click links in text for more info

Girl Guides

Girl Guides or Girl Scouts is a movement found worldwide, still designed for girls and women only. This organization was introduced in 1909, because girls demanded to take part in the grassroots Boy Scout Movement. In different places around the world, the movement developed in diverse ways. In some places, girls attempted to join Scouting organizations. In other places, all girl groups were started independently, as time went on, some of these all girl groups started to open up to boys, while others' started to merge with the boys' organizations. In other instances, mixed groups were formed, sometimes to split. In the same way, the name Girl Guide or Girl Scout has been used by groups at different times and in different places, with some groups changing from one to another; the World Association of Girl Guides and Girl Scouts was formed in 1928 and has member organisations in 145 countries. There are now more than 10 million members worldwide. WAGGGS celebrated the centenary of the international Girl Guiding and Girl Scouting Movement over three years, from 2010 to 2012.

Lieutenant-General Robert Baden-Powell was a British soldier during the Second Anglo-Boer War in South Africa. He was the commander during the Siege of Mafeking, noted during the siege how young boys made themselves useful by carrying messages for the soldiers; when he came home, he decided to put his Scouting ideas into practice to see if they would work for young boys, took 21 boys camping on Brownsea Island, near Poole in Dorset. The camp was a success, subsequently Baden-Powell wrote the book Scouting for Boys; the book covered topics such as tracking and cooking, it outlined a Scout method for an "instruction in good citizenship". Soon boys began to organise themselves into Patrols and Troops and calling themselves "Boy Scouts". Girls bought the book as well and formed themselves into Patrols of Girl Scouts, while some girls and boys formed mixed Patrols. In those days, for girls to camp and hike was not common, as shown by this excerpt from The Boy Scouts Headquarters Gazette of 1909: "If a girl is not allowed to run, or hurry, to swim, ride a bike, or raise her arms above her head, how can she become a Scout?"

Girl Scouts were registered at Scout Headquarters. In 1909 there was a Boy Scout rally at Crystal Palace in London. Among the thousands of Boy Scouts at the rally were several hundred Girl Scouts, including a group of girls from Peckham Rye who had no tickets, they asked Baden-Powell to let them join in. Following negative publicity in "The Spectator" magazine Baden-Powell decided that a separate single-sex organisation would be best. Baden-Powell asked Agnes Baden-Powell, to form a separate Girl Guides organisation. In 1910 The Girl Guides were formed in the United Kingdom; the first Guide Company to be registered was 1st Pinkneys Green Guides, who still exist in Pinkneys Green, Berkshire. Many, though by no means all, Girl Guide and Girl Scout groups across the globe trace their roots to this point. Baden-Powell chose the name "Guides" from a regiment in the British Indian Army, the Corps of Guides, which served on the Northwest Frontier and was noted for its skills in tracking and survival. In some countries, the girls preferred to remain or call themselves "Girl Scouts".

Other influential women in the history of the movement were Juliette Gordon Low, founder of the Girl Scouts of the USA, Olga Drahonowska-Małkowska in Poland and Antoinette Butte in France. The Guide International Service was an organisation set up by the Girl Guides Association in Britain in 1942, their aim was to send teams of adult Girl Guides to Europe after World War II to aid with relief work. It is described in two books: All Things Uncertain by Phyllis Stewart Brown and Guides Can Do Anything by Nancy Eastick. A total of 198 Guiders and 60 Scouts, drawn from Britain, Canada and Kenya, served in teams; some went to relieve the Bergen-Belsen displaced persons camp. There has been much discussion about how similar Girl Guiding and Girl Scouting should be to boys' Scouting programmes. While many girls saw what the boys were doing and wanted to do it too, many girls' organisations have sought to avoid copying or mimicking the boys. Julie Bentley, appointed chief executive of the United Kingdom Girl Guides in 2012 and head of the Family Planning Association since 2007, described the Girl Guides in an interview with The Times as "the ultimate feminist organisation".

When most Scout organisations became mixed-sex, Guiding remained separate in most countries to provide a female-centred programme. For example, the UK Scout Association introduced a mixed-sex provision in 1976 with the Venture Scout programme, for all age-based sections in 1991, became co-educational in 2007; however Girl Guiding in the UK remains limited to girls. Transgender girls are admitted to units in some countries. Transgender women are allowed to become leaders in the United Kingdom Girl Guides. Things that are shared amongst all Guide Units are: The Guide Promise – Girls become Guides by making their Promise; each country has its own Promise, but all have the same three parts: duty to God or to your beliefs, duty to your country and keeping the Guide Law. Though there was a religious aspect, many countries are moving towards more non-denominational promises; the Good Turn – Each Guide tries to do a kind thing for someone else, without payment and without being asked, every day. The World Badge – This can be worn on uniform or ordinary clothes.

The three leaves of the trefoil stand for the threefold Promise. The vein in the centre i

Max Bense

Max Bense was a German philosopher and publicist, known for his work in philosophy of science, logic and semiotics. His thoughts combine natural sciences and philosophy under a collective perspective and follow a definition of reality, which – under the term existential rationalism – is able to remove the separation between humanities and natural sciences. Max Bense spent his early childhood in his birthplace Strasbourg and in 1918 his family was deported from Alsace-Lorraine as a consequence of World War I. Starting in 1920, he attended grammar school in Cologne and after 1930 he studied physics, mathematics and philosophy at the University of Bonn. During his studies, his interest in literature is revealed by several contributions to newspapers and broadcast, for which he wrote several radio dramas. In 1937 he received his doctor's degree with his dissertation "Quantenmechanik und Daseinsrelativität", he used the term Relativity of Dasein, which he adopted from Max Scheler, for explaining that novel theories do not have to contradict classical science.

Bense – declared opponent of national socialism – knowingly opposed the Deutsche Physik of the Nazi regime, which rejected the theory of relativity due to Einstein's Jewish origin. Therefore, he did not receive his postdoctoral qualification. In 1938, Bense worked as a physicist at the Bayer AG in Leverkusen. After the outbreak of World War II he was a soldier, firstly as a meteorologist as a medical technician in Berlin and Georgenthal, where he was mayor for a short time after the end of the war. In 1945 the University of Jena appointed him to curator and offered him the possibility of postdoctoral work, to be cumulative, at the Social-Pedagogic Faculty, followed by an appointment to Professor extraordinarius of philosophical and scientific propaedeutics. In 1948, Bense fled from the political development of the Soviet occupation zone to Boppard. In 1955, Bense raised a controversy concerning mythologizing tendencies of German postwar culture. Thereupon he became the target of public polemics, resulting in a postponement of his appointment to full professor until 1963.

In addition, he worked at the adult education center in Ulm and at the Ulm School of Design from 1953 to 1958. He was guest professor at the Hamburg College for Visual Arts from 1958 to 1960 and in 1966/67. Max Bense became professor emeritus on February 7, 1978 and died in 1990 as an internationally accredited scientist. In his first publication, "Raum und Ich", Bense combined theoretical philosophy with mathematics and aesthetics. For the first time, he phrased a rational aesthetics, which defines the components of language – words, phonemes – as a statistical language repertoire, which opposes literature, based upon meaning. Conversely, Bense studied the concept of style, which he applied to mathematics – following Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz' Mathesis Universalis –, designing a universal markup language. "Die Mathematik in der Kunst" was his starting point for investigating mathematical principles of form in the history of art. From this, Bense developed a perspective to see the mathematical spirit in works of literary art in metrics and rhythm.

Bense's thoughts assumed the correlation of a mathematical and linguistic consciousness, which have a common origin and have grown into complementary modes of thought. He considered the atomistic structures of the linguistic modes to be equivalent. By using non-interpretable basic elements and rules or operators, these forms give meaning, impart information and make stylistically formed language possible, he considered the aesthetic and the semantic information to be separated and not to be defined until they are used. This was the first German integration of Ludwig Wittgenstein's work into the field of aesthetics; some of Bense's knowledge is based on the investigations of the American mathematician George David Birkhoff. Thus some termini like "redundancy" and "entropy" have to be equated with "Ordnungsmaß" and "Materialverbrauch" from Birkhoff's aesthetics research. Bense considered the destruction of the social and intellectual middle-class world since the beginning of the 20th century a parallel to the destruction of the concept of being in philosophy.

He saw the natural world replaced by an artificial one. As a forerunner of the computer age, Bense thought about the technical counterparts of human existence, his pragmatic views of technology, influenced by Walter Benjamin, which lacked either belief in progress or its rejection, brought him the criticism of Theodor W. Adorno – and again put him in the role of the opposition. Inspired by neuroscience and the occupation with electronic calculating machines, but by Wittgenstein's concept of the language-game, Bense tried to put into perspective or to extend the traditional view of literature. In that, he was one of the first philosophers of culture who integrated the technical possibilities of the computer into their thoughts and investigated them across disciplinary

Embassy of North Macedonia, Kiev

The Embassy of North Macedonia in Kiev is the diplomatic mission of North Macedonia in Ukraine. Relations between Ukraine and North Macedonia were established on 23 July 1993, when Ukraine recognized the independence of the Republic of Macedonia. Diplomatic relations were established 20 April 1995 by exchange of notes between the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Ukraine and the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Macedonia. In December 1997 the Embassy of the Republic of Macedonia was opened in Kiev. Diplomatic mission of Ukraine in the Republic of Macedonia opened June 2000. Ukraine opened an embassy in the Republic of Macedonia during November 2001. Vlado Blazhevski Martin Huleski Ilija Isajlovski Aco Spacenoski Mr. Stole Zmejkoski North Macedonia–Ukraine relations Foreign relations of North Macedonia Foreign relations of Ukraine Embassy of Ukraine, Skopje Diplomatic missions in Ukraine Diplomatic missions of North Macedonia Embassy of North Macedonia in Kiev Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Ukraine


Franskraalstrand known as Franskraal, is a coastal village near to Gansbaai in the Western Cape province of South Africa. As of 2011 it had a population of 1,165 people in 592 households. Franskraalstrand is situated on the southern coast of the Danger Point peninsula, about 5 kilometres to the southeast of Gansbaai, it lies between the neighbouring village of Van Dyksbaai to the west and the mouth of the Uilkraal River to the east. The R43 highway passes along the northern edge of the village. Franskraalstrand falls within the Overstrand Local Municipality, part of the Overberg District Municipality. According to the 2011 census, of the population of 1,165 people, 95% described themselves as White, 1.7% as Coloured, 3% as Black African. 88 % of the population spoke Afrikaans as 10 % spoke English. The Strandveld Museum in the village contains artefacts of HMS Birkenhead, wrecked in 1852 off Danger Point; the Uilenkraalsmond Resort, located at the eastern end of the village, provides camping and caravan facilities.

The resort is situated next to the Uilkraal River, beyond which lies the Uilkraalsmond section of the Walker Bay Nature Reserve. A sandy beach stretches from the resort past the lagoon at the river mouth into the nature reserve

Middelburg railway station

Middelburg is a railway station in southern Middelburg, the Netherlands. The station is located on the Roosendaal -- Vlissingen railway; the services are operated by Nederlandse Spoorwegen. The station lies on the south side of Middelburg across the canal from the centre; the station area has undergone a metamorphosis since 2000. A new, modern bus station was built; the station is served by the following service: 2x per hour intercity service Amsterdam - Haarlem - Leiden - The Hague - Rotterdam - Dordrecht - Roosendaal - Vlissingen 2x per weekday intercity service Roosendaal - Vlissingen The following bus services depart from the bus station outside the station: 50 - Station Middelburg -'s-Heerenhoek - Terneuzen 52 - Station Middelburg - Middelburg - Grijpskerke - Aagtekerke - Domburg 53 - Station Middelburg - Middelburg - Koudekerke - Biggekerke - Meliskerke - Zoutelande - Westkapelle - Domburg 54 - Station Middelburg - Middelburg - Veere 55 - Station Middelburg - Middelburg - West-Souburg - Vlissingen Centre 56 - Station Middelburg - Middelburg - Koudekerke - Vlissingen Centre - Vlissingen NS (Interchange with Veolia Fast Ferries 57 - Station Middelburg - Middelburg South - Oost-Souburg - Vlissingen Centre 58 - Station Middelburg - Middelburg - West-Souburg - Vlissingen Centre All bus services are operated by Connexxion.

NS website Dutch Public Transport journey planner

8th Armoured Division (South Africa)

8 South African Armoured Division was a formation of the South African Army, active from the 1970s to 1999. 8 South African Division was established as an Armoured Formation on August 1, 1974, consisting of 81 Armoured Brigade, 82 Mechanised Brigade and 84 Motorised Brigade. It was, in many respects, a mirror of 7th South African Infantry Division. A provisional 1977 order of battle had 8 Armoured Division organised as follows: Headquartered in Pretoria, 81 Armoured Brigade consisted of the following units: Headquartered in Potchefstroom, 82 Mechanised Brigade consisted of the following units: During Operation Packer which succeeded Operation Hooper in March 1988, 82 Mechanised Brigade protected the eastern bank of the Cuito River. During this operation, FAPLA forces suffered losses and the situation on the eastern bank stabilised to such an extent that Operation Displace could be started. During this phase the South African forces withdrew from Angola. 83 Mechanised Brigade was never activated.

Headquartered in Durban, 84 Brigade was formed in Durban as part of 8th Armoured Division on August 1, 1974 and its official establishment was authorized on September 10 of that year. Brigadier G. Wolmarans was authorized as its first commanding officer with Commandant W. P. Sass, Maj H. L. Bosman, Capt J. E. Samuales as staff officers posted to headquarters; the new Brigade was located at Lords Grounds. 84 Motorised Brigade consisted of the following units: Previous commanders: Brig G. Wolmarans Col H. F. P. Riekert Col F. J. van Deventer Col Peter Hall, former OC of 31 Battalion at Omega, Caprivi. By 1985, 8 Division consisted of 81 Armoured Brigade, 84 Motorised 72 Motorised Brigade. 82 Mechanised Brigade had been transferred to the command of 7th South African Infantry Division. 8 Division’s Brigades were disbanded in 1992 and the battalions and regiments came to answer directly to the divisional headquarters - the thinking was that these would be grouped into task forces as required. The concept was never put to a serious test.

The Formation was renamed 8 South African Division. The Division was disbanded on April 1, 1997, when its former units became part of 7th South African Infantry Division as 74 Brigade. Cock, J. Laurie, N. War and Society: The Militarisation of South Africa, published by David Phillip, 1989 ISBN 978-0864861153