Pearisburg is a town in Giles County, United States. The population was 2,786 at the 2010 census, it is the county seat of Giles County. Pearisburg is part of the Blacksburg–Christiansburg–Radford Metropolitan Statistical Area. Pearisburg was founded in 1808, it was named after George Pearis, a local landowner who donated a 50-acre tract to be used for a town that would grow up around the county court house. Pearis had operated a ferry on the New River at a settlement called "Bluff City", incorporated into the present boundaries of the town of Pearisburg. Pearisburg is located west of the center of Giles County at 37°19′45″N 80°43′57″W, it is south of the New River at the foot of Pearis Mountain, which rises to 3,700 feet to the southwest of town. The Appalachian Trail descends Pearis Mountain and passes through the western limit of the town before crossing the New River. U. S. Route 460 passes through the north side of town, leading southeast 24 miles to Blacksburg and west 27 miles to Princeton, West Virginia.
Virginia Route 100 passes through the center of Pearisburg, leading south 20 miles to Dublin near Interstate 81. According to the United States Census Bureau, Pearisburg has a total area of 3.2 square miles, of which 0.004 square miles, or 0.15%, are water. As of the census of 2000, there were 2,729 people, 1,219 households, 789 families residing in the town; the population density was 890.7 people per square mile. There were 1,279 housing units at an average density of 417.5 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 96.12% White, 2.02% African American, 0.07% Native American, 0.51% Asian, 0.44% from other races, 0.84% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.70% of the population. There were 1,219 households out of which 27.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 49.0% were married couples living together, 11.5% had a female householder with no husband present, 35.2% were non-families. 31.9% of all households were made up of individuals and 17.1% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.
The average household size was 2.23 and the average family size was 2.77. In the town, the population was spread out with 22.1% under the age of 18, 6.8% from 18 to 24, 26.7% from 25 to 44, 24.7% from 45 to 64, 19.8% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 41 years. For every 100 females, there were 88.6 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 81.6 males. The median income for a household in the town was $33,720, the median income for a family was $39,938. Males had a median income of $30,347 versus $23,482 for females; the per capita income for the town was $17,412. About 11.5% of families and 15.0% of the population were below the poverty line, including 19.1% of those under age 18 and 13.0% of those age 65 or over. The climate in this area has mild differences between highs and lows, there is adequate rainfall year-round. According to the Köppen Climate Classification system, Pearisburg has a marine west coast climate, abbreviated "Cfb" on climate maps. Town of Pearisburg official website
George Washington and Jefferson National Forests
The George Washington and Jefferson National Forests are U. S. National Forests that combine to form one of the largest areas of public land in the Eastern United States, they cover 1.8 million acres of land in the Appalachian Mountains of Virginia, West Virginia, Kentucky. 1 million acres of the forest are remote and undeveloped and 139,461 acres have been designated as wilderness areas, which eliminates future development. George Washington National Forest was established on May 1918 as the Shenandoah National Forest; the forest was renamed after the first President on June 28, 1932. Natural Bridge National Forest was added on July 22, 1933. Jefferson National Forest was formed on April 21, 1936 by combining portions of the Unaka and George Washington National Forests with other land. In 1995, the George Washington and Jefferson National Forests were administratively combined; the border between the two forests follows the James River. The combined forest is administered from its headquarters in Virginia.
The northern portion of the Blue Ridge Parkway, separately administered by the National Park Service, runs through the Forest. Over 2,000 miles of hiking trails, including segments of the Appalachian Trail, go through the forest. Virginia's highest point, Mount Rogers, is located in the Mount Rogers National Recreation Area, part of the forest. Other notable mountains include Elliott Knob, which has one of the last remaining fire lookout towers in the eastern U. S. and Whitetop Mountain. 230,000 acres of old-growth forests. The ghost town of Lignite, Virginia lies within the forest; the deepest gorge east of the Mississippi River, Breaks Interstate Park, is located in the forest. Roaring Run Furnace is the only site on the National Register of Historic Places owned by the Jefferson National Forest; the Forests' vast and mountainous terrain harbors a great variety of plant life—over 50 species of trees and over 2,000 species of shrubs and herbaceous plants. The Forests contain some 230,000 acres of old growth forests, representing all of the major forest communities found within them.
Locations of old growth include Peters Mountain, Mount Pleasant National Scenic Area, Rich Hole Wilderness, Flannery Ridge, Pick Breeches Ridge, Laurel Fork Gorge, Pickem Mountain, Mount Rogers National Recreation Area. The Ramsey's Draft and Kimberling Creek Wildernesses in particular are old-growth; the black bear is common, enough so that there is a short hunting season to prevent overpopulation. White-tailed deer, bald eagles, weasel and marten are known to inhabit the Forests; the forests are popular hiking, mountain biking, hunting destinations. The Appalachian Trail extends for 330 miles from the southern end of Shenandoah National Park through the forest and along the Blue Ridge Parkway; the forest is within a two-hour drive for over ten million people and thus receives large numbers of visitors in the region closest to Shenandoah National Park. The George Washington National Forest is a popular destination for trail runners, it is the location for several Ultramarathons, including the Massanutten Mountain Trails 100 miler, the Old Dominion 100 miler, the Old Dominion Memorial 100 miler.
George Washington Forest is the venue for Nature Camp, a natural science education-oriented summer camp for youth. The camp is located on national forest land near the town of Virginia, it has operated at this location since the summer of 1953. Note that Jefferson National Forest is located in 22 separate counties, more than any other National Forest except Mark Twain National Forest in Missouri, which lies in 29 counties. Note that Botetourt and Rockbridge counties, at the dividing line between the two forests, include parts of both forests. Thirdly, note that the state of Kentucky has little area, with its two counties bringing up the tail end of Jefferson National Forest. Ranger offices are the Forest Service's public service offices. Maps and other information about the forests can be obtained at these locations; these offices are open Monday through Friday from 8:00 a.m. to 4:30 p.m. The Supervisor's Office in Roanoke is not located in the forest and is an administrative location. District offices are listed from north to south.
Counties are in Virginia. There are 139,461 acres of federally designated wilderness areas in the two forests under the United States National Wilderness Preservation System. All are except as indicated; the largest of these is the Mountain Lake Wilderness, at 16,511 acres. There are 17 wildernesses in Jefferson National Forest, second only to Tongass National Forest, which has 19; the first camp of the Civilian Conservation Corps NF-1, Camp Roosevelt, was established in the George Washington National Forest near Luray, Virginia. It is now the site of the Camp Roosevelt Recreation Area. Great North Mountain Massanutten Mountain Shenandoah Mountain Monongahela National Forest—adjoining forest in West Virginia George Washington and Jefferson National Forests U. S. Forest Service, George Washington National Forest, Dry River District Collection at James Madison University's Special Collections
Mountain Lake (Virginia)
Mountain Lake is a freshwater lake located in Giles County near Newport, Virginia in the United States. Along with Lake Drummond in the Great Dismal Swamp, it is one of only two natural lakes in Virginia, it was known as Salt Pond, as it was where cattle were given salt. Mountain Lake covers about 50 acres, its level was constant at an elevation of 3,875 feet during the 19th and 20th centuries. Since 2002 it has been subject to dry-season level drops of as much as 15 feet; the last such level fluctuations occurred between 1751 and 1804 as historical accounts give different accounts of the lake size. The first known written evidence of the lake was by Christopher Gist of the Ohio Land Surveying Company, in 1751, it subsequently became known as Salt Pond. Natural lakes are common well to the north, where the Appalachian Range was subject to geologically recent glacial activity, but the basis on which this lake—the only natural one in the southern Appalachians—exists has been the source of much speculation.
Recent scientific studies indicate that an unusual combination of natural processes created the lake, maintained by a fissure at the bottom that provides an outlet for both sediment and water and prevents the lake from otherwise becoming a bog. Replenishment of the water lost depends on rain levels, apparent washing-out of sediment from the fissured bedrock bottom is causing the unstable lake levels; the lake is estimated to be about 6,000 years old, geologists believe it must have been formed by rock slides and damming. Cold underground springs feed the lake and allow the temperature to rise above 70 °F on the surface and 46 °F fifty feet below the surface; because of narrow channels and openings in the lake bottom, the level has a history of changing depending on the water flow through these channels. It is more than 100 feet deep when full. Close to the lake is one of Virginia's few virgin forests, including a rare virgin spruce bog—Mann's Bog—with an unusual array of northern disjunct species.
The lake drains into Little Stoney Creek, which passes over a spectacular waterfall known as The Cascades before reaching the New River. During a severe cold wave in January 1985, Mountain Lake set the statewide record low for Virginia: −30 °F, but today, Mountain Lake is nothing more than a reddish-brown pit, only filled with water. The lake’s water levels have fluctuated in the 30 years since the film, it first dropped in 1999, returned to its normal levels in 2003. In 2006, it dropped again, emptied for several days, leaving behind dead and rotting fish. From 2008 to 2012, it was empty. Salt Pond had been frequented throughout the early part of the 19th century and prior in March, 1856, Henley Chapman incorporated the Mountain Lake Co. to provide accommodations and entertainment for its visitors. Soon afterward, a wooden hotel and a saw mill were built. Stagecoach travelers from Christiansburg and Union, West Virginia were the primary customers in the days before the Virginia and Tennessee Railroad was built nearby in the late 1850s.
Following the Battle of Cloyd's Mountain in 1864, during the American Civil War, Union General George Crook marched his troops over to the present day town of Union, WV, via Salt Pond Mountain. In 1869, following the Civil War, the hotel and its properties were sold to General and Mrs. Herman Haupt. Haupt had been head of the United States Military Railroad during the War. During their first year of ownership, though not operating publicly, the Haupts received compensation from some of their guests for the accommodations provided, prompting Giles County to require them to purchase a hotel license. Subsequently, they decided to re-open the hotel to the general public. Due to the resulting popularity of the hotel in this first season, several additions to the hotel were required to meet the increasing demand for more accommodations. During the days of primary travel by railroad, guests of the resort exited the train at either Pembroke or Eggleston and were met by horse-drawn carriages, which transported them up the dirt Doe Creek Road to the resort.
The current primary paved route up the Mountain, SR 700, was built over a different route than the old dirt road. Giles County attorney Gordon Porterfield managed the property before turning it over to his son Gilbert Porterfield, who managed the resort for 25 years. During Gilbert Porterfield's tenure managing the resort, its current reputation for fine cuisine was established. During this time, individuals were allowed to build their own cottages, they received a 15 year lease. During their individual ownership, these guests received discounts on their meals and maid service. Presently, most of the original cottage names that were established by the original owners/builders over 100 years ago are still in use. In the 1930s, William Lewis Moody, Jr. of Galveston, Texas bought the hotel. In 1938, Moody replaced the wooden hotel with the current structure, built using stone native to the surrounding land. Moody's daughter, Mrs. Mary Moody Northen, owned the hotel until her death in 1986, following which the trustees of her estate established a foundation known as the Mary Moody Northen Endowment, which presently maintains and operates the resort.
The foundation was established according to Mrs. Northen's final wishes to maintain the hotel and surrounding land as she had always known it, without overbuilding and without changing the resort or upsetting the delicate ecology of the beautiful surrounding land. For m
1890 United States Census
The Eleventh United States Census was taken beginning June 2, 1890. It determined the resident population of the United States to be 62,979,766—an increase of 25.5 percent over the 50,189,209 persons enumerated during the 1880 census. The data was tabulated by machine for the first time; the data reported that the distribution of the population had resulted in the disappearance of the American frontier. Most of the 1890 census materials were destroyed in a 1921 fire and fragments of the US census population schedule exist only for the states of Alabama, Illinois, New Jersey, New York, North Carolina, South Dakota, Texas, the District of Columbia; this was the first census in which a majority of states recorded populations of over one million, as well as the first in which multiple cities – New York as of 1880, Philadelphia – recorded populations of over one million. The census saw Chicago rank as the nation's second-most populous city, a position it would hold until 1990, in which Los Angeles would supplant it.
The 1890 census collected the following information: The 1890 census was the first to be compiled using methods invented by Herman Hollerith and was overseen by Superintendents Robert P. Porter and Carroll D. Wright. Data was entered on a machine readable medium, punched cards, tabulated by machine; the net effect of the many changes from the 1880 census: the larger population, the number of data items to be collected, the Census Bureau headcount, the volume of scheduled publications, the use of Hollerith's electromechanical tabulators, was to reduce the time required to process the census from eight years for the 1880 census to six years for the 1890 census. The total population of 62,947,714, the family, or rough, was announced after only six weeks of processing; the public reaction to this tabulation was disbelief, as it was believed that the "right answer" was at least 75,000,000. The United States census of 1890 showed a total of 248,253 Native Americans living in the United States, down from 400,764 Native Americans identified in the census of 1850.
The 1890 census announced that the frontier region of the United States no longer existed, that the Census Bureau would no longer track the westward migration of the U. S. population. Up to and including the 1880 census, the country had a frontier of settlement. By 1890, isolated bodies of settlement had broken into the unsettled area to the extent that there was hardly a frontier line; this prompted Frederick Jackson Turner to develop his Frontier Thesis. The original data for the 1890 Census is no longer available. All the population schedules were damaged in a fire in the basement of the Commerce Building in Washington, D. C. in 1921. Some 25 % of the materials were presumed another 50 % damaged by smoke and water; the damage to the records led to an outcry for a permanent National Archives. In December 1932, following standard federal record-keeping procedures, the Chief Clerk of the Bureau of the Census sent the Librarian of Congress a list of papers to be destroyed, including the original 1890 census schedules.
The Librarian was asked by the Bureau to identify any records which should be retained for historical purposes, but the Librarian did not accept the census records. Congress authorized destruction of that list of records on February 21, 1933, the surviving original 1890 census records were destroyed by government order by 1934 or 1935; the other censuses for which some information has been lost are the 1810 enumerations. Few sets of microdata from the 1890 census survive, but aggregate data for small areas, together with compatible cartographic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. Mayo-Smith, Richmond, "The Eleventh Census of the United States". In: The Economic Journal, Vol. 1, p. 43 - 58 1891 U. S Census Report Contains 1890 Census results Historical US Census data from the U. S. Census Bureau website Hollerith 1890 Census Tabulator by Columbia University "The Fate of the 1890 Population Census" from the National Archives website
Craig County, Virginia
Craig County is a county located in the Commonwealth of Virginia. As of the 2010 census, the population was 5,190, its county seat is New Castle. Craig County is part of VA Metropolitan Statistical Area. Nestled in the mountains of Southwest Virginia, Craig County was named for Robert Craig, a 19th-century Virginia congressman. Formed from Botetourt, Roanoke and Monroe Counties in 1851, it was enlarged with several subsequent additions from neighboring counties; the secluded, mountainous New Castle community, the county seat, features one of the commonwealth's antebellum court complexes, including a porticoed courthouse built in 1851. Craig Healing Springs, a collection of well-preserved early-20th-century resort buildings representative of the architecture of Virginia's more modest mountain spas, is located here. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 330.6 square miles, of which 329.5 square miles is land and 1.1 square miles is water. Alleghany County – north Botetourt County – east Roanoke County – southeast Montgomery County – south Giles County – southwest Monroe County, West Virginia – west Jefferson National Forest SR 18 SR 42 SR 311 As of the census of 2000, there were 5,091 people, 2,060 households, 1,507 families residing in the county.
The population density was 15 people per square mile. There were 2,554 housing units at an average density of 8 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 98.94% White, 0.20% Black or African American, 0.22% Native American, 0.16% Asian, 0.14% from other races, 0.35% from two or more races. 0.33% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 2,060 households out of which 30.80% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 61.90% were married couples living together, 7.00% had a female householder with no husband present, 26.80% were non-families. 23.90% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.50% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.45 and the average family size was 2.88. In the county, the population was spread out with 23.60% under the age of 18, 6.40% from 18 to 24, 29.70% from 25 to 44, 26.70% from 45 to 64, 13.60% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 40 years. For every 100 females there were 103.40 males.
For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 101.50 males. The median income for a household in the county was $37,314, the median income for a family was $41,750. Males had a median income of $26,713 versus $21,337 for females; the per capita income for the county was $17,322. About 6.60% of families and 10.30% of the population were below the poverty line, including 15.90% of those under age 18 and 10.50% of those age 65 or over. Craig City District: Rusty Zimmerman Craig Creek District: Casey McKenzie New Castle District: Jesse Spence Potts Mountain District: Carl Bailey Simmonsville District: Martha Murphy Clerk of the Circuit Court: Sharon P. Oliver Commissioner of the Revenue: Elizabeth Huffman Commonwealth's Attorney: Thaddeus R. Cox Sheriff: Trevor Craddock Treasurer: Jackie Parsons Craig County is represented by Republican Stephen D. "Steve" Newman in the Virginia Senate, Republican Gregory D. Habeeb in the Virginia House of Delegates, Republican H. Morgan Griffith in the U. S. House of Representatives.
New Castle Abbott Maggie Paint Bank Simmonsville National Register of Historic Places listings in Craig County, Virginia
A county seat is an administrative center, seat of government, or capital city of a county or civil parish. The term is used in Canada, Romania and the United States. County towns have a similar function in the United Kingdom and Republic of Ireland, in Jamaica. In most of the United States, counties are the political subdivisions of a state; the city, town, or populated place that houses county government is known as the seat of its respective county. The county legislature, county courthouse, sheriff's department headquarters, hall of records and correctional facility are located in the county seat though some functions may be located or conducted in other parts of the county if it is geographically large. A county seat is but not always, an incorporated municipality; the exceptions include the county seats of counties that have no incorporated municipalities within their borders, such as Arlington County, Virginia. Ellicott City, the county seat of Howard County, is the largest unincorporated county seat in the United States, followed by Towson, the county seat of Baltimore County, Maryland.
Some county seats may not be incorporated in their own right, but are located within incorporated municipalities. For example, Cape May Court House, New Jersey, though unincorporated, is a section of Middle Township, an incorporated municipality. In some of the colonial states, county seats include or included "Court House" as part of their name. In the Canadian provinces of Prince Edward Island, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, the term "shire town" is used in place of county seat. County seats in Taiwan are the administrative centers of the counties. There are 13 county seats in Taiwan, which are in the forms of county-administered city, urban township or rural township. Most counties have only one county seat. However, some counties in Alabama, Georgia, Kentucky, Mississippi, New Hampshire, New York, Vermont have two or more county seats located on opposite sides of the county. An example is Harrison County, which lists both Biloxi and Gulfport as county seats; the practice of multiple county seat towns dates from the days.
There have been few efforts to eliminate the two-seat arrangement, since a county seat is a source of pride for the towns involved. There are 36 counties with multiple county seats in 11 states: Coffee County, Alabama St. Clair County, Alabama Arkansas County, Arkansas Carroll County, Arkansas Clay County, Arkansas Craighead County, Arkansas Franklin County, Arkansas Logan County, Arkansas Mississippi County, Arkansas Prairie County, Arkansas Sebastian County, Arkansas Yell County, Arkansas Columbia County, Georgia Lee County, Iowa Campbell County, Kentucky Kenton County, Kentucky Essex County, Massachusetts Middlesex County, Massachusetts Plymouth County, Massachusetts Bolivar County, Mississippi Carroll County, Mississippi Chickasaw County, Mississippi Harrison County, Mississippi Hinds County, Mississippi Jasper County, Mississippi Jones County, Mississippi Panola County, Mississippi Tallahatchie County, Mississippi Yalobusha County, Mississippi Jackson County, Missouri Hillsborough County, New Hampshire Seneca County, New York Bennington County, Vermont In New England, the town, not the county, is the primary division of local government.
Counties in this region have served as dividing lines for the states' judicial systems. Connecticut and Rhode Island have no county level of thus no county seats. In Vermont and Maine the county seats are designated shire towns. County government consists only of a Superior Court and Sheriff, both located in the respective shire town. Bennington County has two shire towns. In Massachusetts, most government functions which would otherwise be performed by county governments in other states are performed by town or city governments; as such, Massachusetts has dissolved many of its county governments, the state government now operates the registries of deeds and sheriff's offices in those counties. In Virginia, a county seat may be an independent city surrounded by, but not part of, the county of which it is the administrative center. Two counties in South Dakota have their county seat and government services centered in a neighboring county, their county-level services are provided by Fall River Tripp County, respectively.
In Louisiana, divided into parishes rather than counties, county seats are referred to as parish seats. Alaska is divided into boroughs rather than counties; the Unorganized Borough, which covers 49 % of Alaska's area, has equivalent. The state with the most counties is Texas, with 254, the state with the fewest counties is Delaware, with 3. County seat war Administrative center County town, administrative centres in Ireland and the UK Chef-lieu, administrative centres in Algeria, Luxembourg, France and Tunisia Municipality, equivalent to county in many c
Tazewell County, Virginia
Tazewell County is a county located in the southwestern portion of the U. S. state of Virginia. As of the 2010 census, the population was 45,078, its county seat is Tazewell. Tazewell County is part of WV-VA Micropolitan Statistical Area, its economy was dependent on coal and iron of the Pocahontas Fields from the late 19th into the 20th century. Tazewell County was long a hunting ground for various historic Native American tribes and their ancestral indigenous cultures. Although rare in the eastern United States, there are petroglyphs near the summit of Paintlick Mountain. Among the tribes that occupied this area in historic times were the Lenape, the Iroquoian-speaking Cherokee and members of the Iroquois Confederacy. In the spring of 1771, Thomas and John Witten established the first permanent settlement in Tazewell County at Crab Orchard; as population increased in the area, Tazewell County was created on December 20, 1799. The land for the county was taken from portions of Russell counties, it was named after Henry Tazewell, a United States Senator from Virginia, state legislator and judge.
Delegate Littleton Waller Tazewell opposed the formation of the new county but when Simon Cotterel, who drew up the bill to form the county, changed the proposed name of the county to Tazewell's namesake, in honor of his father Henry who had died earlier that year, the bill passed. Jeffersonville was established the following year as the county seat. On February 29, 1892, Jeffersonville was renamed as Tazewell. During the early settlement period, many Scots-Irish settled through the Appalachian backcountry, including here and in what is now West Virginia, they tended to be yeoman farmers, owning fewer slaves than the planters in the Tidewater or some Piedmont areas. They developed political culture from eastern residents. During the American Civil War, West Virginia, which had many Union supporters, seceded from Virginia and the Confederacy, was admitted to the Union as an independent state. Tazewell County has long been overwhelmingly white in population. In the post-Reconstruction and late 19th century period, when the state imposed Jim Crow, Tazewell County had an unusually high level of lynchings of blacks compared to the rest of Virginia.
According to the Equal Justice Institute's report of lynchings in the South from 1877 to 1950, there were 10 lynchings in the county in this period, far exceeding the number in most other counties in the state, which had one or two. Most occurred during the late 19th and early 20th centuries, during the period of the coal boom and rapid social change in the region. Danville County had the second-highest total in the state, with five lynchings in this period; the last lynching in the state took place in Wytheville in 1926. In the early 20th century, Virginia had passed a new constitution disenfranchising most blacks. Construction of railroads in southwestern Virginia enabled the development of coal and iron resources in the Clinch Valley; the railroads and coal industry attracted new workers for industrial jobs, including blacks from other rural areas of the South and immigrants from Europe, which resulted in social tensions. Richlands had a boom economy in the early 1890s, became a rougher place with young industrial workers and more saloons.
Many whites resisted the entry of blacks into southwestern Virginia. The profits generated by the coal boom resulted in the development of mansions and the elaborate Richlands Hotel, said to rival the best hotels of New York City, but it was forced to close. It was used for other purposes. Samuel Garner was lynched in the town of Bluefield on September 16, 1889. On February 1, 1893, five black railroad workers were lynched in Richlands. Four of the men had been drinking the night before with two white store owners, in the presence of a "disreputable white woman", were accused of robbing and beating the whites; the black men were arrested the next day, the sheriff turned them over to a mob of nearly 80 whites who had formed. The mob conducted a mass hanging of the four that day. Prominent townsmen were leaders, including "James Hurt, a magistrate and member of the... town council, James Crabtree, a prominent businessman..." A fifth black railroad worker was killed on the street that day by a white man.
Residents posted signs on roads leading into warning blacks to stay away. Local communities tended to target such young, itinerant workers whose behavior they felt was outside their norms. John Peters was lynched in the town of Tazewell on April 22, 1900; the boom ended. Richlands became a center of the regional economy. Old Dominion College, which had used the Richland Hotel for its classes, moved to a location in Norfolk, Virginia; the hotel was demolished. Paramount's 1994 film Lassie was filmed here, it was based on stories of Albert Payson Terhune. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 520 square miles, of which 519 square miles is land and 1.1 square miles is water. Since it contains portions of the Ridge-and-Valley Appalachians and the Cumberland Plateau, Tazewell County has distinct geologic areas within the county. One of the most unusual areas is Burke's Garden, a bowl-shaped valley formed by the erosion of a doubly plunging anticline. Tazewell County includes the headwaters of four watersheds, which are the Upper Clinch, Middle New, North Fork Holston, Tug.
It has the headwaters of the Bluestone River, which flows into West Virginia, where a portion is protected as a Wild and Scenic River. McDowell County, West Virgin