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Gilgamesh was a historical king of the Sumerian city-state of Uruk, a major hero in ancient Mesopotamian mythology, the protagonist of the Epic of Gilgamesh, an epic poem written in Akkadian during the late second millennium BC. He ruled sometime between 2800 and 2500 BC and was posthumously deified, he became a major figure in Sumerian legends during the Third Dynasty of Ur. Tales of Gilgamesh's legendary exploits are narrated in five surviving Sumerian poems; the earliest of these is Gilgamesh and the Netherworld, in which Gilgamesh comes to the aid of the goddess Inanna and drives away the creatures infesting her huluppu tree. She gives him two unknown objects called a pikku, which he loses. After Enkidu's death, his shade tells Gilgamesh about the bleak conditions in the Underworld; the poem Gilgamesh and Agga describes Gilgamesh's revolt against his overlord King Agga. Other Sumerian poems relate Gilgamesh's defeat of the ogre Huwawa and the Bull of Heaven and a fifth, poorly preserved one describes his death and funeral.

In Babylonian times, these stories began to be woven into a connected narrative. The standard Akkadian Epic of Gilgamesh was composed by a scribe named Sîn-lēqi-unninni during the Middle Babylonian Period, based on much older source material. In the epic, Gilgamesh is a demigod of superhuman strength. Together, they go on adventures, defeating Humbaba and the Bull of Heaven, who, in the epic, is sent to attack them by Ishtar after Gilgamesh rejects her offer for him to become her consort. After Enkidu dies of a disease sent as punishment from the gods, Gilgamesh becomes afraid of his own death, visits the sage Utnapishtim, the survivor of the Great Flood, hoping to find immortality. Gilgamesh fails the trials set before him and returns home to Uruk, realizing that immortality is beyond his reach. Most classical historians agree that the Epic of Gilgamesh exerted substantial influence on both the Iliad and the Odyssey, two epic poems written in ancient Greek during the eighth century BC; the story of Gilgamesh's birth is described in a second-century AD anecdote from On the Nature of Animals by the Greek writer Aelian.

Aelian relates that Gilgamesh's grandfather kept his mother under guard to prevent her from becoming pregnant, because he had been told by an oracle that his grandson would overthrow him. She became pregnant and the guards threw the child off a tower, but an eagle rescued him mid-fall and delivered him safely to an orchard, where he was raised by the gardener; the Epic of Gilgamesh was rediscovered in the Library of Ashurbanipal in 1849. After being translated in the early 1870s, it caused widespread controversy due to similarities between portions of it and the Hebrew Bible. Gilgamesh remained obscure until the mid-twentieth century, since the late twentieth-century, he has become an prominent figure in modern culture. Most historians agree that Gilgamesh was a historical king of the Sumerian city-state of Uruk, who ruled sometime during the early part of the Early Dynastic Period. Stephanie Dalley, a scholar of the ancient Near East, states that "precise dates cannot be given for the lifetime of Gilgamesh, but they are agreed to lie between 2800 and 2500 BC."

No contemporary mention of Gilgamesh has yet been discovered, but the 1955 discovery of the Tummal Inscription, a thirty-four-line historiographic text written during the reign of Ishbi-Erra, has cast considerable light on his reign. The inscription credits Gilgamesh with building the walls of Uruk. Lines eleven through fifteen of the inscription read: Gilgamesh is referred to as a king by King Enmebaragesi of Kish, a known historical figure who may have lived near Gilgamesh's lifetime. Furthermore, Gilgamesh is listed as one of the kings of Uruk by the Sumerian King List. Fragments of an epic text found in Me-Turan relate that at the end of his life Gilgamesh was buried under the river bed; the people of Uruk diverted the flow of the Euphrates passing Uruk for the purpose of burying the dead king within the river bed. It is certain that, during the Early Dynastic Period, Gilgamesh was worshipped as a god at various locations across Sumer. In the twenty-first century BC, Utu-hengal, the king of Uruk, adopted Gilgamesh as his patron deity.

The kings of the Third Dynasty of Ur were fond of Gilgamesh, calling him their "divine brother" and "friend". King Shulgi of Ur declared himself the brother of Gilgamesh. Over the centuries, there may have been a gradual accretion of stories about Gilgamesh, some derived from the real lives of other historical figures, such as Gudea, the Second Dynasty ruler of Lagash. Prayers inscribed in clay tablets address Gilgamesh as a judge of the dead in the Underworld. During this period, a large number of myths and legends developed surrounding Gilgamesh. Five independent Sumerian poems narrating various exploits of Gilgamesh have survived to the present. Gilgamesh's first appearance in literature is in the Sumerian poem Gilgamesh and the Netherworld; the narrative begins with a huluppu tree—perhaps, according to the Sumerologist Samuel Noah Kramer, a willow, growing on the banks of the river Euphrates. The goddess Inanna moves the tree to her garden in Uruk with the intention to carve it into a throne once it is grown.

The tree grows and matures, but the serpent "who knows no charm," the Anzû-bird, Lilitu, the Sumerian forerunner to the Lilith of Jewish folklore, all tak


Badische Staatsbrauerei Rothaus is a brewery owned by the German state of Baden-Württemberg. Rothaus, at the northern edge of the village of Grafenhausen in the southern Black Forest, is one of Germany's most successful and profitable regional breweries; the brewery's most successful product, a Pilsner-style beer, "Rothaus Tannenzäpfle" or "Zäpfle", is sold in 33 cl bottles and is available in stores throughout Baden-Württemberg. It is well known as a "cult beer" throughout Germany and is sold in supermarkets and various nightlife establishments. Tannenzäpfle means "little fir cone" and is a reference to the shape of the bottle. Despite Rothaus refraining from intensive advertising campaigns, the demand for the once-local beer has spread throughout Germany; the Hefeweizen version of this beer is available on draught in All Bar One bars in the United Kingdom. Label The labels of the bottles are printed with an image of "Biergit Kraft", a blonde girl in traditional regional dress holding two glasses of beer.

Biergit's name is a pun. The label has a depiction of seven fir cones; the "Tannenzäpfle" is a variety of fir cone, the source of the beer's name. Instead of hanging downwards as in the image, these cones grow upwards from their branches; the inverted position of the cones is noted to be similar to the position of a bottle while it is being consumed. However, the seed cones depicted on the label are that of Picea abies, the Norway spruce, which grows in the Black Forest and has cones hanging down from its branches; the current label has been in use since 1972. The girl and fir cones were introduced in the first label in 1956 as part of a photorealistic illustration; the original label was used again as a limited edition in 2006 on the occasion of the 50th anniversary of the brand. Rothaus received its name from the patrician family “Roth”, which originated from the region of Klettgau and settled down in Grafenhausen around 1300 AD. In 1340, they began the construction of their homestead there, the “Rothe Haus”.

In 1660, the house was sold to a man named Michael Kaiser who would proceed to turn it into an Inn after obtaining a liquor license from the Benedictine monastery of St. Blasien; the order itself bought the premises 100 years and reconstructed it. Under the leadership of Martin Gerbert, prince-abbot of the abbey, the monks’ council decided in late 1790 to start attempts of brewing in January 1791. Gerbert's intention was to enhance the status of his lordship of Bonndorf over the nearby princedom of Fürstenberg. Fürstenberg had been in possession of a brewing license since the 13th century and would originate the “Fürstlich Fürstenbergische Brauerei”. Additionally, the brewery was a measure of economic promotion, as it was intended to create employment and to counteract the overpriced beer from Donaueschingen. However, there were claims that the monks had only wanted to suppress the drinking of liquor by those living in the Black Forest. Considering the nearby towns of St. Blasien and Bonndorf, the location of the brewery was convenient in terms of infrastructure.

This enabled the starting of an extensive brewery firm. To this day, the brewing water is extracted from seven in-house wells. Through the process of secularization, the possession of the monastery and its properties was transferred to the Grand Duchy of Baden in 1806. Since the brewery has been known as the Großherzoglich Badische Staatsbrauerei Rothaus; the November Revolution of 1918, which led to the abolition of the monarchy in Baden, caused the company to shorten their name to Badische Staatsbrauerei Rothaus, as from on the brewery was owned by the state of Baden-Württemberg. Since 1922, the company has had the legal form of a stock corporation, the shares of which are held by the associated company of the state. Between 1920 and 1933, Max Jäger mayor of the city of Rastatt, was the Rothaus brewery's manager. Under CEO Norbert Nothhelfer, a district president of Freiburg, Rothaus doubled its beer sales in a shrinking market in the 1990s. Capacity was increased to one million hectolitres per year.

In 1992, Rothaus acquired the Dominican Island of Constance including the island resort on it, leased to the Steigenberger Hotel Group. On 1 October 2004, Thomas Schäuble, former Minister of the Interior of Baden-Württemberg, became CEO of the brewery. In the fiscal year 2006, the brewery achieved a production volume of 937,000 hectoliters and revenue of 88.2 million Euros, making it the second largest brewery in the state after Eichbaum. 90 percent of the brewery's sales are made in Baden-Württemberg. Near the end of 2007, Rothaus acquired the hotel next to the brewery area and set up a fan shop there. Within an area of about one hectare a small adventure park containing the Zäpfleweg, which opened in 2008, as well as a playground, were created. In addition, state road 170 was relocated and a roundabout was built in order to make it more attractive as a destination; as of 2011, a total of 232 people are employed in its two sales offices. After Thomas Schäuble became ill, Gerhard Stratthaus, former Finance Minister of Baden-Württemberg, took over the management of the brewery on 5 September 2012.

Since 1 July 2013, the company has been managed by Christian Rasch. Rasch is the first nonpolitician in decades to be the manager of the State Brewery, it used to be common practice for former s

Papatoetoe Wildcats

Papatoetoe Wildcats is an American football club established in 1986 in South Auckland, New Zealand. The club was founded as the Central Pirates by Pose Tafa the East Auckland Wildcats, but moved to South Auckland renaming them as the Papatoetoe Wildcats; the club has produced some elite New Zealand based players. The Wildcats have a direct membership of 40 Premier Men playing in the American Football Auckland competition under the auspices of the New Zealand American Football Association or the NZAFA, its national body; the Wildcats have an Under 19s team and an Under 16s team. Most of the players come from various sporting codes from Rugby Union and Rugby League; the Wildcats practice at the Manukau Sportsbowl and previous practice at Papatoetoe Intermediate and the Papatoetoe Panthers Rugby League club grounds. The Wildcats have had a number of players play nationally and overseas: Tyer Matia who played for the Coventry Jets in 2007 and in 2009 played Arena Football in the AF2 league for the Rio Grande Dorados in Texas USA.

Tyler is assigned to play for the Dorados again in 2009. Tyler was a part of the New Zealand under 21 COlts national team that beat Australia on home soil in 2003 Joseph Taula is playing a season in the USA for the Arena Football AF2 team the Tri Cities Fever in Washington and was traded to the Stockton Lightning, he will be playing for the lightning again in 2009.. Joseph has played at all level s in New Zealand and represented New Zealand at the Colts and Senior Men's Ironblacks 2001 and 2003. Albert Bernard has been assigned by AF@ Agent Jason Vaka to the Iowa BArnstormers for 2009. Albert represented New Zealand as an Ironblack in 2001 and 2003. Thomas Wynne who played in a preseason game with the Coventry Jets in 2007 joined the Coventry Jets with Tyler Matia for Britbowl XXII winning 33 to 32 against rivals the London Blitz. Thomas represented New Zealand as an Ironblack in 2001 and in 2005; the club has established an ongoing relationship with British American football club the Coventry Jets 2002 Snr Kiwi Bowl XX Winners 2002 National Club III Winners 2002 U18 Kiwi Bowl IV Winners 2004 U18 Kiwi Bowl VI Winners 2008 Unified Kiwibowl XXVII Winners 2010 Unified Kiwibowl XXIX Winners 2011 Colts Unity Bowl Winners 2011 Unified Kiwibowl XXX Winners 2012 Colts Unity Bowl Winners 2014 Unified Kiwibowl XXXII Winners 2016 Unified Kiwibowl XXXIV Winners 2017 Unified Kiwibowl XXXV Winners American football in New Zealand American Football New Zealand Official Website Papatoetoe Wildcats Facebook


An expressman refers to anyone who has the duty of packing and ensuring the delivery of any cargo. During the late 19th and early 20th centuries, an expressman was someone whose responsibility it was to ensure the safe delivery of gold or currency, being shipped by railroad, and, secured in the "express car"; this job included guarding the safe or other strongboxes or coffers against outlaws, memorizing the safe's combination to use at delivery. For decades stagecoach drivers and baggage-wagoners performed many of the tasks that would be formalized under the title expressman; the first express companies, which developed in the early 19th century, contracted with stagecoach lines to carry their goods. By 1900 there were four major express companies; as express services matured into an industry, the tasks of stage-coach driver were divided among specialties, such as driver, agent and others, rendering them outmoded. Many of the stage-coach drivers transitioned into the express industry; some became expressmen.

With the expansion of the railroads, express companies shifted to use that faster form of transportation. On the railroads, the men who were called expressmen were referred to as conductors, as they were responsible for managing all or part of the express rail car; the title expressman was adopted as the specialty became more recognized. The express industry came about with the onset of the Industrial Revolution, it served a vital role in enabling companies to do business at national levels. The expressman served not only as a courier, but as a ethical agent of currency and other high-value items, was considered a valuable employee; the inherent danger in their job led some to arm themselves. On major routes whole passenger cars were reserved for the expressmen for their security, as these agents would sit away from passengers as much as possible. In one incident, an expressman in a reserved car was shot in the head three times and robbed by a man pretending to be another expressman, he survived, aided in the prosecution of his attacker.

On some routes, serial robberies were a serious concern. The expressmen would sometimes be accompanied by armed men for additional security, some enlisted the Pinkerton Agency, which became established in this era; the success of express shipping in the United States was adopted by Great Britain and Europe. Harnden & Co. established the Liverpool to Paris line. Within a decade, express routes had been extended to most principal cities on the European continent; the expressman as an occupation in the United States continued until President Woodrow Wilson's government nationalized the railroads on December 26, 1917, after the United States entered World War I. The United States Railroad Administration introduced changes to support the war effort, it standardized rolling steam locomotive designs. The railroads were returned to private owners after the war. Federal postal workers and parcel workers took over the management of US mail and packages on trains. At times railroads have used special freight conductors, to ride with trains to ensure the care and security of special cargo.

Mark Twain featured expressmen in his short tale, "The Invalid's Story."


Sedniv is a small urban-type settlement in Chernihiv Oblast, Ukraine. It is located in Chernihiv Raion. Population: 1,103 Sedniv is famous for being the hometown of the Cossack Lyzohub family; the population of Sedniv suffered from Holodomor and in 1932 it lost its status of town in part due to the effect of the Soviet Union's'Blackboard Policies'. From 1932-1959 Sedniv was a village. Sedniv is located at the location of the Ruthenian city of Snovsk, destroyed by the Tatars in 1239, it is unknown. It is known. Current research indicates the settlement called Sedniv in VII.century was named such by Danish colonialists. The prototype was from the name of the Danish settlement Seden. After the conquest of the lands now called Chernihiv by the Rurik Dynasty - the area was subsequently called Snovesk. In the chronicles first mentioned as sources of the ancient city-fortress Snovsk. Near him in 1068 Prince Svyatoslav with three thousand soldiers broke the 12 thousandth Polovtsian army; the name comes from the River Snov.

Folk legend tells other versions of the town's name: "The devastating hordes of the Crimean Tatars attacked Snovsk, but could not take the city-fortress. The Tartars called the defending city of Snovsk "Sidnaame", which translated from Tatar language as if to mean evil and brave. Hence - Sedniv." In the X - XI. centuries, Snovsk was one of the strongholds of Kievan Rus, the center of a separate administrative unit - Snovskian Thousand. In the XII-XIII. Centuries, Snovsk was part of the Chernihiv principality but destroyed by Tatars invaders in 1239. In the mid-XIV. Century, the city became part of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania; the drawing on the left is the Kamianytsia Lyzohub, 1846 a depiction of the Lyzohub stone-house created by Ukrainian icon, Taras Shevchenko in 1846. 1648-1781 - Sedniv was sotnia town within the Chernihiv Regiment, - the parish town of Little Russia in the Chernihiv province. In 1659 there was a short time. At the end of the XVII. century, Sedniv became a chattel to the Cossack family Lyzohub.

Since 1782 - it was in the national district of the Chernihiv province in 1797 - the center of the parish of the same district called the Little Russian province, from 1802 - back to the Chernihiv province. In the middle of the XIX. century, the city was divided into two parts: Mills and Tanners. 1917 Sedniv joined the Ukrainian People's Republic "UNR". January 20, 1918 Sedniv first Russian Bolshevik gang appeared. March 18, 1918 Sedniv was released by Ukrainian troops. January 10, 1919 in Sedniv there was a battle between soldiers of the army of UPA and red Bogunskiy regiment. 25 killed in the battle of UPA soldiers buried at the local cemetery. In August 1920, the Communist Sednivska village council began. In March 1923, Sednivska parish was included in the Gorodnya district and Sedniv became the center of the village council. Since August 1929 Sednivska village council has been a part of the Chernihiv region; the city suffered from the genocide of 1932-33s, which stemmed from the Soviet authorities because of the massive resistance of the occupied territories of the UNR region.

In 1932 within the village there was mass disobedience, with many attacking those who collaborated with the Communists - the Komsomol, because they robbed the elderly people and large families. Given the systematic resistance confiscation of illegal products, the submission of Chernigov district committee of the CP U, city languished under the'Black-board', its status was downgraded to that of village. Being one of 13 settlements in the Chernihiv region that were under the'Blackboards' many experienced deep psychosis from starving hunger with reported cannibalism, mass death, infectious disease and hunger shock; the hardest hit population group were those under 15 years of age. The village is on the list of historic settlements of Ukraine approved by the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine in 2001; the village is located on the River. Snov, sits about 25 km from the railway station in Chernihiv. 1. St. George's church: is a wooden church of St. George, built no than 1747, according to legend - in the 17th century.2.

In Sedniv remains of the remains of its ancient city walls. 3. Manor Lyzohub based Chernihiv Colonel James Lizogubom, created from the late 17th to the beginning of the 20th century. 4. Church of the Resurrection, tribal tomb Lyzohub, 1690. 5. Museum Chernihiv energy. Brief information at the Verkhovna Rada website Sedniv at the Castles and temples of Ukraine website

Keith Rowland

Keith Rowland is a former footballer who played as a defender with Bournemouth, Coventry City, West Ham United, Queens Park Rangers, Luton Town, Chesterfield Barnet, Hornchurch and Welling United. Rowland is the manager of Aveley, he represented Northern Ireland, winning 19 caps. He was most the head coach of Wingate & Finchley. Rowland was signed by Bournemouth manager Harry Redknapp making his league debut appearance against Darlington on 17 August 1991, he had two loan spells away from The Cherries at Farnborough Town and at Coventry City where he made two substitute appearances. In the summer of 1993, with Redknapp now assistant manager to Billy Bonds at West Ham, was signed for £110,000 alongside midfielder Paul Mitchell. Rowland played 91 games in all competitions for West Ham, scoring only one goal, in a 1–1 away draw against Newcastle United in November 1996, he found his first team opportunities limited in his time at West Ham due to injury and the form of first team regulars Julian Dicks and David Burrows.

In January 1998 Rowland moved to Queens Park Rangers along with Iain Dowie as part of the deal which saw Trevor Sinclair move to Upton Park. Rowland made his QPR debut in January 1998 against Stockport County and went on to make 56 league appearances, scoring three goals, he stayed at the QPR until August 2001, which included a period on loan, at Luton Town, before moving to Chesterfield on a free transfer. He made only 12 appearances for Chesterfield before signing for Barnet in March 2003; the summer of 2003 saw Rowland's final Football League appearance before he made his move into non-League football. After coaching at Aveley, Rowland followed manager Rod Stringer to Braintree Town in May 2010 where he was first-team coach. After managerial contract negotiations failed, he left the club with Stringer in May 2011. On 14 June 2011, Rowland returned to Braintree as Assistant Manager to Alan Devonshire. In January 2016, Rowland was appointed manager of Finchley. During Rowland's time at the club, Wingate recorded two record high finishes in the Isthmian League Premier Division.

On 29 August 2019, Rowland returned to Aveley as manager. Rowland gained 19 caps for Northern Ireland scoring one goal in a 1–0 win against Finland on 10 October 1998, he was first capped whilst with West Ham making his international debut on 8 September 1993 against Latvia. His final game came on 9 May 1999 in a 1–0 win against Ireland. Scores and results list Northern Ireland's goal tally first. Keith Rowland at Soccerbase