A ZIP Code is a postal code used by the United States Postal Service in a system it introduced in 1963. The term ZIP is an acronym for Zone Improvement Plan; the basic format consists of five digits. An extended ZIP+4 code was introduced in 1983 which includes the five digits of the ZIP Code, followed by a hyphen and four additional digits that reference a more specific location; the term ZIP Code was registered as a servicemark by the U. S. Postal Service, but its registration has since expired; the early history and context of postal codes began with postal district/zone numbers. The United States Post Office Department implemented postal zones for numerous large cities in 1943. For example: The "16" was the number of the postal zone in the specific city. By the early 1960s, a more organized system was needed, non-mandatory five-digit ZIP Codes were introduced nationwide on July 1, 1963; the USPOD issued its Publication 59: Abbreviations for Use with ZIP Code on October 1, 1963, with the list of two-letter state abbreviations which are written with both letters capitalized.
An earlier list in June had proposed capitalized abbreviations ranging from two to five letters. According to Publication 59, the two-letter standard was "based on a maximum 23-position line, because this has been found to be the most universally acceptable line capacity basis for major addressing systems", which would be exceeded by a long city name combined with a multi-letter state abbreviation, such as "Sacramento, Calif." along with the ZIP Code. The abbreviations have remained unchanged, with the exception of Nebraska, changed from NB to NE in 1969 at the request of the Canadian postal administration, to avoid confusion with the Canadian province of New Brunswick. Robert Moon is considered the father of the ZIP Code; the post office only credits Moon with the first three digits of the ZIP Code, which describe the sectional center facility or "sec center." An SCF is a central mail processing facility with those three digits. The fourth and fifth digits, which give a more precise locale within the SCF, were proposed by Henry Bentley Hahn Sr.
The SCF sorts mail to all post offices with those first three digits in their ZIP Codes. The mail is sorted according to the final two digits of the ZIP Code and sent to the corresponding post offices in the early morning. Sectional centers do not deliver mail and are not open to the public, most of their employees work the night shift. Mail picked up at post offices is sent to their own SCF in the afternoon, where the mail is sorted overnight. In the case of large cities, the last two digits coincide with the older postal zone number thus: In 1967, these became mandatory for second- and third-class bulk mailers, the system was soon adopted generally; the United States Post Office used a cartoon character, which it called Mr. ZIP, to promote the use of the ZIP Code, he was depicted with a legend such as "USE ZIP CODE" in the selvage of panes of postage stamps or on the covers of booklet panes of stamps. In 1971 Elmira Star-Gazette reporter Dick Baumbach found out the White House was not using a ZIP Code on its envelopes.
Herb Klein, special assistant to President Nixon, responded by saying the next printing of envelopes would include the ZIP Code. In 1983, the U. S. Postal Service introduced an expanded ZIP Code system that it called ZIP+4 called "plus-four codes", "add-on codes", or "add-ons". A ZIP+4 Code uses the basic five-digit code plus four additional digits to identify a geographic segment within the five-digit delivery area, such as a city block, a group of apartments, an individual high-volume receiver of mail, a post office box, or any other unit that could use an extra identifier to aid in efficient mail sorting and delivery. However, initial attempts to promote universal use of the new format met with public resistance and today the plus-four code is not required. In general, mail is read by a multiline optical character reader that instantly determines the correct ZIP+4 Code from the address—along with the more specific delivery point—and sprays an Intelligent Mail barcode on the face of the mail piece that corresponds to 11 digits—nine for the ZIP+4 Code and two for the delivery point.
For Post Office Boxes, the general rule is. The add-on code is one of the following: the last four digits of the box number, zero plus the last three digits of the box number, or, if the box number consists of fewer than four digits, enough zeros are attached to the front of the box number to produce a four-digit number. However, there is no uniform rule, so the ZIP+4 Code must be looked up individually for each box; the ZIP Code is translated into an Intelligent Mail barcode, printed on the mailpiece to make it easier for automated machines to sort. A barcode can be printed by the sender, it is better to let the post office put one on. In general, the post office uses OCR technology, though in some cases a human might have to read and enter the address. Customers who send bulk mail can get a discount on postage if they have printed the barcode themselves and have presorted the mai
Jonesboro is a city located on Crowley's Ridge in the northeastern corner of the U. S. State of Arkansas. Jonesboro is one of the home of Arkansas State University. According to the 2010 Census, the city had a population of 71,551 and is the fifth-largest city in Arkansas. Jonesboro is the economic center of northeastern Arkansas, it is the principal city of Arkansas Metropolitan Statistical Area. In 2010, the Jonesboro metropolitan area had a population of 121,026 and a population of 163,116 in the Jonesboro-Paragould Combined Statistical Area. Jonesboro is a regional center for manufacturing, medicine and trade; the Jonesboro area was first inhabited for thousands of years by indigenous peoples. At the time of European encounter, historic tribes included the Osage, the Caddo, the Quapaw; the name of the state of Arkansas comes from the Quapaw language. French and Spanish traders and trappers had relations with these groups. After the United States acquired this territory in the Louisiana Purchase of 1803, American settlers made their way to the area where Jonesboro is located.
They began exploring, hunting and trading with the local Indian tribes. A permanent settlement of Jonesboro was set up shortly after 1815. In 1859, land was taken from nearby Greene and Poinsett counties and was used to form Craighead County. Jonesboro was designated as the original county seat; as the population increased in the west of the county, Lake City was named as the second seat. In 1859 Jonesboro had 150 residents, it was named after State Senator William A. Jones in recognition of his support for the formation of Craighead County. Spelled Jonesborough, the city name was shortened to its present-day spelling. During the late 19th century, the city tried to develop its court system and downtown infrastructure. Shortly after being named county seat, the highest point in Jonesboro was identified and a court house was planned for construction; this was delayed for several years. The first court house was completed but was destroyed by a fire in 1869. A store across from this site was used as a court house.
It was destroyed in an 1876 fire. Another building was constructed on the same site, but it fell to a fire in 1878, a major one that destroyed most of downtown Jonesboro. Soon afterward, another court house was constructed, it still stands; the St. Louis Southwestern Railway, known as the Cotton Belt Railroad was constructed through Jonesboro, with its tracks passing just north of the center of the city. During the first train's journey, it became stuck and supplies had to be carried into town, it connected St. Louis to points in Texas. Other major railways began to construct tracks to and from Jonesboro, including the St. Louis–San Francisco Railway and Missouri Pacific Railroad; some of the rail companies still use the tracks that run through Jonesboro. The city set up the Jonesboro School District in 1899. In 1900, St. Bernard's Regional Medical Center was established by the Olivetan Benedictine Sisters; the Grand Leader Department Store, the first department store in the city, was opened in 1900.
Woodland College and two schools within the Jonesboro School District were opened in 1904. Arkansas State College was established in 1909, a year in which the first horseless carriages were driven in the city. There is a recording on a Sanborn Fire Insurance Map dating back to March 1897 of a Presbyterian Church existing at the corner of Church St. and Monroe, a Christian church located at the corner of Union and Huntington Ave. Other early churches of the city were started in the 1910s. First Baptist Church was founded in 1911, First Methodist Church in 1916. On September 10, 1931, Governor Harvey Parnell authorized the Arkansas National Guard to be deployed in Jonesboro to quell the Church War, a clash between the followers of Joe Jeffers and Dow H. Heard, the pastor of the First Baptist Church of Jonesboro. Jeffers' supporters attacked the mayor and police chief, resulting in front-page coverage of the incident in The New York Times. During the 20th century, Jonesboro began to diversify its economy, with industrial businesses that allowed it to grow beyond the cotton culture.
The university attracts educated residents. The Jonesboro Lynching of 1881 took place at midnight on March 12; the Decatur Daily Republican reported that four black men—Green Harris, Giles Peck, John Woods, Burt Hoskins —had been arrested and tried before magistrates Jackson and Akers at New Haven Church, eight miles north of Jonesboro. The hearing, which found that the men were guilty, was attended by several hundred people. According to this and several other reports, the accused made a complete confession; the magistrates bound them over to the grand jury, they were ordered taken to the jail in Jonesboro. The hour being late, however, it was decided to hold them overnight in the church under a strong guard; the large crowd dispersed, “muttering threats of vengeance.” Around midnight, between 200 and 300 masked men surrounded the church, overpowered the guards, broke in the doors and windows. They seized the accused, dragged them to a tree about 200 yards away, hanged them. Once again, the crowd dispersed, “leaving the bodies of their victims dangling in the air and presenting a horrible spectacle in the moonlight.”
According to the Republican, “The crime and punishment form one of the blackest pages in the annals of the state.” On May 15, 1968 an F4 tornado struck Jonesboro. The Westside Middle
Jericho is a town in Crittenden County, United States. The population was 119 at the 2010 census, down from 184 in 2000. Jericho is located in northern Crittenden County at 35°17′12″N 90°13′39″W, it lies along Arkansas Highway 77, 10 miles north of West Memphis. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 0.46 square miles, all land. As of the census of 2000, there were 184 people, 66 households, 46 families residing in the town; the population density was 151.2/km². There were 73 housing units at an average density of 60.0/km². The racial makeup of the town was 4.35% White, 92.93% Black or African American, 0.54% from other races, 2.17% from two or more races. 2.72% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 66 households out of which 19.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 40.9% were married couples living together, 27.3% had a female householder with no husband present, 30.3% were non-families. 27.3% of all households were made up of individuals and 13.6% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.
The average household size was 2.79 and the average family size was 3.50. In the town, the population was spread out with 25.5% under the age of 18, 6.5% from 18 to 24, 25.5% from 25 to 44, 23.4% from 45 to 64, 19.0% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 40 years. For every 100 females, there were 75.2 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 77.9 males. The median income for a household in the town was $20,625, the median income for a family was $28,214. Males had a median income of $22,250 versus $13,125 for females; the per capita income for the town was $8,577. About 25.0% of families and 25.4% of the population were below the poverty line, including 20.0% of those under the age of eighteen and 56.8% of those sixty five or over. On August 27, 2009, one of Jericho's seven police officers shot the town Fire Chief, Don Payne, in the hip after he appeared in court a second time on the same day to dispute two different traffic tickets. In the wake of the shooting, Judge Tonya Alexander dismissed all tickets issued by the Jericho Police Department, including some given outside of their jurisdiction.
Alexander resigned from her position. Police Chief Willie Frazier disbanded the force "until things calm down," turning patrols over the town back to the Sheriff's Department, which had patrolled the town until the 1990s. Residents, including the Fire Chief, had complained that the town's police force had issued excessive numbers of traffic citations and that they could not explain what had happened to the revenue generated from the fines collected; the chief investigator for the Sheriff's department said, "You can't get them to answer a call, because they're writing tickets... They're not providing a service to the citizens." Encyclopedia of Arkansas History & Culture entry Crittenden County website
Edmondson is a town in Crittenden County, United States. The population was 427 at the 2010 census. Edmondson is located in south-central Crittenden County at 35°6′13″N 90°18′29″W, it is 4 miles south of Interstate 40, which leads 6 miles east to West Memphis and 14 miles east to downtown Memphis, Tennessee. According to the United States Census Bureau, Edmondson has a total area of 3.2 square miles, all land. As of the census of 2000, there were 513 people, 174 households, 140 families residing in the town; the population density was 60.9/km². There were 198 housing units at an average density of 23.5/km². The racial makeup of the town was 27.49% White, 71.15% Black or African American, 0.58% Native American, 0.19% from other races, 0.58% from two or more races. 0.39% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 174 households out of which 42.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 47.7% were married couples living together, 26.4% had a female householder with no husband present, 19.0% were non-families.
15.5% of all households were made up of individuals and 5.7% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.95 and the average family size was 3.29. In the town, the population was spread out with 35.9% under the age of 18, 9.0% from 18 to 24, 25.7% from 25 to 44, 18.5% from 45 to 64, 10.9% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 29 years. For every 100 females, there were 98.1 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 90.2 males. The median income for a household in the town was $28,056, the median income for a family was $30,000. Males had a median income of $29,000 versus $17,917 for females; the per capita income for the town was $14,143. About 21.5% of families and 24.6% of the population were below the poverty line, including 31.9% of those under age 18 and 22.2% of those age 65 or over. Edmondson is served by the West Memphis School District. Crittenden County website
A city is a large human settlement. Cities have extensive systems for housing, sanitation, land use, communication, their density facilitates interaction between people, government organizations and businesses, sometimes benefiting different parties in the process. City-dwellers have been a small proportion of humanity overall, but following two centuries of unprecedented and rapid urbanization half of the world population now lives in cities, which has had profound consequences for global sustainability. Present-day cities form the core of larger metropolitan areas and urban areas—creating numerous commuters traveling towards city centers for employment and edification. However, in a world of intensifying globalization, all cities are in different degree connected globally beyond these regions; the most populated city proper is Chongqing while the most populous metropolitan areas are the Greater Tokyo Area, the Shanghai area, Jabodetabek. The cities of Faiyum and Varanasi are among those laying claim to longest continual inhabitation.
A city is distinguished from other human settlements by its great size, but by its functions and its special symbolic status, which may be conferred by a central authority. The term can refer either to the physical streets and buildings of the city or to the collection of people who dwell there, can be used in a general sense to mean urban rather than rural territory. A variety of definitions, invoking population, population density, number of dwellings, economic function, infrastructure, are used in national censuses to classify populations as urban. Common population definitions for a city range between 1,500 and 50,000 people, with most U. S. states using a minimum between 5,000 inhabitants. However, some jurisdictions set no such minimums. In the United Kingdom, city status is awarded by the government and remains permanently, resulting in some small cities, such as Wells and St Davids. According to the "functional definition" a city is not distinguished by size alone, but by the role it plays within a larger political context.
Cities serve as administrative, commercial and cultural hubs for their larger surrounding areas. Examples of settlements called city which may not meet any of the traditional criteria to be named such include Broad Top City and City Dulas, Anglesey, a hamlet; the presence of a literate elite is sometimes included in the definition. A typical city has professional administrators and some form of taxation to support the government workers; the governments may be based on heredity, military power, work projects such as canal building, food distribution, land ownership, commerce, finance, or a combination of these. Societies that live in cities are called civilizations; the word city and the related civilization come, via Old French, from the Latin root civitas meaning citizenship or community member and coming to correspond with urbs, meaning city in a more physical sense. The Roman civitas was linked with the Greek "polis"—another common root appearing in English words such as metropolis. Urban geography deals both with their internal structure.
Town siting has varied through history according to natural, technological and military contexts. Access to water has long been a major factor in city placement and growth, despite exceptions enabled by the advent of rail transport in the nineteenth century, through the present most of the world's urban population lives near the coast or on a river. Urban areas as a rule cannot produce their own food and therefore must develop some relationship with a hinterland which sustains them. Only in special cases such as mining towns which play a vital role in long-distance trade, are cities disconnected from the countryside which feeds them. Thus, centrality within a productive region influences siting, as economic forces would in theory favor the creation of market places in optimal mutually reachable locations; the vast majority of cities have a central area containing buildings with special economic and religious significance. Archaeologists refer to this area by the Greek term temenos; these spaces reflect and amplify the city's centrality and importance to its wider sphere of influence.
Today cities have downtown, sometimes coincident with a central business district. Cities have public spaces where anyone can go; these include owned spaces open to the public as well as forms of public land such as public domain and the commons. Western philosophy since the time of the Greek agora has considered physical public space as the substrate of the symbolic public sphere. Public art adorns public spaces. Parks and other natural sites within cities provide residents with relief from the hardness and regularity of typical built environments. Urban structure follows one or more basic patterns: geomorphic, concentric and curvilinear. Physical environment constrains the form in which a city is built. If located on a mountainside, urban structure may rely on winding roads, it may be adapted to its means of subsistence. And it may be set up for optimal defense given the surrounding landscape. Beyond these "geomorphi
Marion is a city in and the county seat of Crittenden County, United States. The population was 12,345 at the 2010 census, a 38.7% increase since 2000. The city is part of the Memphis metropolitan area, it is the second largest city behind West Memphis. Although Marion was incorporated in 1896, the community predates that significantly; the site of Marion was part of Louisiana from 1764 to 1803. Some of the oldest land titles in the area are from Spanish land grants from a time prior to the Louisiana Purchase. After the Louisiana Purchase the area was part of the Arkansas Territory. During the 1830s the Trail of Tears, the forced removal of Native Americans from Georgia and Mississippi, passed through the area, its location is close to where the Sultana Steamboat sunk. A memorial is placed on the city hall square to remember those lost in the accident Marion, AR was named after Marion Tolbert. In 1837 two commissioners had been appointed by the county court to select a site for a new county seat.
Tolbert and his wife Temperance gave a deed to the commissioners "for the county of Crittenden for county purposes" on June 25, 1837. A town was laid out, named Marion in honor of Marion Tolbert and was made the county seat of Crittenden County, AR. Marion has been incorporated on multiple occasions, first in 1851; the current incorporation dates from 1896. During the American Civil War the steamboat Sultana was destroyed in an explosion on April 27, 1865, as it was transporting released Union POWs near Mound City, just east of Marion, it is estimated that 1,500 soldiers and crew were killed, the largest loss of life in a maritime accident in US history. This tragedy is commemorated by a historic marker placed by the Daughters of the American Revolution. In 1954, a local Black man, Isadore Banks was murdered by a mob in the town, he was covered with gasoline and burned. Nobody was charged in the killing. Marion is located in eastern Crittenden County at 35°12′22″N 90°12′6″W, it is bordered by the city of West Memphis by Sunset and Clarkedale to the north.
According to the United States Census Bureau, Marion has a total area of 20.5 square miles, of which 20.4 square miles is land and 0.077 square miles, or 0.37%, is water. Marion is 11 miles west of Memphis and has a humid subtropical climate. Marion is bisected by Interstate 55 and is located just to the north of its junction with Interstate 40 prior to their crossing the Mississippi River, en route to Memphis. U. S. Highway 64 is the major east-west route through the town. Arkansas Highway 77 is a major north-south arterial road, east of Interstate 55, Highway 118 is the major north-south arterial road, west of Interstate 55. Marion is served for general aviation by the West Memphis Municipal Airport. General DeWitt Spain Airport is a civil aviation airport just north of downtown Memphis. Memphis International Airport is located south of Memphis. Union Pacific operates a 600-acre intermodal facility west of Marion. BNSF Railway operates an intermodal yard in Marion. Limited passenger rail is available on Amtrak at Central Station in nearby Memphis.
The City of New Orleans runs twice daily on a north-south route from Chicago to New Orleans. Crittenden County and West Memphis jointly operate a port on the Mississippi River; the International Port of Memphis lies just across the Mississippi River via Interstate 55. The International Port of Memphis is the fourth-largest inland port in the United States; because of its proximity to Memphis and Interstate highways, Marion offers the activities and enrichment of a large city while maintaining the character of a small community. In addition to the many community events common to any town, each May Marion hosts the Esperanza Bonanza, a festival that includes live music, a barbecue competition, a rodeo, a golf tournament, a carnival, games for adults & children. More Marion has begun "Christmas on the Square" in early December co-sponsored by the local Kiwanis Club and the Marion Chamber of Commerce. Marion is served by the Woolfolk Public Library, jointly operated by Crittenden County and the city of Marion.
It was named in honor of Margaret Woolfolk. Outdoor recreation is a big part of community life, from organized youth sports to individual and family activities. Marion is located less than 1 hour from 12 Tennessee or Mississippi state parks. Additional outdoor recreation is available at Wapanocca National Wildlife Refuge about 10 miles north of town; the nearby community of Horseshoe Lake offers opportunity for water sports. Since 1951 Marion and Crittenden County have been served by Crittenden Regional Hospital a 152-bed JCAHO Accredited facility in nearby West Memphis; the hospital is in the process of attempting to reopen under new ownership. 2010 Census As of the census of 2010, there were 4,278 households in the city. The population density was 604.4 people per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 68.1% White, 28% Black or African American, 0.4% Native American, 1.5% Asian, 1.4% from two or more races. 2.0% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 88 % of the population had 28 % reported a bachelor's degree or higher.
2.5% of the population is foreign born and 4.4% report a language other than English being spoken at home. The home ownership rate was 71.3% at a median value of $142,200. The median household income was $60,051. 7.3% of the population are below the poverty l
Interstate 555 is an Interstate Highway that connects Turrell, Arkansas, at I-55 to Jonesboro at Arkansas Highway 91. I-555 travels along what is U. S. Route 63 for its entire route; that highway was upgraded in the 2000s to Interstate Highway standards. I-555 is the second Interstate with all three digits the same, to exist, the first to be signed as an Interstate; the road provides a limited-access highway corridor between Memphis and Arkansas's fifth largest city, Jonesboro. The I-555 route was approved on January 10, 2001, consisting of upgrading the section of US 63 between Turrell to Jonesboro to interstate standards. According to the 2007 Arkansas state highway map, only a segment from Tyronza to Gilmore was not yet up to freeway standards. However, as of August 5, 2007 the Hwy. 135 interchange on that section, the last one remaining, is open, thus making the route a true freeway. A few mainline bridges between Marked Tree and Turrell are from the original two-lane US 63 and are narrower than current Interstate Highway standards, but I-530 was approved in 1999 despite having a similar issue.
The last requirement to formally designate this route as I-555 was the construction of a parallel access road across a floodway between Payneway and Marked Tree, so that farm equipment would no longer have to use US 63 to cross the floodway. To date, no crossing has been built, but an exemption of agricultural vehicles was added to I-555 between Marked Tree and Payneway The exemption was introduced by U. S. Representative Rick Crawford and passed as part of the House Transportation Bill on December 4, 2015, it was announced in December 2015, that I-555 would be designated in Spring of 2016. The road was dedicated on March 11, 2016 in Jonesboro. Interstate 555 Arkansas Putting the "Future" in I-555