Gilgit-Baltistan known as the Northern Areas, is a region administered by Pakistan as an administrative territory, constituting the northern portion of the larger Kashmir region, the subject of a dispute between India and Pakistan since 1947, between India and China from somewhat later. It is the northernmost territory administered by Pakistan, it borders Azad Kashmir to the south, the province of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa to the west, the Wakhan Corridor of Afghanistan to the north, the Xinjiang region of China, to the east and northeast, the Indian-administered union territories Jammu and Kashmir and Ladakh to the southeast. Gilgit-Baltistan is part of the greater Kashmir region, the subject of a long-running conflict between Pakistan and India; the territory shares a border with Azad Kashmir, together with which it is referred to by the United Nations and other international organisations as "Pakistan administered Kashmir". Gilgit-Baltistan is six times the size of Azad Kashmir; the territory borders Indian-administered union territories Jammu and Kashmir and Ladakh to the south and is separated from it by the Line of Control, the de facto border between India and Pakistan.
The territory of present-day Gilgit-Baltistan became a separate administrative unit in 1970 under the name "Northern Areas". It was formed by the amalgamation of the former Gilgit Agency, the Baltistan district and several small former princely states, the larger of which being Hunza and Nagar. In 2009, it was granted limited autonomy and renamed to Gilgit-Baltistan via the Self-Governance Order signed by President of Pakistan Asif Ali Zardari, which aimed to empower the people of Gilgit-Baltistan. However, scholars state that the real power rests with the governor and not with chief minister or elected assembly; the population of Gilgit-Baltistan wants to be merged into Pakistan as a separate fifth province and opposes integration with Kashmir. The Pakistani government has rejected Gilgit-Baltistani calls for integration with Pakistan on the grounds that it would jeopardise its demands for the whole Kashmir issue to be resolved according to UN resolutions. Gilgit-Baltistan covers an area of over 72,971 km² and is mountainous.
It had an estimated population of 1,800,000 in 2015. Its capital city is Gilgit. Gilgit-Baltistan is home to five of the "eight-thousanders" and more than fifty peaks above 7,000 metres. Three of the world's longest glaciers outside the polar regions are found in Gilgit-Baltistan; the main tourism activities are trekking and mountaineering, this industry is growing in importance. The rock carvings found in various places in Gilgit-Baltistan those found in the Passu village of Hunza, suggest a human presence since 2000 BC. Within the next few centuries after human settlement in the Tibetan plateau, this region became inhabited by Tibetans, who preceded the Balti people of Baltistan. Today Baltistan bears similarity to culturally. Dards are found in the western areas; these people are the Shina-speaking peoples of Gilgit, Chilas and Diamir while in Hunza and in the upper regions Burushaski and Khowar speakers dominate. The Dards find mention in the works of Herodotus, Megasthenes, Pliny and the geographical lists of the Puranas.
In the 1st century, the people of these regions were followers of the Bon religion while in the 2nd century, they followed Buddhism. Between 399 and 414, the Chinese Buddhist pilgrim Faxian visited Gilgit-Baltistan, while in the 6th century Somana Palola was ruled by an unknown king. Between 627 and 645, the Chinese Buddhist pilgrim Xuanzang travelled through this region on his pilgrimage to India. According to Chinese records from the Tang dynasty, between the 600s and the 700s, the region was governed by a Buddhist dynasty referred to as Bolü transliterated as Palola, Balur, they are believed to be the Palola Sāhi dynasty mentioned in a Brahmi inscription, are devout adherents of Vajrayana Buddhism. At the time, Little Palola was used to refer to Gilgit, while Great Palola was used to refer to Baltistan. However, the records do not disambiguate the two. In mid-600s, Gilgit came under Chinese suzerainty after the fall of Western Turkic Khaganate due to Tang military campaigns in the region. In the late 600s CE, the rising Tibetan Empire wrestled control of the region from the Chinese.
However, faced with growing influence of the Umayyad Caliphate and the Abbasid Caliphate to the west, the Tibetans were forced to ally themselves with the Islamic caliphates. The region was contested by Chinese and Tibetan forces, their respective vassal states, until the mid-700s. Rulers of Gilgit held back the Arabs with their help. Between 644 and 655, Navasurendrāditya-nandin became king of Palola Sāhi dynasty in Gilgit. Numerous Sanskrit inscriptions, including the Danyor Rock Inscriptions, were discovered to be from his reign. In the late 600s and early 700s, Jayamaṅgalavikramāditya-nandin was king of Gilgit. According to Chinese court records, in 717 and 719 delegations of a ruler of Great Palola named Su-fu-she-li-ji-li-ni reached the Chinese imperial court. By at least 719/720, Ladakh became part of the Tibetan Empire. By that time, Buddhism was practiced in Baltistan, Sanskrit was the written language. In 720, the delegation of Surendrāditya reached the Chinese imperial court, he was referred to by the Chinese recor
Shankar Guha Niyogi was the founder of the Chhattisgarh Mukti Morcha, a labor union run in the town of Dalli Rajhara Mines in Chhattisgarh. Shankar was born in a middle-class family, his father's name was mother's name Kalyani. He received his primary education at the village of Jamunamukh of the Naogaon district of Assam, the beautiful natural scenario of Assam made him a lover of nature, he received his high-school education when he was living with his uncle in the Sanktoria coalfield area near Asansol. Looking at the lives of the coal-miners, he began to understand how the rich get richer and the poor get poorer. While studying the Intermediate Science Course in Jalpaiguri, he got involved in student movement and became a devoted worker of Students' Federation; the wave of the food movement all over Bengal in 1959 swept him away. He got the membership of the undivided Communist Party of India as a skilful student organizer; as he was intensely involved in student politics, his results in the examination were not good.
Yet he was allotted a seat for studying engineering in Jalpaiguri on the strength of family recommendation. But he considered it an undue privilege and deserted his home, it was the year 196I, when it was not difficult to find an employment in the BSP. I heard from Niyogi that the recruiting officer of the plant used to sit before a table at the Durg railway station, the purpose being to recruit for the plant those who had come from outside to seek employment. Dhiresh's age was a few months less than eighteen, the minimum age for employment. So he had to wait for some time, he underwent a training course, after which he was employed as a skilled worker at the coke-oven department of the plant. He had nursed a desire for higher education, hence began to study the BSc and AMIH courses at Durg's science college as a private student. Dhiresh gave leadership to the student movement of that college. Sweepers of the Durg municipality, informed of this skilful leader, came to him, realized their demands after a successful strike under his leadership.
The recognized union of the steel plant was affiliated to the INTUC. The next largest union was that of the AITUC. Niyogi, while remaining with the AITUC, went on organizing the workers independently for the solution of their various problems. In 1964, the CPI split into two, Dhiresh joined the CPI. At that time, he studied classical Marxism–Leninism under the guidance of Dr B S Yadu, a veteran communist physician. The. Naxalbari uprising of 1967 created a stir in Madhya Pradesh too, all the CPI activists of this province were influenced by it. Dhiresh came in contact with the All-India Coordination Committee of Communist Revolutionaries. After the formation of the CPI on 22 April 1969, he was associated with it for some time, but failure to adapt his own activities to the party line of boycott of mass organizations and mass lines led to his expulsion from the party. Meanwhile, some events had taken place. Dhiresh lost his job after leading the first successful strike in the BSP. On the other hand, the police, having branded him a Naxalite, was looking for him.
At that time, he went underground and began to take his thoughts to the ordinary workers by means of a Hindi weekly. Inspired by Lenin's Iskra, he named the weekly Sphulinga. Side by side, he began preparations for going to the villages. During this period, he came to the realization that for the victory of the working class movement, it was essential to form a bond between this class and the exploited Chhattisgarhi nationality, he wrote a booklet on the nationality problem of Chhattisgarh, proscribed by the police when it was coming to Chhattisgarh after getting printed in Maharashtra. In order to know Chhattisgarh and its people, in order to be integrated with them, he, from 1968, went on passing his days incognito in the villages. Sometimes he assumed the identity of a seller of goats, buying goats in the villages and selling them in Durg and Bhilai, he could in this way maintain his contacts with his comrades there. Sometimes he was sometimes a fisherman or a PWD labourer. Alongside, he continued the work of organizing the people through movements, e.g. movement for the construction of the Daihan dam, movement of the peasants of Balod for irrigation water, movement of the adivasis against the construction of the Mongra dam.
In 1971, he got employment as a contract labourer in Danitola Quartzite mine of the BSP. This is the period. Here he made his acquaintance with daughter of his co-labourer Siyaram; the first miners' union organized by him was located in Danitola, although under the banner of the AITUC. Before his arrest under the MISA during the Emergency in 1975, Niyogi's organizational activities were in Danitola; the largest iron ore mines of the BSP were situated in Dalli-Rajhara. When Niyogi was imprisoned in Raipur Jail, contract miners of Dalli-Rajhara were vigorously engaged in a spontaneous movement; the leadership of the INTUC and the AITUC entered into an unjust agreement with the BSP management, according to which, permanent workers and contract labourers were to receive Rs 308 and Rs 70 per head although both categories of workers did the same type of work. Workers came out of the two unions in protest against this unjust agreement, it was the la
The California Digital Newspaper Collection is a freely-available, archive of digitized California Newspapers. The collection contains 433,033 issues comprising 32,437,924 articles; the project is part of the Center for Bibliographical Studies and Research at the University of California Riverside. The Center for Bibliographical Studies and Research, was one of six initial participants, in the National Digital Newspaper Program. Between 2005 and 2011, the CBSR received three, 2-year grants, contributed around 300,000 pages to Chronicling America, the public face of the NDNP. Published newspaper titles submitted include, the San Francisco Call, Los Angeles Daily Herald, Amador Ledger, the Imperial Valley Press. In 2015, the CBSR received a 4th grant from the National Digital Newspaper Project. Between 2015 and 2017, the project contributed another 100,000 pages from the Gold Rush Era, as well as, Foreign Language newspapers; the California Digital Newspaper Collection was launched in 2007, contained the initial 100,000 pages produced for the National Digital Newspaper Project from 2005 to 2007.
Another 50,000 pages were created, with support from the Institute of Museum and Library Services, under the provisions of the Library Services and Technology Act, administered in California by the State Librarian. All content contributed to NDNP is hosted in the CDNC, with important differences, noted below in Digitization. Between 2007 and 2013, the CDNC digitized 300,000 pages through the LSTA program, administered by the California State Library. In 2014, the project announced a 5-Year Plan, supported by LSTA, to digitize one title per county, up through 1923. In 2010, the CDNC initiated the Born Digital Project, with the goal to collect and host contemporary PDFs from newspaper publishers. A dozen publishers have or do participate in the project. See California Digital Newspaper Collection for more information; the California Digital Newspaper Collection follows standards established by the National Digital Newspaper Program. Microfilm or newsprint is scanned to create TIFF images; the CBSR manages an archive of 100,000 reels of negative film.
These are maintained by the California Newspaper Microfilm Archive. When negative film isn't available positive can be used, but image quality and OCR will not be as good; the TIFF images are processed or "digitized" to create derivative files, including a JP2, PDF, METS/ALTO XML for each page. Unlike NDNP, the CDNC has traditionally digitized to article-level rather than just page-level. Individual "segments" on a page—articles, advertisements, etc.--are identified during digitization and can be retrieved by the researcher. For an illustration of the difference between page- and article-level, compare the San Francisco Call in the CDNC to the same title in Chronicling America; the CDNC has begun digitizing some titles to page-level, but most are still article-level. The main advantage of page-level is lower cost when done in an automated fashion, without human input. Amador Ledger Antelope Valley Political Observer Beach and Bay Press Belvedere Citizen / Eastside Journal Black Voice News California Crusader News California Farmer and Journal of Useful Sciences California Star & Californian California Star The Californian Coronado Eagle & Journal Coronado Tent City Daily Program Corsair Daily Alta California The Desert Sun Eagle Rock Advertiser Eagle Rock Sentinel Eastside Journal / Belvedere Citizen El Sereno Star Elevator Experience Highland Park Herald Highland Park News-Herald & Journal Highland Park Post-Dispatch Imperial Valley Press LA Downtown News La Jolla Village News Readers Choice Awards La Jolla Village News Livermore Herald Livermore Journal Lompoc Journal Los Angeles Herald Los Angeles Star Madera Mercury Madera Tribune Marin County Tocsin Marin Journal Marinscope Mariposa Gazette Marysville Daily Appeal Marysville Daily Herald Mountain Echo Occidental Pacific Appeal Pacific Rural Press Palos Verdes Peninsula News Peninsula Beacon Placer Times Red Bluff Beacon gmf Red Bluff Daily News Red Bluff Independent Red Bluff News Sacramento Daily Union Sacramento Transcript Sacramento Union San Diego Downtow