Giulio Andreotti was an Italian politician and statesman who served as the 41st Prime Minister of Italy and leader of the Christian Democracy party. Andreotti is considered the most powerful and prominent politician of the so-called First Republic. Beginning as a protégé of Alcide De Gasperi, Andreotti achieved cabinet rank at a young age and occupied all the major offices of state over the course of a forty-year political career, being seen as a reassuring figure by the civil service, business community, Vatican. In foreign policy, he guided Italy's European Union integration and established closer relations with the Arab world. Admirers of Andreotti saw him as having mediated political and social contradictions, enabling the transformation of a rural country into the world's fifth-biggest economy. Critics said he had done nothing to challenge a system of patronage that had led to pervasive corruption. Andreotti staunchly supported the Vatican and a capitalist structure, while opposing the Italian Communist Party.
Following the popular Italian sentiment of the time, Andreotti supported the development of a strong European community playing host to neo-liberal economics. Though Andreotti belonged to the right-wing, he was not averse to the implementation of the European Social Fund and Regional Fund in building the European economy. At the height of his prestige as a statesman, Andreotti was subjected to damaging criminal prosecutions. Charged with colluding with Cosa Nostra, courts could not prove that he had maintained his links with them after 1980, ruled the case out of time; the most sensational allegation came from prosecutors in Perugia, who charged him with ordering the murder of a journalist. He was found guilty at a trial, which led to complaints that the justice system had "gone mad". After being acquitted of all charges, Andreotti remarked, "Apart from the Punic Wars, for which I was too young, I have been blamed for everything that's happened in Italy." Andreotti served in numerous ministerial positions, including as Minister of the Interior, Minister of Finance, Minister of Treasury, Minister of Defence, Minister of Planning and the Budget and Minister of Foreign Affairs and was a Senator for life from 1991 until his death in 2013.
He was a journalist and author. Andreotti was sometimes called Divo Giulio. Giulio Andreotti, the youngest of three children, was born on 14 January 1919 in Rome, his father was a primary school teacher from Segni, a small town in Lazio, who died when Giulio was two. Andreotti attended the Liceo Torquato Tasso in Rome and graduated in Law at the University of Rome, with the vote of 110/110, he showed some ferocity as a youth, once stubbing out a lit taper in the eye of another altar boy, ridiculing him. His mother was described as not affectionate, an aunt is said to have advised him to remember that few things in life are important, never to over-dramatise difficulties; as an adult he was described as having a somewhat unusual demeanor for an Italian politician, being mild-mannered and unassuming. Andreotti did not use his influence to advance his children to prominence, despite being considered the most powerful person in the country for decades. "See all, tolerate much, correct one thing at a time," was a quote that emphasised what has been called his'art of the possible' view of politics.
Andreotti was known for his discretion and retentive memory, a sense of humour placing things in perspective with a sardonic quip. Andreotti's personal support within the Christian Democrats was limited, but he had the ability to see where the mutual advantage for conflicting interests lay, put himself at the centre of events as mediator. Though not a physically-imposing man, Andreotti navigated political waters through conversational skill. Andreotti did not shine at his school and started work in a tax office while studying law at the University of Rome. In this period he became a member of the Italian Catholic Federation of University Students, the only non-fascist youth organization, allowed by the regime of Benito Mussolini, its members included many of the future leaders of the Italian Christian Democracy. In 1938 while researching the papal navy in the Vatican library, he met Alcide De Gasperi, given sanctuary by the Pope. De Gasperi asked Andreotti if he had nothing better to do with his time, inspiring him to become politically active.
Speaking of De Gasperi, Andreotti said, "He taught us to search for compromise, to mediate."In July 1939, while Aldo Moro was president of FUCI, Andreotti became director of its magazine Azione Fucina. In 1942, when Moro was enrolled in the Italian Army, Andreotti succeeded him as president of FUCI, a position he held until 1944. During his early years Andreotti suffered violent migraines that forced him to sporadically make use of psychoactive drugs and opiates. During World War II, Andreotti wrote for the Rivista del Lavoro, a fascist propaganda publication, but was a member of the then-clandestine newspaper Il Popolo. In July 1943, Andreotti contributed, along with Mario Ferrari Aggradi, Paolo Emilio Taviani, Guido Gonella, Giuseppe Capograssi, Ferruccio Pergolesi, Vittore Branca, Giorgio La Pira, Giuseppe Medici and Moro, to the creation
2015 GT50 known as o5p060, is a trans-Neptunian object orbiting in the Kuiper belt of the outermost Solar System. It was first observed by the Outer Solar System Origins Survey using the Canada–France–Hawaii Telescope at Mauna Kea on 13 April 2015, it is one a small number of detached objects with perihelion distances of 30 AU or more, semi-major axes of 250 AU or more. Such objects cannot reach such orbits without some perturbing object, which has led to the Planet Nine hypothesis, that a massive trans-Neptunian planet is the perturber; however 2015 GT50 is an interesting outlier of these trans-Neptunian objects that make one of the lines of evidence for Planet Nine. Unlike the others, the shape of whose orbits either cluster in anti-alignment with the modeled orbit of Planet Nine or cluster in alignment with it, 2015 GT50's major axis is at a right angle to that of the putative planet. Konstantin Batygin of Caltech suggests that this is only a cosmetic disagreement with his and Mike Brown's predictions for the positions of these bodies.
In fact, he notes that without having to change the putative orbit of Planet Nine, 2015 GT50 falls into one of the predicted resonant orbits. This, may be a coincidence; this conclusion, however, is not unanimous, others have instead suggested that the existence of a population of objects with orbital characteristics similar to those of 2015 GT50 may be at odds with the Planet Nine hypothesis. OSSOS VI. Striking Biases in the detection of large semimajor axis Trans-Neptunian Objects 16 June 2017 MPEC 2017-M25: 2015 GT50 OSSOS survey by the Canada–France–Hawaii Telescope 2015 GT50 at the JPL Small-Body Database Close approach · Discovery · Ephemeris · Orbit diagram · Orbital elements · Physical parameters
Robert J. Glushko is an adjunct professor at the University of California Berkeley School of Information, he has written a number of books including The Discipline of Organizing. In 1997, he helped pioneer the use of XML for electronic business. Veo's innovations included the Common Business Library, the first native XML vocabulary for business-to-business transactions, the primary starting point for what is now the Universal Business Language, the Schema for Object-Oriented XML, the first object-oriented XML schema language. From 1999-2002 he headed Commerce One's XML architecture and technical standards activities, after Commerce One acquired Veo in 1998, he is the husband of Pamela Samuelson. In 2001, they founded the David E. Rumelhart Prize for Contributions to the Theoretical Foundations of Human Cognition. Rumelhart was Glushko's thesis advisor at the University of California, San Diego, where he received his PhD in 1979. Glushko and Samuelson have helped create several law school clinics working on public interest technology issues.
These include: Glushko-Samuelson Intellectual Property Law Clinic of the Washington College of Law at American University Samuelson Law, Technology & Public Policy Clinic at University of California, Berkeley Samuelson-Glushko Intellectual Property and Information Law Clinic at Fordham University Samuelson-Glushko Technology Law & Policy Clinic at University of Colorado, Boulder Samuelson-Glushko Canadian Internet Policy & Public Interest Clinic, at the University of Ottawa. In 2008, Glushko was recognized as an honorary member of the Cognitive Science Society "for outstanding, sustained contributions to the general advancement of cognitive science,and in particular,to the Cognitive Science Society." He has been named one of 50 UCSD Alumni Leaders by the UCSD Alumni Association. As of this edit, this article uses content from "Robert J. Glushko Home Page", licensed in a way that permits reuse under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License, but not under the GFDL. All relevant terms must be followed