Meat is animal flesh, eaten as food. Humans have killed animals for meat since prehistoric times; the advent of civilization allowed the domestication of animals such as chickens, rabbits and cattle. This led to their use in meat production on an industrial scale with the aid of slaughterhouses. Meat is composed of water and fat, it is edible raw, but is eaten after it has been cooked and seasoned or processed in a variety of ways. Unprocessed meat will spoil or rot within hours or days as a result of infection with and decomposition by bacteria and fungi. Meat is important in economy and culture though its mass production and consumption has been determined to pose risks for human health and the environment. Many religions have rules about which meat may not be eaten. Vegetarians may abstain from eating meat because of concerns about the ethics of eating meat, environmental effects of meat production or nutritional effects of consumption; the word meat comes from the Old English word mete. The term is related to mad in Danish, mat in Swedish and Norwegian, matur in Icelandic and Faroese, which mean'food'.
The word mete exists in Old Frisian to denote important food, differentiating it from swiets and dierfied. Most meat refers to skeletal muscle and associated fat and other tissues, but it may describe other edible tissues such as offal. Meat is sometimes used in a more restrictive sense to mean the flesh of mammalian species raised and prepared for human consumption, to the exclusion of fish, other seafood, poultry, or other animals. In the context of food, meat can refer to "the edible part of something as distinguished from its covering", for example, coconut meat. Paleontological evidence suggests that meat constituted a substantial proportion of the diet of the earliest humans. Early hunter-gatherers depended on the organized hunting of large animals such as bison and deer; the domestication of animals, of which we have evidence dating back to the end of the last glacial period, allowed the systematic production of meat and the breeding of animals with a view to improving meat production.
Animals that are now principal sources of meat were domesticated in conjunction with the development of early civilizations: Sheep, originating from western Asia, were domesticated with the help of dogs prior to the establishment of settled agriculture as early as the 8th millennium BCE. Several breeds of sheep were established in ancient Mesopotamia and Egypt by 3500–3000 BCE. Today, more than 200 sheep-breeds exist. Cattle were domesticated in Mesopotamia after settled agriculture was established about 5000 BCE, several breeds were established by 2500 BCE. Modern domesticated cattle fall into the groups Bos taurus and Bos taurus indicus, both descended from the now-extinct aurochs; the breeding of beef cattle, cattle optimized for meat production as opposed to animals best suited for work or dairy purposes, began in the middle of the 18th century. Domestic pigs, which are descended from wild boars, are known to have existed about 2500 BCE in modern-day Hungary and in Troy. Pork sausages and hams were of great commercial importance in Greco-Roman times.
Pigs continue to be bred intensively as they are being optimized to produce meat best suited for specific meat products. Other animals have been raised or hunted for their flesh; the type of meat consumed varies much between different cultures, changes over time, depending on factors such as tradition and the availability of the animals. The amount and kind of meat consumed varies by income, both between countries and within a given country. Horses are eaten in France, Italy and Japan, among other countries. Horses and other large mammals such as reindeer were hunted during the late Paleolithic in western Europe. Dogs are consumed in South Korea and Vietnam. Dogs are occasionally eaten in the Arctic regions. Dog meat has been consumed in various parts of the world, such as Hawaii, Japan and Mexico. Cats are consumed in Southern China and sometimes in Northern Italy. Guinea pigs are raised for their flesh in the Andes. Whales and dolphins are hunted for their flesh, in Japan, Siberia, the Faroe Islands, Iceland, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines and by two small communities in Indonesia.
Modern agriculture employs a number of techniques, such as progeny testing, to speed artificial selection by breeding animals to acquire the qualities desired by meat producers. For instance, in the wake of well-publicised health concerns associated with saturated fats in the 1980s, the fat content of United Kingdom beef and lamb fell from 20–26 percent to 4–8 percent within a few decades, due to both selective breeding for leanness and changed methods of butchery. Methods of genetic engineering aimed at improving the meat production qualities of animals are now becoming available. Though it is a old industry, meat production continues to be shaped by the evolving demands of customers; the trend towards selling meat in pre-packaged cuts has increased the demand for larger breeds of cattle, which are better suited to producing such cuts. More animals not exploited for their meat are now being farmed the more agile and mobile species, whose muscles tend to be developed better than those of cattle, sheep or pigs.
Examples are the various antelope species, the zebra, water buffalo and camel, as well as non-
Hamburger Helper is a packaged food product from General Mills and is sold as a part of the Betty Crocker brand. It consists of boxed pasta bundled with packets of powdered sauce and seasonings; the contents of each box are combined with browned ground beef and milk to create a complete dish. There are variations using other meats, such as tuna and chicken, named "Tuna Helper" and "Chicken Helper"; the product line features products with other starches, such as rice or potatoes. The pasta brand "Hamburger Helper" was first introduced in 1971. In 2005, Food Network rated Hamburger Helper third on its list of "Top Five Fad Foods of 1970". In 2013, the company shortened the brand's name to "Helper"; the Hamburger Helper mascot is the "Helping Hand" or "Lefty": a four-fingered, left-hand white glove, with a face on it and red spherical nose. It appears in the product's television commercials and on their packaged products; the basic and most popular version of Hamburger Helper is a box of dried pasta with seasoning, to be cooked with ground beef.
Hamburger Helper offers a variety of flavors that include Lasagne, Cheeseburger Macaroni, Bacon Cheeseburger, Philly Cheesesteak, others. There are variations using other foods, such as tuna and chicken, named "Tuna Helper" and "Chicken Helper". Tuna Helper was the second variety to appear on the market, in 1972. Fruit Helper was introduced in 1973; these were dessert products made with fresh fruit. The Fruit Helper line has since been discontinued. Chicken Helper was first introduced in 1984 in response to the wide availability of inexpensive boneless and skinless chicken breasts. Asian Helper is a selection of four main Asian-American-style dishes, three made with chicken and one with beef. Whole Grain Helper options include Lemon & Herb Chicken, Honey Mustard Chicken, Cheeseburger Mac, beef Stroganoff flavors made with whole-wheat pasta. Pork Helper was introduced in 2003. Varieties included pork fried pork chops with stuffing; the product was discontinued shortly after its introduction. Hamburger Helper Microwave Singles were introduced in 2006.
This product requires water and brief cooking in the microwave to produce a single serving portion of some of the most popular flavors. Chicken Helper flavors were added in 2007 despite the brand being discontinued shortly thereafter, it returned in 2013 as Chili Helper. In 1979, Scott Spiegel wrote and directed a short film entitled Attack of the Helping Hand, which featured a "Hamburger Helper" oven mitt as a killer glove. On April 1, 2016, General Mills commissioned an EP as an April Fools' Day prank, titled Watch the Stove. According to a press release, the EP was produced for General Mills by a team at St. Paul, Minnesota's McNally Smith College of Music; the EP's title is a parody of the Jay-Z and Kanye collaborative album Watch the Throne. It contains five songs, it achieved viral status, garnering over 4 million listens on SoundCloud in less than three days, with many listeners finding value in the brand's promotion of younger artists. Official website
Greece the Hellenic Republic, self-identified and known as Hellas, is a country located in Southern and Southeast Europe, with a population of 11 million as of 2016. Athens is largest city, followed by Thessaloniki. Greece is located at the crossroads of Europe and Africa. Situated on the southern tip of the Balkan Peninsula, it shares land borders with Albania to the northwest, North Macedonia and Bulgaria to the north, Turkey to the northeast; the Aegean Sea lies to the east of the mainland, the Ionian Sea to the west, the Cretan Sea and the Mediterranean Sea to the south. Greece has the longest coastline on the Mediterranean Basin and the 11th longest coastline in the world at 13,676 km in length, featuring a large number of islands, of which 227 are inhabited. Eighty percent of Greece is mountainous, with Mount Olympus being the highest peak at 2,918 metres; the country consists of nine geographic regions: Macedonia, Central Greece, the Peloponnese, Epirus, the Aegean Islands, Thrace and the Ionian Islands.
Greece is considered the cradle of Western civilisation, being the birthplace of democracy, Western philosophy, Western literature, political science, major scientific and mathematical principles, Western drama and notably the Olympic Games. From the eighth century BC, the Greeks were organised into various independent city-states, known as poleis, which spanned the entire Mediterranean region and the Black Sea. Philip of Macedon united most of the Greek mainland in the fourth century BC, with his son Alexander the Great conquering much of the ancient world, from the eastern Mediterranean to India. Greece was annexed by Rome in the second century BC, becoming an integral part of the Roman Empire and its successor, the Byzantine Empire, in which Greek language and culture were dominant. Rooted in the first century A. D. the Greek Orthodox Church helped shape modern Greek identity and transmitted Greek traditions to the wider Orthodox World. Falling under Ottoman dominion in the mid-15th century, the modern nation state of Greece emerged in 1830 following a war of independence.
Greece's rich historical legacy is reflected by its 18 UNESCO World Heritage Sites. The sovereign state of Greece is a unitary parliamentary republic and developed country with an advanced high-income economy, a high quality of life, a high standard of living. A founding member of the United Nations, Greece was the tenth member to join the European Communities and has been part of the Eurozone since 2001, it is a member of numerous other international institutions, including the Council of Europe, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the World Trade Organization, the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, the Organisation internationale de la Francophonie. Greece's unique cultural heritage, large tourism industry, prominent shipping sector and geostrategic importance classify it as a middle power, it is the largest economy in the Balkans. The names for the nation of Greece and the Greek people differ from the names used in other languages and cultures.
The Greek name of the country is Hellas or Ellada, its official name is the Hellenic Republic. In English, the country is called Greece, which comes from Latin Graecia and means'the land of the Greeks'; the earliest evidence of the presence of human ancestors in the southern Balkans, dated to 270,000 BC, is to be found in the Petralona cave, in the Greek province of Macedonia. All three stages of the stone age are represented for example in the Franchthi Cave. Neolithic settlements in Greece, dating from the 7th millennium BC, are the oldest in Europe by several centuries, as Greece lies on the route via which farming spread from the Near East to Europe. Greece is home to the first advanced civilizations in Europe and is considered the birthplace of Western civilisation, beginning with the Cycladic civilization on the islands of the Aegean Sea at around 3200 BC, the Minoan civilization in Crete, the Mycenaean civilization on the mainland; these civilizations possessed writing, the Minoans writing in an undeciphered script known as Linear A, the Mycenaeans in Linear B, an early form of Greek.
The Mycenaeans absorbed the Minoans, but collapsed violently around 1200 BC, during a time of regional upheaval known as the Bronze Age collapse. This ushered from which written records are absent. Though the unearthed Linear B texts are too fragmentary for the reconstruction of the political landscape and can't support the existence of a larger state contemporary Hittite and Egyptian records suggest the presence of a single state under a "Great King" based in mainland Greece; the end of the Dark Ages is traditionally dated to the year of the first Olympic Games. The Iliad and the Odyssey, the foundational texts of Western literature, are believed to have been composed by Homer in the 7th or 8th centuries BC. With the end of the Dark Ages, there emerged various kingdoms and city-states across the Greek peninsula, which spread to the shores of the Black Sea, So
Lasagne are a type of wide, flat pasta one of the oldest types of pasta. Lasagne, or the singular lasagna refers to a culinary dish made with stacked layers of pasta alternated with sauces and ingredients such as meats and cheese, sometimes topped with melted grated cheese; the cooked pasta is assembled with the other ingredients and baked in an oven. The resulting lasagne casserole is cut into single-serving square portions. Lasagne originated in Italy during the Middle Ages and has traditionally been ascribed to the city of Naples; the first recorded recipe was set down in the early 14th-century Liber de Coquina. It bore only a slight resemblance to the traditional form of lasagne, featuring a fermented dough flattened into a thin sheet, sprinkled with cheese and spices, eaten with the use of a small pointed stick. Recipes written in the century following the Liber de Coquina recommended boiling the pasta in chicken broth and dressing it with cheese and chicken fat. In a recipe adapted for the Lenten fast, walnuts were recommended.
The traditional lasagne of Naples, lasagne di carnevale, is layered with local sausage, small fried meatballs, hard-boiled eggs and mozzarella cheeses, sauced with a Neapolitan ragù, a meat sauce. Lasagne al forno, layered with a thicker ragù and Béchamel sauce, corresponding to the most common version of the dish outside Italy, is traditionally associated with the Emilia-Romagna region of Italy. In other regions, lasagne can be made with various combinations of ricotta or mozzarella cheese, tomato sauce and vegetables, the dish is flavoured with wine, garlic and oregano. In all cases, the lasagne is oven-baked. Traditionally, pasta dough prepared in Southern Italy used water. In modern Italy, since the only type of wheat allowed for commercially sold pasta is durum wheat, commercial lasagne are made of semolina from durum wheat. Emilia-Romagna's intensive farming economy in the northern region of Italy results in plentiful dairy and meat products, a commonality in regional cooking – more so than the olive oil found in southern regions of Italy.
Pastas from Emilia-Romagna and its capital, are always served with a ragù, a thick sauce made from ingredients such as onions, finely ground pork and beef, celery and tomatoes. In Ancient Rome, there was a dish similar to a traditional lasagne called lasana or lasanum described in the book De re coquinaria by Marcus Gavius Apicius, but the word could have a more ancient origin; the first theory is that lasagne comes from Greek λάγανον, a flat sheet of pasta dough cut into strips. The word λαγάνα is still used in Greek to mean a flat thin type of unleavened bread baked for the holiday Clean Monday. Another theory is that the word lasagne comes from the Greek λάσανα or λάσανον meaning'trivet','stand for a pot' or'chamber pot'; the Romans borrowed the word as lasanum, meaning'cooking pot'. The Italians used the word to refer to the cookware; the food took on the name of the serving dish. Another proposed link, or reference, is the 14th-century English dish loseyn as described in The Forme of Cury, a cookbook prepared by "the chief Master Cooks of King Richard II", which included English recipes as well as dishes influenced by Spanish, French and Arab cuisines.
This dish has similarities to modern lasagne in both its recipe, which features a layering of ingredients between pasta sheets, its name. An important difference is the lack of tomatoes, which did not arrive in Europe until after Columbus reached America in 1492; the earliest discussion of the tomato in European literature appeared in a herbal written in 1544 by Pietro Andrea Mattioli, while the earliest cookbook found with tomato recipes was published in Naples in 1692, but the author had obtained these recipes from Spanish sources. As with most other types of pasta, the Italian word is a plural form: lasagne meaning more than one sheet of lasagna, though in many other languages a derivative of the singular word lasagna is used for the popular baked pasta dish. Regional usage in Italy, when referring to the baked dish, favours the plural form lasagne in the north of the country and the singular lasagna in the south; the former, plural usage has influenced the usual spelling found in British English, while the southern Italian, singular usage has influenced the spelling used in American English.
Baked ziti – a baked Italian dish with macaroni and sauce Casserole Crozets de Savoie – a type of small, square-shaped pasta made in the Savoie region in France King Ranch chicken – a casserole known as "Texas Lasagna" Lasagna cell – inadvertent corrosion caused by improper storage of lasagna Lasagnette – a narrower form of the pasta Lazanki – a type of small square- or rectangle-shaped pasta made in Poland and Belarus Moussaka – a Mediterranean casserole, layered in some recipes Pastelón – a baked, layered Puerto Rican dish made with plantains Pastitsio – a baked, layered Mediterranean pasta dish Timballo – an Italian casserole List of Italian dishes List of casserole dishes Quotations related to Lasagna at Wikiquote The dictionary definition of lasagne at Wiktionary
Sugo all'amatriciana, or alla matriciana known as salsa all'amatriciana, is a traditional Italian pasta sauce based on guanciale, pecorino cheese from Amatrice, and, in some variations, onion. Originating from the town of Amatrice, the Amatriciana is one of the best known pasta sauces in present day Roman and Italian cuisine; the Italian government has named it a traditional agro-alimentary product of Lazio. Amatriciana originates from a recipe named gricia. Grici were what Romans—modern dwellers of Rome, not the ancient ones—called the sellers of bread and comestibles, they were so called in. According to another hypothesis, the name originates from the hamlet of Grisciano, in the comune of Accumoli, near Amatrice; the sauce - nowadays named Amatriciana bianca - was prepared with guanciale and grated pecorino. At some point, a little olive oil was added to the recipe. In the 1960s, the Amatriciana sauce was still prepared in this way in Amatrice itself; the invention of the first tomato sauces dates back to the late 18th century.
The first written record of pasta with tomato sauce can be found in the 1790 cookbook L'Apicio Moderno by Roman chef Francesco Leonardi. The Amatriciana recipe became famous in Rome over the 19th and early 20th centuries, due to the centuries old connection between Rome and Amatrice; the recipe was well received and went on to be considered a "classic" of the Roman Cuisine though it originated elsewhere. The name of the dish in the Romanesco dialect became matriciana due to the apheresis typical of this dialect. While tomato-less gricia is still prepared in central Italy, it is the tomato-enriched amatriciana, better known throughout Italy and exported everywhere. While in Amatrice the dish is prepared with spaghetti, the use of bucatini has become common in Rome and is now prevalent. Other types of dry pasta are used, whereas fresh pasta is avoided; the recipe is known in several variants depending, among other things, on the local availability of certain ingredients. While everybody seems to agree about the use of guanciale and tomato, onion is not favored in Amatrice, but is shown in the classical handbooks of Roman cuisine.
For frying, olive oil is most used, but strutto is used as well. The addition of garlic sauteed in olive oil, before adding the guanciale is accepted, for cheese either pecorino romano or Amatrice's pecorino can be used; the addition of black or chili pepper is common. List of pasta dishes List of pork dishes List of Benedetto. Vie piazze. Roma: Libreria di scienze e lettere. Boni, Ada. La Cucina Romana. Roma: Newton Compton Editori. Gosetti Della Salda, Anna. Le ricette regionali italiane. Milano: Solares. Carnacina, Luigi. Roma in Cucina. Milano: Giunti Martello. Faccioli, Emilio. L'Arte della cucina in Italia. Milano: Einaudi. Ravaro, Fernando. Dizionario romanesco. Roma: Newton Compton. ISBN 9788854117921. NY Times article on different recipes for sugo all'amatriciana and on guanciale Official Amatriciana sauce recipe
Pasta is a staple food of Italian cuisine. Pasta is made from an unleavened dough of durum wheat flour mixed with water or eggs, formed into sheets or various shapes cooked by boiling or baking. Rice flour, or legumes, such as beans or lentils are sometimes used in place of wheat flour to yield a different taste and texture, or as a gluten-free alternative. Pastas are divided into two broad categories: fresh. Most dried pasta is produced commercially via an extrusion process, although it can be produced at home. Fresh pasta is traditionally produced by hand, sometimes with the aid of simple machines. Fresh pastas available in grocery stores are produced commercially by large-scale machines. Both dried and fresh pastas come in a number of shapes and varieties, with 310 specific forms known by over 1300 documented names. In Italy, the names of specific pasta shapes or types vary by locale. For example, the pasta form cavatelli is known by 28 different names depending upon the town and region. Common forms of pasta include long and short shapes, flat shapes or sheets, miniature shapes for soup, those meant to be filled or stuffed, specialty or decorative shapes.
As a category in Italian cuisine, both fresh and dried pastas are classically used in one of three kinds of prepared dishes: as pasta asciutta, cooked pasta is plated and served with a complementary side sauce or condiment. A third category is pasta al forno, in which the pasta is incorporated into a dish, subsequently baked in the oven. Pasta dishes are simple, but individual dishes vary in preparation; some pasta dishes are served for light lunches, such as pasta salads. Other dishes may be used for dinner. Pasta sauces may vary in taste and texture. In terms of nutrition, cooked plain pasta is 31% carbohydrates, 6% protein, low in fat, with moderate amounts of manganese, but pasta has low micronutrient content. Pasta may be made from whole grains. First attested in English in 1874, the word "pasta" comes from Italian pasta, in turn from Latin pasta, latinisation of the Greek παστά "barley porridge". In the 1st century AD writings of Horace, lagana were fine sheets of fried dough and were an everyday foodstuff.
Writing in the 2nd century Athenaeus of Naucratis provides a recipe for lagana which he attributes to the 1st century Chrysippus of Tyana: sheets of dough made of wheat flour and the juice of crushed lettuce flavoured with spices and deep-fried in oil. An early 5th century cookbook describes a dish called lagana that consisted of layers of dough with meat stuffing, an ancestor of modern-day lasagna. However, the method of cooking these sheets of dough does not correspond to our modern definition of either a fresh or dry pasta product, which only had similar basic ingredients and the shape; the first concrete information concerning pasta products in Italy dates from the 13th or 14th century. Historians have noted several lexical milestones relevant to pasta, none of which changes these basic characteristics. For example, the works of the 2nd century AD Greek physician Galen mention itrion, homogeneous compounds made of flour and water; the Jerusalem Talmud records that itrium, a kind of boiled dough, was common in Palestine from the 3rd to 5th centuries AD.
A dictionary compiled by the 9th century Arab physician and lexicographer Isho bar Ali defines itriyya, the Arabic cognate, as string-like shapes made of semolina and dried before cooking. The geographical text of Muhammad al-Idrisi, compiled for the Norman King of Sicily Roger II in 1154 mentions itriyya manufactured and exported from Norman Sicily: West of Termini there is a delightful settlement called Trabia, its ever-flowing streams propel a number of mills. Here there are huge buildings in the countryside where they make vast quantities of itriyya, exported everywhere: to Calabria, to Muslim and Christian countries. Many shiploads are sent. One form of itriyya with a long history is laganum, which in Latin refers to a thin sheet of dough, gives rise to Italian lasagna. In North Africa, a food similar to pasta, known as couscous, has been eaten for centuries. However, it lacks the distinguishing malleable nature of pasta, couscous being more akin to droplets of dough. At first, dry pasta was a luxury item in Italy because of high labor costs.
There is a legend of Marco Polo importing pasta from China which originated with the Macaroni Journal, published by an association of food industries with the goal of promoting pasta in the United States. Rustichello da Pisa writes in his Travels that Marco Polo described a food similar to "lagana". Jeffrey Steingarten asserts that Arabs introduced pasta in the Emirate of Sicily in the ninth century, mentioning that traces of pasta have been found in ancient Greece and that Jane Grigson believed the Marco Polo story to have originated in the 1920s or 30s in an advertisement for a Canadian spaghetti company. In Greek mythology, it is believed that the god Hephaestus invented a device that made strings of dough; this was the earliest reference to a pasta maker. In the 14th and 15th centuries, dried pasta became popular for its easy storage; this allowed people to store pasta on ships. A century pasta was present around the globe during the voyages of discovery. Although tomatoes were introduced to Italy in the 16th century and incorporated in Italian cuisine in the 17th century, description of the first
Güveç is the name of a variety of earthenware pots used in Turkish cuisine, of a number of casserole/stew dishes that are cooked in them. The pot is wide medium-tall, can be glazed or unglazed, the dish in it is cooked with little or no additional liquid. Güveç dishes can be made in any type of oven-proof pan, but clay or earthenware pots are preferred of the heady, earthy aroma they impart to the stew. From Turkey it has spread with slight variations on the name; the names of the dish Đuveč in ex-Yugoslavia, Gyuvech in Bulgaria and the Greek dish Giouvetsi derive from güveç, although they are not always cooked in earthenware güveç pots. The Turkish and Balkan oven-baked meat and vegetable stew similar to ratatouille is called by various names including güveç and đuveč, it is made with meat, tomatoes, onions and spices and is served with "Balkan mixed salad", a combination of roasted eggplant, sweet peppers, garlic and vinegar. Meats can include chicken, lamb or sometimes beef or fish, while vegetables may include onion, peppers, eggplant, potatoes, carrots.
The dish is flavoured with paprika and summer savoury and various other herbs, may be cooked in a pan or in the oven. The name đuveč, an earthenware casserole in which đuveč is traditionally prepared, comes from the Turkish güveç "earthenware pot". Türlü güveç – vegetables Kuzu güveç – lamb and mutton Dana güveç – veal or beef Karides güveç – shrimp Patlıcan güveç – eggplant Giouvetsi, a Greek dish whose name has the same origin but is rather different Chanakhi Khoresht Piti Food portal