An escalator is a vertical transportation device in the form of a moving staircase – a conveyor which carries people between floors of a building. It consists of a chain of individually linked steps. These steps are guided on either side by a pair of tracks which force them to remain horizontal, escalators are used around the world in places where elevators would be impractical. Principal areas of usage include department stores, shopping malls, transit systems, convention centers, arenas, escalators have the capacity to move a large number of people, and they can be placed in the same physical space as a staircase. They have no waiting interval, they can be used to guide people toward main exits or special exhibits, a non-functioning escalator can function as a normal staircase, whereas many other conveyances become useless when they break down. Escalators, like moving walkways, move at constant speeds of around 0. 3–0.6 metres per second, the typical angle of inclination of an escalator to the horizontal is 30 degrees, and the total difference in height can be about 18 metres or more.
Modern escalators have single-piece aluminum or stainless steel steps that move on a system of tracks in a continuous loop, escalators have three typical configuration options, parallel and multiple parallel. As a safety measure, escalators are required to have moving handrails that keep pace with the movement of the steps and this helps riders steady themselves, especially when stepping onto the moving stairs. Occasionally, a handrail will move at a different speed from the steps. The loss of synchronization between handrail and step speed can result from slippage and wear, as a result, escalators must have moving handrails that move at the same speed as the moving stairs of the escalator. The direction of movement can be permanently set, or controlled manually depending on the predominant flow of the crowd. In some setups, the direction is controlled by whoever arrives first, a number of factors affect escalator design. These include physical requirements, traffic patterns, safety considerations, physical factors like the vertical and horizontal distance to be spanned must be considered.
These factors will determine the length and pitch of the escalator, the building infrastructure must be able to support the heavy components. The escalator should be located where it can be seen by the general public. Furthermore, up and down escalator traffic should be physically separated, traffic patterns must be anticipated. The escalators must be designed to carry the number of passengers. For example, a single-width escalator traveling at about 0.5 metres per second can move about 2000 people per hour, the carrying capacity of an escalator system must match the expected peak traffic demand
Herald Square is formed by the intersection of Broadway, Sixth Avenue, and 34th Street in the borough of Manhattan in New York City. Named for the New York Herald, a newspaper formerly headquartered there. The intersection is a typical Manhattan bow-tie square that consists of two named sections, Herald Square to the north and Greeley Square to the south, Herald Square proper is the north end of the square between West 34th Street and West 35th Street. The old New York Herald Building was located on the square, the square contains a huge mechanical clock whose mechanical structures were constructed in 1895 by the sculptor Antonin Jean Carles. The monument, known as the James Gordon Monument consists of the Goddess of Wisdom, Minerva with her owls in front of a bell, the monuments bell was designed to chime on the hour. The two seven-foot-tall bronze laborers, nicknamed Stuff and Guff give the appearance of ringing the bell with their mallets, the figures and the clock were originally part of the 1894 New York Herald Building that was located at the square.
Prior to the demolition of the building in 1921, the figures were removed and reinstalled in the Square in 1940, Greeley Square lies between West 32nd Street and West 33rd Street and between Broadway and Sixth Avenue, and is taken up almost entirely by a triangular park. It is named after Horace Greeley, who was the publisher of the New York Tribune, the area around Herald Square along Broadway and 34th Street is a retail hub. The most notable attraction is the Macys flagship department store, the largest in the United States, in 2007, Inc. moved its corporate headquarters to that store after renaming from Federated. Macys archrival Gimbels was located in the neighborhood until 1984, other past retailers in the area included E. J. Korvette and Abraham & Straus, J. C. Penney opened its first Manhattan flagship store in August 2009 at the former A&S location inside the Manhattan Mall. The square is roughly equidistant between Madison Square to the south, and Times Square to the north, Herald Squares south side borders Koreatown, at West 32nd Street.
The area is served by the 34th Street – Herald Square station of the New York City Subway, the 33rd Street station of the PATH serve the square. Since 1992, Herald and Greeley Squares have been cared for by the 34th Street Partnership, the 34SP provides sanitary and security services, maintains a horticultural program that includes trees and planters, and produces events, product launches, and photo shoots. 34SP added movable chairs and umbrellas, to the parks, in 1999, the parks were completely renovated by 34SP. Since 2008, each park has had a food kiosk operated by wichcraft, in 2009, 34SP converted the parks Automated Pay Toilets into free public facilities, a rarity in New York City. The two blocks of Broadway between 33rd and 35th Streets were completely closed to traffic, and are pedestrian-only. The parks operators, 34SP, filled the newly pedestrianized space with chairs, tables and free programs such as chess tables, dance lessons
Pennsylvania /ˌpɛnsᵻlˈveɪnjə/, officially the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, is a state located in the northeastern and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United States. The Appalachian Mountains run through its middle, Pennsylvania is the 33rd largest, the 5th most populous, and the 9th most densely populated of the 50 United States. The states five most populous cities are Philadelphia, Allentown, the state capital, and its ninth-largest city, is Harrisburg. Pennsylvania has 140 miles of shoreline along Lake Erie and the Delaware Estuary. The state is one of the 13 original founding states of the United States, it came into being in 1681 as a result of a land grant to William Penn. Part of Pennsylvania, together with the present State of Delaware, had earlier been organized as the Colony of New Sweden and it was the second state to ratify the United States Constitution, on December 12,1787. Independence Hall, where the United States Declaration of Independence and United States Constitution were drafted, is located in the states largest city of Philadelphia, during the American Civil War, the Battle of Gettysburg, was fought in the south central region of the state.
Valley Forge near Philadelphia was General Washingtons headquarters during the winter of 1777–78. Pennsylvania is 170 miles north to south and 283 miles east to west, of a total 46,055 square miles,44,817 square miles are land,490 square miles are inland waters, and 749 square miles are waters in Lake Erie. It is the 33rd largest state in the United States, Pennsylvania has 51 miles of coastline along Lake Erie and 57 miles of shoreline along the Delaware Estuary. Cities include Philadelphia, Reading and Lancaster in the southeast, Pittsburgh in the southwest, the tri-cities of Allentown, the northeast includes the former anthracite coal mining communities of Scranton, Wilkes-Barre, Pittston City, and Hazleton. Erie is located in the northwest, the state has 5 regions, namely the Allegheny Plateau and Valley, Atlantic Coastal Plain and the Erie Plain. Straddling two major zones, the majority of the state, with the exception of the corner, has a humid continental climate. The largest city, has characteristics of the humid subtropical climate that covers much of Delaware.
Moving toward the interior of the state, the winter climate becomes colder, the number of cloudy days increase. Western areas of the state, particularly locations near Lake Erie, can receive over 100 inches of snowfall annually, the state may be subject to severe weather from spring through summer into fall. Tornadoes occur annually in the state, sometimes in large numbers, the Tuscarora Nation took up temporary residence in the central portion of Pennsylvania ca. Both the Dutch and the English claimed both sides of the Delaware River as part of their lands in America
Boscovs is a family-owned department store with 50 locations in the eastern United States. The current company chairman is Jim Boscov, who took over after his uncle Albert Boscov died in February 2017, Solomon Sol Boscov was of Jewish descent, he immigrated to Reading, Pennsylvania in 1902. He had $1.37 in cash on arrival in the United States and he worked as a traveling salesman with an initial $8 worth of merchandise. Because he spoke Yiddish, he was able to converse with people in Berks County who spoke Pennsylvania Dutch. Solomons fortunes changed in 1911 when he opened the first Boscovs store in Reading to much fanfare, with growing notoriety, Boscovs began expanding in the Pennsylvania suburbs through the 1960s. As early as 1968, Boscovs had five stores,2,200 workers, Solomon Boscov retired and was succeeded by his son Albert Albie Boscov as head of the company in 1960. In October 2011, Boscovs opened a new store at the Monmouth Mall in Eatontown and this marked the first expansion for the company since the great recession of 2008 where the company filed for chapter 11 bankruptcy.
In November 2011, Boscovs announced plans to open a location at the White Marsh Mall in White Marsh, the location opened on October 5,2012. On May 15,2012, Boscovs announced it would be opening a location in the Woodbridge Center Mall in Woodbridge, Boscovs opened a new Ohio location at the Ohio Valley Mall in October 2013. In October 2015, Boscovs opened a new Hartford, Connecticut store at the Westfield Meriden Mall in a former JCPenney space, in October 2016, Boscovs opened a store in the Sangertown Square Mall in New Hartford, New York in a former Sears space. February 102017, Albert Boscov the son of Solomon Boscov, in 2017, Boscovs plans to open a store at Millcreek Mall in Erie, Pennsylvania in a recently shuttered Sears space
New York City Subway
Opened in 1904, the New York City Subway is one of the worlds oldest public transit systems, one of the worlds most used metro systems, and the metro system with the most stations. It offers service 24 hours per day, every day of the year, the New York City Subway is the largest rapid transit system in the world by number of stations, with 472 stations in operation. Stations are located throughout the boroughs of Manhattan, Queens, the Port Authority Trans-Hudson and the AirTrain JFK, in Manhattan and Queens respectively, accept the subways MetroCard but are not operated by the MTA and do not allow free transfers. Another mass transit service that is not operated by the MTA, the system is one of the worlds longest. Overall, the system contains 236 miles of routes, translating into 665 miles of track. In 2015, the subway delivered over 1.76 billion rides, averaging approximately 5.7 million daily rides on weekdays and a combined 5.9 million rides each weekend. Of the systems 25 services,22 of them pass through Manhattan, the exceptions being the G train, the Franklin Avenue Shuttle, and the Rockaway Park Shuttle.
Large portions of the subway outside Manhattan are elevated, on embankments, or in open cuts, in total, 40% of track is not underground despite the subway moniker. Many lines and stations have both express and local services and these lines have three or four tracks. Normally, the two are used for local trains, while the inner one or two are used for express trains. Stations served by express trains are typically major transfer points or destinations, alfred Ely Beach built the first demonstration for an underground transit system in New York City in 1869 and opened it in February 1870. The tunnel was never extended for political and financial reasons, although extensions had been planned to take the tunnel southward to The Battery, the Great Blizzard of 1888 helped demonstrate the benefits of an underground transportation system. A plan for the construction of the subway was approved in 1894, the first underground line of the subway opened on October 27,1904, almost 36 years after the opening of the first elevated line in New York City, which became the IRT Ninth Avenue Line.
The fare was $0.05 and on the first day the trains carried over 150,000 passengers, the oldest structure still in use opened in 1885 as part of the BMT Lexington Avenue Line in Brooklyn and is now part of the BMT Jamaica Line. The oldest right-of-way, which is part of the BMT West End Line near Coney Island Creek, was in use in 1864 as a railroad called the Brooklyn, Bath. By the time the first subway opened, the lines had been consolidated into two privately owned systems, the Brooklyn Rapid Transit Company and the Interborough Rapid Transit Company, the city built most of the lines and leased them to the companies. This required it to be run at cost, necessitating fares up to double the five-cent fare popular at the time, in 1940, the city bought the two private systems. Some elevated lines ceased service immediately while others closed soon after, integration was slow, but several connections were built between the IND and BMT, these now operate as one division called the B Division
Pennsylvania Station (New York City)
Pennsylvania Station, known as New York Penn Station or Penn Station, is the main intercity railroad station in New York City. Serving more than 600,000 commuter rail and Amtrak passengers a day, Penn Station is in the midtown area of Manhattan, close to Herald Square, the Empire State Building and the Macys department store. Entirely underground, it sits beneath Madison Square Garden, between Seventh Avenue and Eighth Avenue and between 31st and 34th Streets, Penn Station has 21 tracks fed by seven tunnels. It is at the center of the Northeast Corridor, a rail line that connects New York City with Boston, Washington, D. C. Intercity trains are operated by Amtrak, which owns the station, while rail services are operated by the Long Island Rail Road. Connections are available within the complex to the New York City Subway, additionally, if reopened, the old Hilton Corridor would recreate an indoor connection with Port Authority Trans-Hudson trains. The original Pennsylvania Station was built from 1901-1910 by the Pennsylvania Railroad, after a decline in passenger usage during the 1950s, the original station was demolished and reconstructed from 1963 to 1969, resulting in the current station.
Pennsylvania Station is named for the Pennsylvania Railroad, its builder and original tenant, the current facility is the substantially remodeled underground remnant of a significantly more ornate station building designed by McKim and White and completed in 1910. The original Pennsylvania Station was considered a masterpiece of the Beaux-Arts style, the station was moved fully underground, beneath the newly constructed Pennsylvania Plaza complex and Madison Square Garden arena completed in 1968. Until the early 20th century, the PRRs rail network terminated on the side of the Hudson River at Exchange Place in Jersey City. Manhattan-bound passengers boarded ferries to cross the Hudson River for the stretch of their journey. The rival New York Central Railroads line ran down Manhattan from the north under Park Avenue, the development of the electric locomotive at the turn of the 20th century made a tunnel feasible. The station would sit in Manhattans Tenderloin district, a historical district known for its corruption and prostitution.
Beginning in June 1903, the two single-track North River Tunnels were bored from the west under the Hudson River. Electrification was initially 600 volts DC–third rail, and changed to 11,000 volts AC–overhead catenary when electrification of PRRs mainline was extended to Washington, D. C. in the early 1930s. The same tube, with an inscription indicating that it had displayed at the Exposition, was installed under water. Construction was completed on the Hudson River tunnels on October 9,1906, ground was broken for Pennsylvania Station on May 1,1904. Along with Long Island Rail Road trains, Penn Station saw trains of the New Haven and the Lehigh Valley Railroads
Slinky is a toy, a precompressed helical spring invented by Richard James in the early 1940s. These interesting characteristics have contributed to its success as a toy in its country of United States. The Slinky was invented and developed by naval engineer Richard T. James in 1943, the toy was a hit, selling its entire inventory of 400 units in ninety minutes. James and his wife Betty formed James Industries in Clifton Heights, Pennsylvania to manufacture Slinky and several related toys such as the Slinky Dog and Suzie, the Slinky Worm. In 1960, Jamess wife Betty became president of James Industries, in 1998, Betty James sold the company to Poof Products, Inc. Slinky has seen other than as a toy in the playroom, it has appeared in the classroom as a teaching tool, in wartime as a radio antenna. Slinky was inducted into the National Toy Hall of Fame at The Strong in Rochester, New York, in 2002, Slinky became Pennsylvanias official state toy, and, in 2003, was named to the Toy Industry Associations Century of Toys List.
In its first 60 years Slinky has sold 300 million units, Jamess wife Betty recalled, He came home and said, I think if I got the right property of steel and the right tension, I could make it walk. James experimented with different types of steel wire over the next year, Betty was dubious at first, but changed her mind after the toy was fine-tuned and neighborhood children expressed an excited interest in it. She dubbed the toy Slinky, after finding the word in a dictionary, with a US$500 loan, the couple formed James Industries, had 400 Slinky units made by a local machine shop, hand-wrapped each in yellow paper, and priced them at $1 a piece. Each was 2 1⁄2 tall, and included 98 coils of high-grade blue-black Swedish steel, Slinky was a hit, and the first 400 units were sold within ninety minutes. In 1946, Slinky was introduced at the American Toy Fair, Richard James opened shop in Albany, New York, after developing a machine that could produce a Slinky within seconds. The toy was packaged in a box, and advertising saturated America.
James often appeared on television shows to promote Slinky, in 1952, the Slinky Dog debuted. In its first 2 years, James Industries sold 100 million Slinkys, in 1960 Richard James left the company after his wife filed for divorce and he became an evangelical missionary in Bolivia with Wycliffe Bible Translators. Betty James managed the company, juggled creditors, and in 1964 moved the company to Hollidaysburg, the company and its product line expanded under Betty James’s leadership. In 1995, she explained the success to the Associated Press by saying. Betty James insisted upon keeping the original Slinky affordable, in 1996, when the price ranged from $1.89 to $2.69, she told The New York Times, “So many children can’t have expensive toys, and I feel a real obligation to them
Daniel Hudson Burnham, FAIA was an American architect and urban designer. He was the Director of Works for the Worlds Columbian Exposition in Chicago, Burnham took a leading role in the creation of master plans for the development of a number of cities, including Chicago and downtown Washington, D. C. Burnham was born in Henderson, New York and raised in Chicago and his parents brought him up under the teachings of the Swedenborgian called The New Church, which ingrained in him the strong belief that man should strive to be of service to others. After failing admissions tests for both Harvard and Yale and a stint at politics, Burnham apprenticed as a draftsman under William LeBaron Jenney. At age 26, Burnham moved on to the Chicago offices of Carter and Wight, Burnham and Root were the architects of one of the first American skyscrapers, the Masonic Temple Building in Chicago. Measuring 21 stories and 302 feet, the temple held claims as the tallest building of its time, under the design influence of Root, the firm had produced modern buildings as part of the Chicago School.
Following Root’s premature death from pneumonia in 1891, the became known as D. H. Burnham & Company. Burnham and Root had accepted responsibility to design and construction of the Worlds Columbian Exposition in Chicago’s then-desolate Jackson Park on the south lakefront. The largest worlds fair to date, it celebrated the 400-year anniversary of Christopher Columbus famous voyage. Under Burnhams direction, the construction of the Fair overcame huge financial and logistical hurdles, including a financial panic. Considered the first example of a planning document in the nation, the fairground was complete with grand boulevards, classical building facades. Often called the White City, it popularized neoclassical architecture in a monumental and rational Beaux-Arts plan, the remaining population of architects in the U. S. were soon asked by clients to incorporate similar elements into their designs. Initiated in 1906 and published in 1909, Burnham and his co-author Edward H. Bennett prepared The Plan of Chicago and it was the first comprehensive plan for the controlled growth of an American city, and an outgrowth of the City Beautiful movement.
The plan included proposals for the lakefront and river and declared that every citizen should be within walking distance of a park. Sponsored by the Commercial Club of Chicago, Burnham donated his services in hopes of furthering his own cause and conceptual designs of the south lakefront from the Exposition came in handy, as he envisioned Chicago being a Paris on the Prairie. French-inspired public works constructions and boulevards radiating from a central, City planning projects did not stop at Chicago though. Burnham had previously contributed to plans for such as Cleveland, San Francisco. The Plan for Manila never fully materialized due to the out of World War II
Shoplifting is a popular term used for the unnoticed theft of goods from an open retail establishment. Shoplifting typically involves a person concealing a store item on their person, in pockets or under clothes, with clothing, shoplifters may put on items from the store and leave the store wearing the clothes. The terms shoplifting and shoplifter are not usually defined in law, the crime of shoplifting generally falls under the legal classification of larceny. Shoplifting is distinct from burglary, robbery or armed robbery, shoplifters range from amateurs acting on impulse to career criminals who habitually engage in shoplifting as a form of income. Career criminals may use several individuals to shoplift, with some participants distracting store employees while another participant steals items, amateurs typically steal products for personal use, while career criminals generally steal items to resell them in the underground economy. Other forms of shoplifting include swapping price labels of different items, commonly shoplifted items are those with a high price in proportion to their size, such as disposable razor blades, alcoholic beverages and cigarettes.
Retailers have reported that 0. 6% of their inventory is lost to shoplifting, some stores have security guards at the exit, who search backpacks and bags and check receipts. Stores combat shoplifting by training employees how to detect potential shoplifters, Shoplifting is the act of knowingly taking goods from an establishment in which they are displayed for sale, without paying for them. Shoplifting usually involves concealing items on the person or an accomplice, shoplifting can include price switching, refund fraud and grazing. Price switching is now an almost extinct form of shoplifting for two reasons, the labels will split apart if you try to remove them, and virtually all retail cashiers now scan items at the register, rather than relying on price stickers. Retailers report that shoplifting has a significant effect on their bottom line, in several countries, criminal flash mobs primarily of teenagers and young adults enter stores with the intention of stealing merchandise by distracting staff.
However, there are people and groups who make their living from shoplifting, criminal theft involves taking possession of property illegally. In self-service shops, customers are allowed by the property owner to take possession of the property by holding or moving it. This leaves areas of ambiguity that could criminalize some people for simple mistakes, for this reason penalties for shoplifting are often lower than those for general theft. Few jurisdictions have specific shoplifting legislation with which to differentiate it from other forms of theft, most retailers are aware of the serious consequences of making a false arrest, and will only attempt to apprehend a person if their guilt is beyond a reasonable doubt. Depending on local laws, arrests made by other than law enforcement officers may be illegal. The first documented shoplifting started to place in 16th-century London. By the early 19th century, shoplifting was believed to be primarily a female activity, in the 1960s, shoplifting began to be redefined again, this time as a political act
Wisconsin is a U. S. state located in the north-central United States, in the Midwest and Great Lakes regions. It is bordered by Minnesota to the west, Iowa to the southwest, Illinois to the south, Lake Michigan to the east, Michigan to the northeast, Wisconsin is the 23rd largest state by total area and the 20th most populous. The state capital is Madison, and its largest city is Milwaukee, the state is divided into 72 counties. Wisconsin is second to Michigan in the length of its Great Lakes coastline, Wisconsin is known as Americas Dairyland because it is one of the nations leading dairy producers, particularly famous for its cheese. Manufacturing, especially paper products, information technology, and tourism are major contributors to the states economy. The word Wisconsin originates from the given to the Wisconsin River by one of the Algonquian-speaking Native American groups living in the region at the time of European contact. French explorer Jacques Marquette was the first European to reach the Wisconsin River, arriving in 1673, subsequent French writers changed the spelling from Meskousing to Ouisconsin, and over time this became the name for both the Wisconsin River and the surrounding lands.
English speakers anglicized the spelling from Ouisconsin to Wisconsin when they began to arrive in numbers during the early 19th century. The legislature of Wisconsin Territory made the current spelling official in 1845, the Algonquin word for Wisconsin and its original meaning have both grown obscure. Interpretations vary, but most implicate the river and the red sandstone that lines its banks, other theories include claims that the name originated from one of a variety of Ojibwa words meaning red stone place, where the waters gather, or great rock. Wisconsin has been home to a variety of cultures over the past 12,000 years. The first people arrived around 10,000 BCE during the Wisconsin Glaciation and these early inhabitants, called Paleo-Indians, hunted now-extinct ice age animals such as the Boaz mastodon, a prehistoric mastodon skeleton unearthed along with spear points in southwest Wisconsin. After the ice age ended around 8000 BCE, people in the subsequent Archaic period lived by hunting, agricultural societies emerged gradually over the Woodland period between 1000 BCE to 1000 CE.
Toward the end of period, Wisconsin was the heartland of the Effigy Mound culture. Later, between 1000 and 1500 CE, the Mississippian and Oneota cultures built substantial settlements including the village at Aztalan in southeast Wisconsin. The Oneota may be the ancestors of the modern Ioway and Ho-Chunk tribes who shared the Wisconsin region with the Menominee at the time of European contact, the first European to visit what became Wisconsin was probably the French explorer Jean Nicolet. He canoed west from Georgian Bay through the Great Lakes in 1634, pierre Radisson and Médard des Groseilliers visited Green Bay again in 1654–1666 and Chequamegon Bay in 1659–1660, where they traded for fur with local Native Americans. In 1673, Jacques Marquette and Louis Jolliet became the first to record a journey on the Fox-Wisconsin Waterway all the way to the Mississippi River near Prairie du Chien
Macys, originally R. H. Macy & Co. is a department store owned by Macys, Inc. It is one of two owned by the company, with the other being Bloomingdales. Macys has conducted the annual Macys Thanksgiving Day Parade in New York City since 1924 and has sponsored the citys annual Fourth of July fireworks display since 1976, Macys Herald Square is one of the largest department stores in the world. The value of Herald Square has been estimated at around $3 billion, in 2015 Macys was the largest U. S. department store company by retail sales. Macys was the 15th-largest retailer in the United States for 2014 by revenue and they all failed, but he learned from his mistakes. On the companys first day of business on October 28,1858 sales totaled US$11.08, equal to $306.15 today. From the beginning, Macys logo has included a star, which comes from a tattoo that Macy got as a teenager when he worked on a Nantucket whaling ship and it offered a money back guarantee, although it accepted only cash into the 1950s.
The store produced its own clothing for both men and women, assembled in an on-site factory. In 1875, Macy took on two partners, Robert M. Valentine, a nephew, and Abiel T, la Forge of Wisconsin, who was the husband of a cousin. Macy died in 1877 from inflammatory kidney disease, la Forge died the following year, and Valentine died in 1879. This latter 5-story building was purchased by Robert H. Macys ignored the tactic, and simply built around the building, in 1912, Isidor Straus died in the sinking of the Titanic at the age of 67 with his wife, Ida. The original Broadway store was designed by architects De Lemos & Cordes, was built in 1901–02 by the Fuller Company and has a Palladian facade, but has been updated in many details. There were further additions to the west in 1924 and 1928, and the Seventh Avenue building in 1931, all designed by architect Robert D. Kohn, the newer buildings were increasingly Art Deco in style. In 2012, Macys began the first full renovation of the iconic Herald Square flagship store at a reported cost of US$400,000,000, STUDIO V Architecture, a New York-based firm, was the overall Master Plan architect of the project.
STUDIO Vs fresh design of the department store raised controversy over the nature of contemporary design, the building was added to the National Register of Historic Places as a National Historic Landmark in 1978. The store has several wooden escalators still in operation, the problem of pre-existing buildings presented itself when Macys built a store on Queens Boulevard in Elmhurst, in the New York City borough of Queens. This resulted in a unique round department store on 90 percent of the lot, Macys no longer fully occupies this building, which now contains the Queens Place Mall, with Macys Furniture Gallery as a tenant, instead it moved its full outlet to the nearby Queens Center. This relocation was the result of Macys merger with Federated Department Stores, the parent company of Abraham & Straus, in 1994, more distant acquisitions included Lasalle & Koch, Davison-Paxon-Stokes, L. Bamberger & Co
The Great Depression was a severe worldwide economic depression that took place during the 1930s. The timing of the Great Depression varied across nations, in most countries it started in 1929 and it was the longest and most widespread depression of the 20th century. In the 21st century, the Great Depression is commonly used as an example of how far the economy can decline. The depression originated in the United States, after a fall in stock prices that began around September 4,1929. Between 1929 and 1932, worldwide GDP fell by an estimated 15%, by comparison, worldwide GDP fell by less than 1% from 2008 to 2009 during the Great Recession. Some economies started to recover by the mid-1930s, however, in many countries, the negative effects of the Great Depression lasted until the beginning of World War II. The Great Depression had devastating effects in both rich and poor. Personal income, tax revenue and prices dropped, while international trade plunged by more than 50%, unemployment in the U. S. rose to 25% and in some countries rose as high as 33%.
Cities all around the world were hit hard, especially dependent on heavy industry. Construction was virtually halted in many countries, farming communities and rural areas suffered as crop prices fell by about 60%. Facing plummeting demand with few sources of jobs, areas dependent on primary sector industries such as mining and logging suffered the most. Even after the Wall Street Crash of 1929 optimism persisted for some time, john D. Rockefeller said These are days when many are discouraged. In the 93 years of my life, depressions have come, prosperity has always returned and will again. The stock market turned upward in early 1930, returning to early 1929 levels by April and this was still almost 30% below the peak of September 1929. Together and business spent more in the first half of 1930 than in the period of the previous year. On the other hand, many of whom had suffered losses in the stock market the previous year. In addition, beginning in the mid-1930s, a severe drought ravaged the agricultural heartland of the U. S, by mid-1930, interest rates had dropped to low levels, but expected deflation and the continuing reluctance of people to borrow meant that consumer spending and investment were depressed.
By May 1930, automobile sales had declined to below the levels of 1928, prices in general began to decline, although wages held steady in 1930