between 197 ft and 206 ft; the surface area of the lake was increased from 1,300 acres to about 2,200 acres and its maximum depth decreased from 190 ft to 110 ft.
The eruption swept them into Spirit Lake. These thousands of shattered trees formed a floating log raft on the lake surface that covered about 40% of the lake's surface after the eruption. After the eruption, Spirit Lake contained toxic water with volcanic gases seeping up from the lake bed. A month after the eruption, the bacteria-carrying water was devoid of oxygen. Scientists predicted that the lake would not recover but the reemergence of phytoplankton starting in 1983 began to restore oxygen levels. Amphibians such as frogs and salamanders recolonized the lake, fish thrived; the water level of Spirit Lake is maintained at about 3,406 ft by draining water through Spirit Lake Outlet Tunnel, a gravity-feed tunnel completed in 1985. The 8,465-foot-long tunnel was cut through Harrys Ridge to South Coldwater Creek, which flows to Coldwater Lake and into the North Fork of the Toutle River. Had the lake level not been stabilized, the dam, composed of volcanic avalanche debris created by the 1980 eruption, would have been breached and caused catastrophic flooding within the Toutle River Valley.
Harry R. Truman: Resident of the Spirit Lake area. Anonymous, CVO Photo Archives: Hydrology and Hydrologic Monitoring Images. Cascades Volcano Observatory, United State Geological Survey, Washington. Glicken, HX, W Meyer, MA Sabol and ground-water hydrology of Spirit Lake blockage, Mount St. Helens, with implications for lake retention. Bulletin no. 1789. U. S. Geological Survey, Virginia. Evarts, RC, RP Ashley Geologic map of the Spirit Lake East quadrangle, Skamania County, Washington. Scale 1:24,000, Geologic Quadrangle no. 1679, U. S. Geological Survey, Virginia. Evarts, RC, RP Ashley Geologic map of the Spirit Lake West quadrangle, Skamania County, Washington. Scale 1:24,000, Geologic Quadrangle no. 1681, U. S. Geological Survey, Virginia. Patton, V Ecological Mysteries of Spirit Lake Documentary produced by Oregon Field Guide, Oregon Public Broadcasting