International Standard Serial Number
An International Standard Serial Number is an eight-digit serial number used to uniquely identify a serial publication, such as a magazine. The ISSN is helpful in distinguishing between serials with the same title. ISSN are used in ordering, interlibrary loans, other practices in connection with serial literature; the ISSN system was first drafted as an International Organization for Standardization international standard in 1971 and published as ISO 3297 in 1975. ISO subcommittee TC 46/SC 9 is responsible for maintaining the standard; when a serial with the same content is published in more than one media type, a different ISSN is assigned to each media type. For example, many serials are published both in electronic media; the ISSN system refers to these types as electronic ISSN, respectively. Conversely, as defined in ISO 3297:2007, every serial in the ISSN system is assigned a linking ISSN the same as the ISSN assigned to the serial in its first published medium, which links together all ISSNs assigned to the serial in every medium.
The format of the ISSN is an eight digit code, divided by a hyphen into two four-digit numbers. As an integer number, it can be represented by the first seven digits; the last code digit, which may be 0-9 or an X, is a check digit. Formally, the general form of the ISSN code can be expressed as follows: NNNN-NNNC where N is in the set, a digit character, C is in; the ISSN of the journal Hearing Research, for example, is 0378-5955, where the final 5 is the check digit, C=5. To calculate the check digit, the following algorithm may be used: Calculate the sum of the first seven digits of the ISSN multiplied by its position in the number, counting from the right—that is, 8, 7, 6, 5, 4, 3, 2, respectively: 0 ⋅ 8 + 3 ⋅ 7 + 7 ⋅ 6 + 8 ⋅ 5 + 5 ⋅ 4 + 9 ⋅ 3 + 5 ⋅ 2 = 0 + 21 + 42 + 40 + 20 + 27 + 10 = 160 The modulus 11 of this sum is calculated. For calculations, an upper case X in the check digit position indicates a check digit of 10. To confirm the check digit, calculate the sum of all eight digits of the ISSN multiplied by its position in the number, counting from the right.
The modulus 11 of the sum must be 0. There is an online ISSN checker. ISSN codes are assigned by a network of ISSN National Centres located at national libraries and coordinated by the ISSN International Centre based in Paris; the International Centre is an intergovernmental organization created in 1974 through an agreement between UNESCO and the French government. The International Centre maintains a database of all ISSNs assigned worldwide, the ISDS Register otherwise known as the ISSN Register. At the end of 2016, the ISSN Register contained records for 1,943,572 items. ISSN and ISBN codes are similar in concept. An ISBN might be assigned for particular issues of a serial, in addition to the ISSN code for the serial as a whole. An ISSN, unlike the ISBN code, is an anonymous identifier associated with a serial title, containing no information as to the publisher or its location. For this reason a new ISSN is assigned to a serial each time it undergoes a major title change. Since the ISSN applies to an entire serial a new identifier, the Serial Item and Contribution Identifier, was built on top of it to allow references to specific volumes, articles, or other identifiable components.
Separate ISSNs are needed for serials in different media. Thus, the print and electronic media versions of a serial need separate ISSNs. A CD-ROM version and a web version of a serial require different ISSNs since two different media are involved. However, the same ISSN can be used for different file formats of the same online serial; this "media-oriented identification" of serials made sense in the 1970s. In the 1990s and onward, with personal computers, better screens, the Web, it makes sense to consider only content, independent of media; this "content-oriented identification" of serials was a repressed demand during a decade, but no ISSN update or initiative occurred. A natural extension for ISSN, the unique-identification of the articles in the serials, was the main demand application. An alternative serials' contents model arrived with the indecs Content Model and its application, the digital object identifier, as ISSN-independent initiative, consolidated in the 2000s. Only in 2007, ISSN-L was defined in the
Azad Jammu and Kashmir, abbreviated as AJK and known as Azad Kashmir, is a nominally self-governing jurisdiction administered by Pakistan. The territory lies west of the Indian-administered state of Jammu and Kashmir, was part of the former princely state of Jammu and Kashmir. Azad Kashmir is part of the greater Kashmir region, the subject of a long-running conflict between Pakistan and India; the territory shares a border with Gilgit-Baltistan, together with which it is referred to by the United Nations and other international organisations as "Pakistan administered Kashmir". Azad Kashmir is one-sixth of the size of Gilgit-Baltistan; the territory borders Pakistan's Punjab province to the south and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province to the west. To the east, Azad Kashmir is separated from the state of Jammu and Kashmir by the Line of Control, the de facto border between India and Pakistan. Azad Kashmir has a total area of 13,297 square kilometres, a total population of 4,045,366 as per the 2017 Census.
The territory has a parliamentary form of government modeled after the Westminster system, with its capital located at Muzaffarabad. The President is the constitutional head of state, while the Prime Minister, supported by a Council of Ministers, is the chief executive; the unicameral Azad Kashmir Legislative Assembly elects both President. The state has its own Supreme Court and a High Court, while the Government of Pakistan's Ministry of Kashmir Affairs and Gilgit-Baltistan serves as a link with Azad Kashmir's government, although Azad Kashmir is not represented in the Parliament of Pakistan; the 2005 earthquake killed 100,000 people and left another three million people displaced, with widespread devastation. Since with help from the Government of Pakistan and foreign donors, reconstruction of infrastructure is underway. Azad Kashmir's economy depends on agriculture, services and remittances sent by members of the British Mirpuri community. Nearly 87% of the households own farms in Azad Kashmir, while the region has a literacy rate of 72% and has the highest school enrollment in Pakistan.
The northern part of Azad Jammu and Kashmir encompasses the lower area of the Himalayas, including Jamgarh Peak. However, Hari Parbat peak in Neelum Valley is the highest peak in the state. Fertile, mountainous valleys are characteristic of Azad Kashmir's geography, making it one of the most beautiful regions of the subcontinent; the region receives rainfall in the summer. Muzaffarabad and Pattan are among the wettest areas of Pakistan. Throughout most of the region, the average rainfall exceeds 1400 mm, with the highest average rainfall occurring near Muzaffarabad. During the summer season, monsoon floods of the rivers Jhelum and Leepa are common due to extreme rains and snow melting. At the time of the Partition of India in 1947, the British abandoned their suzerainty over the princely states, which were left with the options of joining India or Pakistan or remaining independent. Hari Singh, the maharaja of Jammu and Kashmir, wanted his state to remain independent. Muslims in Western Jammu province and the Frontier Districts Province had wanted to join Pakistan.
In Spring 1947, an uprising against the Maharaja broke out in Poonch, an area bordering the Rawalpindi division of West Punjab. Maharaja's administration is said to have started levying punitive taxes on the peasantry which provoked a local revolt and the administration resorted to brutal suppression; the area's population, swelled by demobilised soldiers following World War II, rebelled against the Maharaja's forces and gained control of the entire district. Following this victory, the pro-Pakistan chieftains of the western districts of Muzaffarabad and Mirpur proclaimed a provisional Azad Jammu and Kashmir government in Rawalpindi on October 3, 1947. Ghulam Nabi Gilkar, under the assumed name "Mr. Anwar," issued a proclamation in the name of the provisional government in Muzaffarabad. However, this government fizzled out with the arrest of Anwar in Srinagar. On October 24, a second provisional government of Azad Kashmir was established at Palandri under the leadership of Sardar Ibrahim Khan.
On October 21, several thousand Pashtun tribesmen from North-West Frontier Province poured into Jammu and Kashmir to liberate it from the Maharaja's rule. They were equipped with modern arms; the Maharaja's crumbling forces were unable to withstand the onslaught. The raiders captured the towns of Muzaffarabad and Baramulla, the latter 20 miles northwest of the state capital Srinagar. On October 24, the Maharaja requested military assistance from India, which responded that it was unable to help him unless he acceded to India. Accordingly, on October 26, 1947, Maharaja Hari Singh signed an Instrument of Accession, handing over control of defence, external affairs and communications to the Government of India in return for military aid. Indian troops were airlifted into Srinagar. Pakistan intervened subsequently. Fighting ensued between the Indian and Pakistani armies, with the two areas of control more or less stabilised around what is now known as the "Line of Control". India approached the United Nations, asking it to resolve the dispute, resolutions were passed in favour of the holding of a plebiscite with regard to Kashmir's future.
However, no such plebiscite has been held on either side, since there was a precondition which required the withdrawal of the Pakistani Army along with the non-state elements and the subsequent partial withdrawa
The Pakistan Army is the principal land warfare uniformed service branch of the Pakistan Armed Forces. It came into its modern existence from the British Indian Army that ceased to exist following the partition of British India that resulted in the parliamentary act that established the independence of Pakistan from the United Kingdom on 14 August 1947. According to the estimation provided by the International Institute for Strategic Studies in 2017, the Pakistan Army has 550,000 active duty personnel, supported by the Army Reserve and the Army National Guard. In Pakistan, the age of military enlistment is 17–23 years of age for voluntary military service; the primary objective and its constitutional mission is to ensure the national security and national unity of Pakistan by defending it against external aggression or threat of war, internal threat by maintaining peace and security within its land borders by requisitioning it by the federal government to cope with internal threats. During the events of national calamities and emergency, it conducts humanitarian rescue operations at home as well as participating in the peacekeeping missions mandated by the United Nations, most notably playing a major role in rescuing the trapped U.
S. soldiers in Somalia in 1993 and Bosnian War in 1992–95. The Pakistan Army, a major component of the national power alongside with the Pakistan's Navy, Air Force, Marines, is a volunteer force, involved with four wars on its borders with neighboring India and several border skirmishes on its porous border with Afghanistan. Since 1960s, the elements of the army has been deployed to act as military advisory in the Arab states during the events of Arab–Israeli wars, aided the UN-based coalition in the first Gulf War. Other notable military operations in the theater of War on Terror in the 21st century included: Zarb-e-Azb, Black Thunderstorm, Rah-e-Nijat. In violation of its constitutional mandate, it has overthrown elected governments overreaching its constitutional mandate protected by the Constitution to "act in aid of civilian federal government when called upon to do so", the army has been involved in enforcing martial law against the elected governments in claiming to restore law and order in the country by dismissing the legislative branch, the Parliament, four times in past decades, has wider commercial and political interests in the country, facing allegations of acting as state within a state.
The Pakistan Army has a regimental system but is operationally and geographically divided into command zones, with basic field of being the corps. The Constitution establishes the role of President of Pakistan to be the civilian Commander-in-Chief; the Pakistan Army is commanded by the Chief of Army Staff, by statute a four-star rank general, senior member of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Committee is appointed by the Prime Minister and confirmed by the President of Pakistan. The Pakistan Army is under the command of General Qamar Javed Bajwa appointed on 29 November 2016. Existence and its constitutional role is protected by the Constitution of Pakistan, where its role to serves as land-based uniform service branch of the Pakistan Armed Forces. In the Chapter 2: Armed Forces in the PartXII: Miscellaneous codified the mission and purpose of the army as alongside with the other parts of the Armed Forces as such: The Constitution of Pakistan establishes the principal land warfare uniform branch in the Pakistan Armed Forces as its states: The Armed Forces shall, under the directions of the Federal Government, defend Pakistan against external aggression or threat of war, subject to law, act in aid of civil power when called upon to do so The Pakistan Army came into its modern birth from the division of the British Indian Army that ceased to exist as a result of the partition of India that resulted in the creation of Pakistan on 14 August 1947.
Before the partition took place, there were plans ahead of dividing the British Indian Army in different parts based on the religious and ethnic influence on the areas of India. On 30 June 1947, the War Department of the British administration in India began planning the dividing of the ~400,000 men strong British Indian Army, but that only begin few weeks before the partition of India that resulted in violent religious violence in India; the Armed Forces Reconstitution Committee under the chairmanship of British Field Marshal Sir Claude Auchinleck had devised the formula to divide the military assets between India and Pakistan with ratio of 2:1, respectively. Major division of the army was overseen by Sir Chandulal Madhavlal Trivedi, an Indian civil servant, influential in making sure that ~260,000 men would be transferred into forming the Indian Army whilst the remainder balance going to Pakistan after the independence act was enacted by the United Kingdom on the night of 14/15 August 1947.
Command and control at all levels of the new army was difficult, as Pakistan had received six armoured, eight artillery and eight infantry regiments compared to the twelve armoured, forty artillery and twenty-one infantry regiments that went to India. In total, the size of the new army was about ~150,000 men strong. To fill the vacancy in the command positions of the new army, around 13,500 military officers from the British Army had to be employed in the Pakistan Army, quiet in larger number, under the command of Lieutenant-General Frank Messervy, the first commander-in-chief of the Pakistan Army. Eminent fears of India's seizing the control over the state of Kashmir, the armed tribes and the irregular militia scouts entered in the Muslim-majority valley of Kashmir to oppose
Baltistan (Urdu: بلتستان, Balti: སྦལ་ཏི་སྟཱན known as Baltiyul or Little Tibet, is a mountainous region of Pakistan and India near the Karakoram mountains just south of K2. Baltistan borders Gilgit to the west, Xinjiang in the north, Ladakh on the southeast and the Kashmir Valley on the southwest, its average altitude is over 3,350 metres. Prior to 1947, Baltistan was part of the princely state of Jammu and Kashmir, having been conquered by Raja Gulab Singh's armies in 1840. Baltistan and Ladakh were administered jointly under one wazarat of the state. Baltistan retained its identity in this set-up as the Skardu tehsil, with Kargil and Leh being the other two tehsils of the district. After the Maharaja of Jammu and Kashmir acceded to India, Gilgit Scouts overthrew the Maharaja's governor in Gilgit and captured Baltistan; the Gilgit Agency and Baltistan have been governed by Pakistan since. The Kashmir Valley and the Kargil and Leh tehsils were retained by India. A small portion of Baltistan, including the village of Turtuk in the Nubra Valley, was incorporated into Ladakh after the Indo-Pakistani War of 1971.
The region is inhabited by Balti people of Tibetan descent. Millennia-old Tibetan culture, norms and scripts still exist, although the vast majority of the population follows Islam. Baltistan is strategically significant to India; the region is the setting for Three Cups of Tea. The 1911 Encyclopaedia Britannica characterises Baltistan as the western extremity of Tibet, whose natural limits are the Indus river from its abrupt southward bend around the map point 35.86°N 74.72°E / 35.86. These features separate a comparatively peaceful Tibetan population from the fiercer Indo-Aryan tribes to the west. Muslim writers around the 16th century speak of Baltistan as the "Little Tibet", of Ladakh as the "Great Tibet", emphasising their ethnological similarity. According to Ahmad Hassan Dani, Baltistan spreads upwards from the Indus river and is separated from Ladakh by the Siachen glacier, it includes the lower valley of the Shyok river. Baltistan is a rocky mass of the prevailing formation being gneiss.
In the north is the Baltoro Glacier, the largest out of the arctic regions, 35 miles long, contained between two ridges whose highest peaks to the south are 25,000 ft and to the north 28,265 ft. The Indus river runs in a narrow gorge, widening after receiving the Shyok river at 35.23°N 75.92°E / 35.23. It forms a 20-mile crescent-shaped plain varying between 1 mile and 5 miles wide; the main inhabitable valleys of Kharmang Khaplu and Roundu are along the routes of these rivers. °Although under Indian control since 1971, the Turtuk part of Shyok Valley, is part of Baltistan region. For centuries, Baltistan consisted of small, independent valley states connected by the blood relationships of its rulers, common beliefs and cultural and linguistic bonds; the states were subjugated by the Dogra rulers of Kashmir during the 19th century. On 29 August 2009 the government of Pakistan announced the creation of Gilgit–Baltistan, a provincial autonomous region with Gilgit as its capital and Skardu its largest city.
Baltistan was known as Little Tibet, the name was extended to include Ladakh. Ladakh became known as Great Tibet. Locally, Baltistan is known as Baltiyul and Ladakh and Baltistan are known as Maryul. Tibetan Khampa entered in Khaplu through Chorbat Valley and Dardic tribes came to Baltistan through Roundu Valley from Gilgit prior to civilization, these groups settled down, creating the Balti people. Today, the people of Kharmang and Western Khaplu have Tibetan features and those in Skardu and the eastern villages of Khaplu are Dards, it was believed. Baltistan was controlled by the Tibetan king Songtsen Gampo during the seventh century AD. Culturally influenced by Tibet, the Bon and animist Baltis began to adopt Tibetan Buddhism. Religious artifacts such as gompas and stupas were built, lamas played an important role in Balti life. During the 14th century, Muslim scholars from Kashmir crossed Baltistan’s mountainous terrain to spread Islam; the Kharmang came under the control of the Namgyal royal family and developed a close relationship with Ladakh when the raja of Ladakh, Jamyang Mangyal, attacked the principalities in Kargil.
Mangyal annihilated the Skardu garrison at Kharbu and put to the sword a number of petty Muslim rulers in the principalities of Purik. Ali Sher Khan Anchan, raja of Khaplu and Shigar, left with a strong army via Marol. Passing the Laddakhi army, he occupied the raja of Ladakh was taken prisoner. Ali Sher Khan Anchan included Gilgit and Chitral in his kingdom of Baltistan a flourishing country; the valley from Khepchne to Kachura was fertile, with abundant fruit trees. Skardu had hardly recovered from the shock of the death of Anchan. In 1845, the area was seized by the Dogras. Skardu has several tourist resorts and many natural features, including plains and mountain-valley lakes; the Deosai plain, Satpara Lake and Basho host tourists. North of Skardu, the Shigar Valley offers plains, hiking tracks and campsites. Other valleys in Baltistan region are Khaplu, Kachura Lake and Kharmang. Baltistan is a rocky wilderness of around 27,00
Maharaja Hari Singh was the last ruling Maharaja of the princely state of Jammu and Kashmir in India. Hari Singh was born on 23 September 1895 at the palace of Amar Mahal, the only surviving son of Raja Amar Singh Jamwal, the brother of Maharaja Pratap Singh, the Maharaja of Jammu and Kashmir. Since the Maharaja had no issue, Hari Singh was heir to the throne of Kashmir. In 1903, Hari Singh served as a page of honour to Lord Curzon at the grand Delhi Durbar. At the age of thirteen, he was sent to the Mayo College in Ajmer. A year in 1909, his father died, the British took a keen interest in his education and appointed Major H. K. Brar as his guardian. After Mayo College, Hari Singh went to the British-run Imperial Cadet Corps at Dehra Dun for military training. Maharaja Pratap Singh appointed him as the commander-in-chief of the State Forces in 1915; the "youthful escapades" of Hari Singh included paying £300,000 for blackmail by a prostitute in Paris in 1921. That issue had resulted in a court case in London in 1924 during which the India Office tried to keep his name out of proceedings by arranging for him to be referred to as "Mr A."Singh was known as a lavish spender of money.
The funeral of his uncle and former ruler Partap Singh is believed to have expended much gold and jewellery in the funeral pyre. Hari Singh's married life is dark, he married. Each of them died within a few years of childlessness allowing Hari Singh to take a new bride, his last wife, Tara Devi Sahiba of Kangra, produced a son. Following the death of his uncle Pratap Singh in 1925, Hari Singh ascended the throne of Jammu and Kashmir, he made primary education compulsory in the state, introduced laws prohibiting child marriage, opened places of worship to the low castes. The Seal of Maharaja Hari Singh had a Crown at the top. A katar or ceremonial dagger sat below the crown. Two soldiers held flags. An image of the sun was between them, that symbolised his Rajput lineage from Lord Surya, the Hindu Sun God. Hari Singh was believed to have been hostile towards the Indian National Congress, in part because of the close friendship between Kashmiri political activist and socialist Sheikh Abdullah and the Congress leader Jawaharlal Nehru.
He opposed the Muslim League and its members' communalist outlook, as represented by their two-nation theory. In 1947, after India gained independence from British rule and Kashmir could have joined India, joined Pakistan, or remained independent. Hari Singh manoeuvred to maintain his independence by playing off India and Pakistan. There was a widespread belief that rulers of the princely states, in deciding to accede to India or Pakistan, should respect the wishes of the population, but few rulers took any steps to consult on such decisions. Jammu and Kashmir was a Muslim majority state, however Hari Singh, being a Hindu wanted Kashmir to be a part of India. On this, Pashtun Tribesman from Pakistan defeated Hari Singh's forces. Hari Singh appealed to India for help. Although the Indian Prime Minister Nehru was ready to send troops, the Governor-General of India, Lord Mountbatten of Burma, advised the Maharaja to accede to India before India could send its troops. Hence, considering the emergency situation, the Maharaja signed an unconditional and irrevocable Instrument of Accession to the Dominion of India.
Hari Singh signed the Instrument of Accession on 26 October 1947, joining the whole of his princely state to the Dominion of India. These events triggered the first Indo-Pakistan War. Pressure from Nehru and Sardar Patel compelled Hari Singh to appoint his son and heir, Yuvraj Karan Singh, as Regent of Jammu and Kashmir in 1949, although he remained titular Maharaja of the state until 1952, when the monarchy was abolished, he was forced to appoint the popular Kashmiri leader Sheikh Abdullah as the prime minister of Kashmir. He had a contentious relationship with Abdullah. Karan Singh was appointed'Sadr-e-Riyasat' in 1952 and Governor of the State in 1964. Abdullah would be dismissed from his position as prime minister of Kashmir and jailed by Karan Singh, son of Hari Singh. Hari Singh spent his final days in Bombay, he died on 26 April 1961. As per his will, his ashes were brought to Jammu and spread all over Jammu and Kashmir and immersed in the Tawi River at Jammu, he was married four times. With his fourth wife, Maharani Tara Devi, he had Yuvraj Karan Singh.
SpousesDharampur Rani Sri Lal Kunverba Sahiba. No child. Rani Sahiba. No child. Maharani Dhanvant Kunveri Baiji Sahiba. No child. Maharani Tara Devi Sahiba of Kangra,. D from Punjab University-1938 Grand Officer of the Legion d'Honneur-1938 1939-1945 Star-1945 Africa Star-1945 War Medal 1939-1945-1945 India Service Medal-1945 Knight Grand Cross of the Royal Victorian Order -1946 Indian Independence Medal-1947 Rai, Mridu, Hi
Northern Light Infantry
The Northern Light Infantry is a light infantry regiment in the Pakistan Army and headquartered in Gilgit, the capital of Gilgit–Baltistan. Along with many unified armed forces presence in the Northern Areas, the NLI has the primary ground operations responsibility of protecting the strategically important northern areas of Pakistan. Northern Light Infantry is known to assist the Afghan Mujahaddin; the Northern Light Infantry has its origins in the Gilgit Scouts raised by the British India for defending the Jammu and Kashmir's northern frontier. The Gilgit Scouts, along with the rebels of the Jammu and Kashmir State Forces, fought the northern front of the First Kashmir War in 1948, conquering Skardu and Batalik. In 1949, the Gilgit Scouts were split into two forces, with the wing under the original name limited to internal security duties, the other wing, named Northern Scouts, designated for external defence. In 1964, the Northern Scouts were further bifurcated with the separation of Karakoram Scouts based in Skardu.
All three forces were brought together again under the banner of Northern Light Infantry. The infantry regiment was designated as a full infantry regiment of the Pakistan Army in 1999, after the Kargil War. Meanwhile, the absence of a civil defence force since 1975 led to uncontrolled sectarian strife in Gilgit-Baltistan, exemplified by the 1988 Gilgit massacre. A new civil armed force was created again in 2003 under the name Gilgit Baltistan Scouts to take the place of the old Gilgit Scouts; the Northern Light Infantry was founded as a paramilitary force of Pakistan, at par with Pakistan Rangers and Frontier Corps, under the jurisdiction of the Ministry of Interior and commanded by regular Pakistan Army officers. In 1967 and 1970, two Battalions of the NLI were airlifted and deployed to Sindh and Karachi for internal security duties, riot control and aid of civil authority during election related violence; this earned them a commendation from Field Marshal Ayub Khan. By 1998 the NLI consisted of 20 Battalions commanded by a Major General of the Pakistan Army with the designation of Inspector General of the NLI, whose office was the Inspectorate General of NLI reporting to the GOC, X Corps as well as the Minister of Interior.
During the Siachen conflict the 1st Battalion NLI performed support work. For the 1999 Kargil operation, the Pakistan army launched forces from the Northern Light Infantry; these included 5, 6, 8 and 12 NLI battalions in full strength and elements of 3, 4, 7 and 11 NLI with the Chitral and Bajaur Scouts employed for logistic support. Only after the Kargil War and in recognition of their single-handed role in the battles, the regiment was amalgamated into the Infantry Corps of the Pakistan Army with the status of a regular infantry regiment, awarded the Presidential Colours, so that from onwards the other ranks and JCOs of the regiment could draw pay and perks equal to that of their regular Army peers. In the book, Ghadaar Kaun? Nawaz Sharif Ki Kahani, Unki Zubani Nawaz Sharif, Pakistani Prime Minister during the Kargil War, states, ".. When the conflict began an entire brigade of the Northern Light Infantry was wiped out and 2,700 personnel were killed and hundreds others injured; the number of those killed was more than those killed in the wars of 1965 and 1971 together."
This article incorporates public domain material from the Library of Congress Country Studies website http://lcweb2.loc.gov/frd/cs/. "Northern Light Infantry". Globalsecurity.org. Archived from the original on 4 March 2016. Paramilitary forces of Pakistan Northern Light Infantry page at Pakistan Army site
Aslam Khan (Pakistani brigadier)
Brigadier Muhammad Aslam Khan was a Pakistani military officer, who led the Gilgit Scouts and Azad rebels in the First Kashmir War. Using the nom de guerre of'Colonel Pasha', he organised a force of 1200 rebels and local recruits in Gilgit, led an attack on the Indian Army from the north, conquering Skardu and Kargil and advancing within 30 miles of Leh. Though the Indian Army repulsed the attack beyond Kargil, Skardu remained part of the rebel territory, coming under Pakistani control at the end of the war. Aslam Khan was born in Jammu on 27 August 1918 into an Afridi family, his father, Brigadier Rehmatullah Khan of the Jammu and Kashmir State Forces, was instrumental in bringing Gilgit and Skardu under the control of the Jammu and Kashmir State. Aslam Khan was one of eight siblings, included among whom was Air Chief Marshal Asghar Khan, who served as the Chief of the Pakistan Air Force. Aslam Khan was commissioned into the Jammu and Kashmir State Forces in 1939, he was part of the 4th Jammu and Kashmir Infantry battalion He was posted at Rattu in the Gilgit Wazarat for two years.
With the outbreak of the World War II, the 4th Jammu and Kashmir Infantry, was sent to Burma to fight the Japanese as part of the British Imperial Forces. Aslam Khan was awarded a Military Cross; the victory celebrations were held jointly with the First Punjabis of the British Indian Army, Aslam Khan danced with Major Daler Singh Bajwa of the State Forces and Major Gul Rehman of First Punjabis. The camaraderie between the men of all religions was taken for granted in 1945. After returning from the war, Aslam Khan was posted to Jammu with the rank of a Major. Captain Mirza Hassan Khan at Bhimber, another winner of Military Cross, mentions the formation of a'revolutionary council' among the army officers, of which he was the chairman, its members planned to overthrow the Maharaja's government after the departure of the British by attacking the local garrisons. Major Aslam Khan was said to have been part of the group, meant to take charge in Jammu. Soon afterwards, Aslam Khan decided to move to the British Indian Army.
He was posted to Ranchi as G-II. During the Partition, he opted for Pakistan. While in the Pakistan Army, Aslam Khan is said to have gone on leave around 21 October 1947. On his way to Srinagar, at Lohar Gali, he ran into the Pashtun tribal invasion being led by Khurshid Anwar, he became the second-in-command. Aslam Khan described himself as a deserter of the Pakistani Army to a reporter. Scholar Andrew Whitehead remarks, "this is unlikely to be the full story", Indian sources allege that such army officers were seconded to the invasion force by the Pakistan Army. Following the accession of Jammu and Kashmir to India, Indian troops were airlifted on 27 October to repel the invasion; the 1st Sikh regiment of the Indian Army, under the command of Lt. Col. Dewan Ranjit Rai, proceeded to Baramula upon landing. Aslam Khan's "accurate handling of captured mortars" broke their first stand. Col. Ranjit Rai was killed; the 1st Sikhs withdrew to Patan. As more troops were flown in each day, the Indians renewed their attack and beat back the invading tribes beyond Uri by 7 November.
The Kashmir Valley was secured. In the Northern areas of Jammu and Kashmir, the Gilgit Scouts under the command of Major William Brown rebelled on 1 November 1947 and imprisoned the State's governor Brigadier Ghansara Singh; the Muslim troops of the Bunji garrison under the command of Mirza Hassan Khan joined them, the non-Muslims were eliminated. On 16 November, Pakistan sent a Political Agent Khan Mohammad Alam Khan to take control, bringing Gilgit under the effective control of Pakistan. On 10 January 1948, Aslam Khan arrived in Gilgit to take command of the Gilgit Scouts, he presented the credentials the Azad Kashmir government. Writer F. M. Khan states: He was shrewd and intelligent officer, he was direct in his approach. In his first meeting with the political agent at the Agency House, he had made it clear that he not tolerate any interference from the political agent in the military matters. Sardar Alam and Major Brown looked at each other; the British High Commission in India connected the name Aslam Khan with the erstwhile second-in-command of the tribal invasion.
Aslam Khan promoted to the rank of Lt. Col, used the nom de guerre'Colonel Pasha', which kept his identity somewhat clouded. On 31 November he assembled all the officers of the'Azad forces', pointed out that their primary task was to capture and consolidate Skardu in Baltistan, he asked for volunteers to lead the expedition. He divided the available forces into three groups: Ibex Force, consisting of 400 men under the command of Major Ehsan Khan, from the 6th Jammu and Kashmir Infantry, it was tasked with capturing Skardu. It was supposed to "hop, like an ibex of this area". Tiger Force, consisting of 400 men under the command of Captain Mirza Hassan Khan from the 6th Jammu and Kashmir Infantry, it was tasked with attacking Gurais via Bunji and Kamri, advance to Bandipora, with the "growling noise of a tiger". Eskimo Force, a force of equal strength under Lieutenant Shah Khan of Gilgit Scouts, it was tasked with advancing through the Deosai Plateau and attack Drass and the Zojila Pass. Scholar Ahmad Hasan Dani states:...
Col. Pasha knew the significance of his strategy well, he had deployed the Eskimo Force in this direction with the sole p