A gift economy or gift culture is a mode of exchange where valuables are not traded or sold, but rather given without an explicit agreement for immediate or future rewards. Social norms and customs govern gifting in a gift culture, gifts are not given in an explicit exchange of goods or services for money, or some other commodity or service; this contrasts with a barter economy or a market economy, where goods and services are explicitly exchanged for value received. The nature of gift economies forms the subject of a foundational debate in anthropology. Anthropological research into gift economies began with Bronisław Malinowski's description of the Kula ring in the Trobriand Islands during World War I; the Kula trade appeared to be gift-like since Trobrianders would travel great distances over dangerous seas to give what were considered valuable objects without any guarantee of a return. Malinowski's debate with the French anthropologist Marcel Mauss established the complexity of "gift exchange" and introduced a series of technical terms such as reciprocity, inalienable possessions, presentation to distinguish between the different forms of exchange.
According to anthropologists Maurice Bloch and Jonathan Parry, it is the unsettled relationship between market and non-market exchange that attracts the most attention. Gift economies are said, by some, to build communities, with the market serving as an acid on those relationships. Gift exchange is distinguished from other forms of exchange by a number of principles, such as the form of property rights governing the articles exchanged. Gift ideology in commercialized societies differs from the "prestations" typical of non-market societies. Gift economies must be differentiated from several related phenomena, such as common property regimes and the exchange of non-commodified labour. According to anthropologist Jonathan Parry, discussion on the nature of gifts, of a separate sphere of gift exchange that would constitute an economic system, has been plagued by the ethnocentric use of modern, market society-based conception of the gift applied as if it were a cross-cultural, pan-historical universal.
However, he claims that anthropologists, through analysis of a variety of cultural and historical forms of exchange, have established that no universal practice exists. His classic summation of the gift exchange debate highlighted that ideologies of the "pure gift" "are most to arise in differentiated societies with an advanced division of labour and a significant commercial sector" and need to be distinguished from non-market "prestations". According to Weiner, to speak of a "gift economy" in a non-market society is to ignore the distinctive features of their exchange relationships, as the early classic debate between Bronislaw Malinowski and Marcel Mauss demonstrated. Gift exchange is "embedded" in political, kin, or religious institutions, therefore does not constitute an "economic" system per se. Gift-giving is a form of transfer of property rights over particular objects; the nature of those property rights varies from society to society, from culture to culture, are not universal. The nature of gift-giving is thus altered by the type of property regime in place.
Property is not a thing. According to Chris Hann, property is a social relationship that governs the conduct of people with respect to the use and disposition of things. Anthropologists analyze these relationships in terms of a variety of actors' "bundle of rights" over objects. An example is the current debates around intellectual property rights. Hann and Strangelove both give the example of a purchased book, over which the author retains a "copyright". Although the book is a commodity and sold, it has not been "alienated" from its creator who maintains a hold over it. Weiner has argued that the ability to give while retaining a right to the gift/commodity is a critical feature of the gifting cultures described by Malinowski and Mauss, explains, for example, why some gifts such as Kula valuables return to their original owners after an incredible journey around the Trobriand islands; the gifts given in Kula exchange still remain, in the property of the giver. In the example used above, "copyright" is one of those bundled rights that regulate the use and disposition of a book.
Gift-giving in many societies is complicated because "private property" owned by an individual may be quite limited in scope. Productive resources, such as land, may be held by members of a corporate group, but only some members of that group may have "use rights"; when many people hold rights over the same objects gifting has different implications than the gifting of private property. Anthropologist Annette Weiner refers to these types of objects as "inalienable possessions" and to the process as "keeping while giving". Malinowski's study of the Kula ring became the subject of debate with the French anthropologist, Marcel Mauss, author of "The Gift". In Parry's view, Malinowski placed the emphasis on the exchange of goods between individuals, their non-altruistic motives for giving the gift: they expected a return of equal or greater value. Malinowski stated.
Finse Station is located in the small mountain village of Finse in the municipality of Ulvik in Hordaland county, Norway. The station is served by up to seven daily express trains in each direction three per day and one overnight trains, all operated by the Norwegian State Railways; the Finse Tunnel begins just west of the village and the Rallarvegen goes through the village. The station features a navvy museum, dedicated to the builders of the railways in Norway. One of Norway's popular hiking trails starts at the station and ends in the village of Aurlandsvangen after a four-day trek. Finse station is the only access point to Hardangerjøkulen; the station was opened as part of the Bergen Line on 10 June 1908, five years after the first hotel was built in Finse. Since there is no road access, the railway is the sole access to the area. After the railway came, Finse grew as a recreational area, received a small amount of permanent residents, at the most 200 people, including a school and a store.
The proximity and easy access to both Bergen and Oslo made Finse a popular mountain resort, but during the 1960s and 1970s the tourist traffic declined, as did the village, during the 1980s it died when the school and store closed. Finse Station still operates the oldest and highest situated post office in Norway, founded on 1 March 1904. Paul Armin Due designed the station building in the jugendstil; the second store was built in wood. There was two locomotive depots at Finse, used to store the snowplows; the restaurant was taken over by Norsk Spisevognselskap on 1 January 1928. It retained operations until 17 June 1946. Finse was one of the bases for snow removal on the railway until 1993. At the same time the station, at 1,222.2 metres above mean sea level, became the highest point on the Norwegian railway network. Jernbaneverket entry NSB entry Norsk Jernbaneklubb entry Navvy Museum
Tseng Chang is a Chinese American actor. He has participated in the films Xiang xi shi Wang, Yu ya gon wu and 2012, with John Cusack, Chiwetel Ejiofor, Amanda Peet and Thandie Newton. 8 Minutes Ahead Final Recipe Arrow Gunlow 2012 Romaine par moins 30 Christmas Cottage Sobrenatural Dim Sum Funeral Whistler They Wait Novio por una noche Sai Gon nhat thuc Dragon Boys Intelligence Everything's Gone Green The Game of Strangers Regenesis Reefer Madness: The Musical Movie Adolescent's Diaries The Murdoch Mysteries Zi yu zi le Kingdom Hospital Betraying Reason Long Life, Happiness & Prosperity Da Vinci's Inquest The Miracle of the Cards L'or Walking Shadow Lunch with Charles Turn It Up Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde 7 Days These Arms of Mine Night Man Breaker High Ninja Turtles: The Next Mutation Nu ren si shi Xiang xi shi Wang Yu ya gong wu Qi an shi lu bai se tong dao Bullet to the Heat As Tears Go By Ba shi qi yu jie liang yuan Qu Yuan Yi bang rou Hsi nou ai le Wo di yi jia Shuang nu qing qe Zhen zhu feng yun Ying chun hua Xi Shi Yan yu Fen hong se de meng Jin ying Na na nu nu Wu hu hiang Xue di qing chou Lei yu Wang lao wu zhi lian Ji ling gui yu xiao lai mao Mi ren de jia qi Xiao mi qu shi Lan hua hua You nu huai chun Xiang xiang pen xiao jie Ming Feng Hong deng long Lian feng he ming Mei gui yan Nu zi gong yu Shao nu de fan nao Bu yao li kai wo Du hui jiao xiang qu Jue dai jia ren Cun cao xin Nie hai hua Hua hua shi jie Tseng Chang on IMDb