His Eminence is a historical style of reference for high nobility, still in use in various religious contexts. The style remains in use as the style or standard of address in reference to a cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church. A longer, and more formal, title is His Most Reverend Eminence, patriarchs of Eastern Catholic Churches who are cardinals may be addressed as His Eminence or by the style particular to Eastern Catholic patriarchs, His Beatitude. The Prince and Grand Master of the contemporary Sovereign Military Order of Malta is still syled His Most Eminent Highness, styles such as His Grand Eminence or His Eminent Grace amongst others were used as well, some formalized by the Pope or other powers, such as monarchs. However, many others where simply personal preference of the Cardinal, archbishops in the Eastern Orthodox Church are addressed with the styles of Beatitude or Eminence. The Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople is styled His All-Holiness, and so is, exceptionally, in Oriental Orthodoxy bishops holding the rank of metropolitan are referred to as His Eminence.
The Archbishop of Ohrid and Macedonia is addressed as His Beatitude and it is used, informally, in Islam for highly honorable religious leaders. Tsem Tulku Rinpoche, a Tibetan Buddhist tulku of the Gelugpa monastic order who presides over a center in Malaysia
Alma mater is an allegorical Latin phrase for a university or college. In modern usage, it is a school or university which an individual has attended, the phrase is variously translated as nourishing mother, nursing mother, or fostering mother, suggesting that a school provides intellectual nourishment to its students. Before its modern usage, Alma mater was a title in Latin for various mother goddesses, especially Ceres or Cybele. The source of its current use is the motto, Alma Mater Studiorum, of the oldest university in continuous operation in the Western world and it is related to the term alumnus, denoting a university graduate, which literally means a nursling or one who is nourished. The phrase can denote a song or hymn associated with a school, although alma was a common epithet for Ceres, Cybele and other mother goddesses, it was not frequently used in conjunction with mater in classical Latin. Alma Redemptoris Mater is a well-known 11th century antiphon devoted to Mary, the earliest documented English use of the term to refer to a university is in 1600, when University of Cambridge printer John Legate began using an emblem for the universitys press.
In English etymological reference works, the first university-related usage is often cited in 1710, many historic European universities have adopted Alma Mater as part of the Latin translation of their official name. The University of Bologna Latin name, Alma Mater Studiorum, refers to its status as the oldest continuously operating university in the world. At least one, the Alma Mater Europaea in Salzburg, the College of William & Mary in Williamsburg, has been called the Alma Mater of the Nation because of its ties to the founding of the United States. At Queens University in Kingston and the University of British Columbia in Vancouver, British Columbia, the ancient Roman world had many statues of the Alma Mater, some still extant. Modern sculptures are found in prominent locations on several American university campuses, outside the United States, there is an Alma Mater sculpture on the steps of the monumental entrance to the Universidad de La Habana, in Havana, Cuba. Media related to Alma mater at Wikimedia Commons The dictionary definition of alma mater at Wiktionary Alma Mater Europaea website
The Holy See, referred to as the See of Rome, is the ecclesiastical jurisdiction of the Catholic Church in Rome, the episcopal see of the Pope, and an independent sovereign entity. It serves as the point of reference for the Catholic Church everywhere. Today, it is responsible for the governance of all Catholics, organised in their Particular Churches, Patriarchates, as an independent sovereign entity, holding the Vatican City enclave in Rome as sovereign territory, it maintains diplomatic relations with other states. Diplomatically, the Holy See acts and speaks for the whole church and it is recognised by other subjects of international law as a sovereign entity, headed by the Pope, with which diplomatic relations can be maintained. The creation of the Vatican City state was meant to ensure the diplomatic, in Greek, the adjective holy or sacred is constantly applied to all such sees as a matter of course. The word see comes from the Latin word sedes, meaning seat, while Saint Peters basilica in Vatican City is perhaps the church most associated with the Papacy, the actual cathedral of the Holy See is the church of Saint John Lateran within the city of Rome.
The Pope governs the Catholic Church through the Roman Curia, the Secretariat of State, under the Cardinal Secretary of State and coordinates the Curia. The incumbent, Archbishop Pietro Parolin, is the Sees equivalent of a prime minister, Archbishop Paul Gallagher, Secretary of the Section for Relations with States of the Secretariat of State, acts as the Holy Sees minister of foreign affairs. Parolin was named in his role by Pope Francis On 31 August 2013, mamberti was named in his role by Pope Benedict XVI in September 2006. The Secretariat of State is the body of the Curia that is situated within Vatican City. The others are in buildings in different parts of Rome that have rights similar to those of embassies. The Roman Rota handles normal judicial appeals, the most numerous being those that concern alleged nullity of marriage and it oversees the work of other ecclesiastical tribunals at all levels. The most important of these is the Administration of the Patrimony of the Apostolic See, the Prefecture of the Papal Household is responsible for the organization of the papal household and ceremonies.
The Holy See does not dissolve upon a Popes death or resignation and it instead operates under a different set of laws sede vacante. The government of the See, and therefore of the Catholic Church, canon law prohibits the College and the Camerlengo from introducing any innovations or novelties in the government of the Church during this period. In 2001, the Holy See had a revenue of 422.098 billion Italian lire, the Guardian newspaper described Mennini and his role in the following manner. Paolo Mennini, who is in effect the popes merchant banker, Mennini heads a special unit inside the Vatican called the extraordinary division of APSA – Amministrazione del Patrimonio della Sede Apostolica – which handles the patrimony of the Holy See. The Holy See has been recognized, both in practice and in the writing of modern legal scholars, as a subject of public international law, with rights
The Roman Curia is the administrative apparatus of the Holy See and the central body through which the Roman Pontiff conducts the affairs of the universal Catholic Church. The Roman Curia instead aids the Pope in the exercise of his primacy over all the Churches, Curia in medieval and Latin usage means court in the sense of royal court rather than court of law. The Roman Curia is sometimes anglicized as the Court of Rome and it is the papal court and assists the Pope in carrying out his functions. It is normal for every Latin Catholic diocese to have its own curia for its administration, a distinct office, the Vicar General for Vatican City, administers the portion of the Diocese of Rome in Vatican City. Until recently, there still existed hereditary officers of the Roman Curia, a reorganization, ordered by Pope Pius X, was incorporated into the 1917 Code of Canon Law. Further steps toward reorganization were begun by Pope Paul VI in the 1960s, among the goals of this curial reform were the modernization of procedures and the internationalization of the curial staff.
These reforms are reflected in the 1983 Code of Canon Law, the offices of the Vatican City State are not part of the Roman Curia, which is composed only of offices of the Holy See. The following organs or charges, according to the website of the Holy See. All members of the Curia except the Cardinal Camerlengo and the Major Penitentiary resign their office immediately after a death or resignation. The principal departments of the Roman Curia are called dicasteries and those remain the five principal categories of departments, with the noteworthy change in that there is now more than a single Secretariate. Both are headed by a prefect, the Secretariat of State is the oldest dicastery in the Roman Curia, the government of the Roman Catholic Church. It is headed by the Secretary of State, since 15 October 2013 Cardinal Pietro Parolin, the Secretariat is divided into two sections, the Section for General Affairs and the Section for Relations with States, known as the First Section and Second Section, respectively.
The Secretariat of State was created in the 15th century and is now the department of the curia most involved in coordinating the Holy Sees activities, named the first Prefect of the Secretariat was Monsignor Dario Edoardo Viganò, formerly the Director of the Vatican Television Center. Two departments of the Roman Curia established by Pope Francis in 2016 have been identified as dicasteries rather than as one of the traditional department types, Pope Francis announced on 15 August 2016 the creation of the Dicastery for the Laity and Life, effective 1 September 2016. It took over the responsibilities of the Pontifical Council for the Laity and he named Cardinal Peter Turkson its first prefect. Combining the work of four Pontifical Councils established following the Second Vatican Council, the Pope announced that temporarily he would personally direct the departments work on behalf of migrants and refugees. The Roman Congregations are a type of dicastery of the Roman Curia, each Congregation is led by a prefect, who is a cardinal.
Among the most active of these major Curial departments, it oversees Catholic doctrine and its most familiar name for most of its history was the Holy Office of the Inquisition
The Rwandan genocide, known as the genocide against the Tutsi, was a genocidal mass slaughter of Tutsi in Rwanda by members of the Hutu majority government. An estimated more than 800,000 Rwandans were killed during the 100-day period from April 7 to mid-July 1994, additionally, 30% of the Pygmy Batwa were killed. The genocide and widespread slaughter of Rwandans ended when the Tutsi-backed, an estimated 2,000,000 Rwandans, mostly Hutus, were displaced and became refugees. The genocide was planned by members of the political elite. Perpetrators came from the ranks of the Rwandan army, the Gendarmerie, government-backed militias including the Interahamwe, waves of Hutu violence against the RPF and Tutsi followed Rwandan independence in 1962. This agreement was not acceptable to a number of conservative Hutu, including members of the Akazu, many Hutus reacted to this prospect with extreme opposition. In the lead-up to the genocide the number of machetes imported into Rwanda increased, on April 6,1994, an airplane carrying Habyarimana and Burundian President Cyprien Ntaryamira was shot down on its descent into Kigali.
At the time, the plane was in the airspace above Habyarimanas house, one person survived but died soon after en route to the hospital. The assassination of Habyarimana ended the peace accords, genocidal killings began the following day. Soldiers and militia quickly executed key Tutsi and moderate Hutu military and barricades were erected to screen all holders of the national ID card of Rwanda in order to systematically identify and kill Tutsi. Other observers criticized the government of France for alleged support of the Hutu government after the genocide had begun, the genocide had a lasting and profound impact on Rwanda and its neighboring countries. The pervasive use of rape as a weapon of war caused a spike in HIV infection, including babies born of rape to newly infected mothers, many households were headed by orphaned children or widows. The destruction of infrastructure and the depopulation of the country crippled the economy, challenging the nascent government to achieve rapid economic growth.
Declaring a need to avert further genocide, the RPF-led government led military incursions into Zaire, including the First, Armed struggles between the Rwandan government and their opponents in DRC have continued to play out through proxy militias in the Goma region, including the M23 rebellion. Large Rwandan Hutu and Tutsi populations continue to live as refugees throughout the region, Rwanda has two public holidays mourning the genocide. The national mourning period begins with Kwibuka, the commemoration, on April 7. The week following April 7 is a week of mourning. The genocide served as an impetus for creating the International Criminal Court to eliminate the need for ad hoc tribunals to prosecute genocide, crimes against humanity, and war crimes
Sudan, known as North Sudan since South Sudans independence and officially the Republic of the Sudan, is a country in Northern Africa. It is the third largest country in Africa, the River Nile divides the country into eastern and western halves. Before the Sudanese Civil War, South Sudan was part of Sudan, Sudan was home to numerous ancient civilizations, such as the Kingdom of Kush, Nobatia, Makuria, Meroë and others, most of which flourished along the Nile. During the pre-dynastic period Nubia and Nagadan Upper Egypt were identical, by virtue of its proximity to Egypt, the Sudan participated in the wider history of the Near East inasmuch as it was Christianized by the 6th century, and Islamized in the 15th. As a result of Christianization, the Old Nubian language stands as the oldest recorded Nilo-Saharan language, Sudan was the largest country in Africa and the Arab world until 2011, when South Sudan separated into an independent country, following an independence referendum. Sudan is now the third largest country in Africa and the third largest country in the Arab world and its capital is Khartoum, the political and commercial centre of the nation.
It is a representative democratic federal republic. The politics of Sudan are regulated by an organization called the National Assembly. The Sudanese legal system is based on Islamic law, the countrys place name Sudan is a name given to a geographical region to the south of the Sahara, stretching from Western Africa to eastern Central Africa. The name derives from the Arabic bilād as-sūdān, or the lands of the Blacks, during the fifth millennium BC migrations from the drying Sahara brought neolithic people into the Nile Valley along with agriculture. The population that resulted from this cultural and genetic mixing developed social hierarchy over the centuries become the Kingdom of Kush at 1700 BC. The Kingdom of Kush was an ancient Nubian state centered on the confluences of the Blue Nile and White Nile, and the Atbarah River and it was established after the Bronze Age collapse and the disintegration of the New Kingdom of Egypt, centered at Napata in its early phase. After King Kashta invaded Egypt in the eighth century BC, the Kushite kings ruled as pharaohs of the Twenty-fifth Dynasty of Egypt for a century before being defeated and driven out by the Assyrians.
At the height of their glory, the Kushites conquered an empire that stretched from what is now known as South Kordofan all the way to the Sinai, pharaoh Piye attempted to expand the empire into the Near East, but was thwarted by the Assyrian king Sargon II. Sennacheribs successor Esarhaddon went further, and invaded Egypt itself, deposing Taharqa, Taharqa fled back to his homeland where he died two years later. Egypt became an Assyrian colony, king Tantamani, after succeeding Taharqa, Esarhaddon died while preparing to leave the Assyrian capital of Nineveh in order to eject him. However, his successor Ashurbanipal sent an army into southern Egypt and routed Tantamani. During Classical Antiquity, the Nubian capital was at Meroë, in ancient Greek geography, the Meroitic kingdom was known as Ethiopia
Saint Juan Diego Cuauhtlatoatzin, known as Juan Diegotzil, a native of Mexico, is the first Roman Catholic indigenous saint from the Americas. He is said to have granted an apparition of the Virgin Mary on four separate occasions in December 1531 at the hill of Tepeyac, outside. As a result, the Basilica of Guadalupe is now the major centre of pilgrimage for Roman Catholics. Juan Diego was beatified in 1990 and canonized in 2002, according to the sources identified below, Juan Diego was an Indian born in 1474 in Cuauhtitlan, and at the time of the apparitions he lived there or in Tolpetlac. Although not destitute, he was neither rich nor influential and he and his wife, María Lucía, were among the first to be baptized after the arrival of the main group of twelve Franciscan missionaries in Mexico in 1524. His wife died two years before the apparitions, although one source claims she died two years after them, there is no firm tradition as to their marital relations. Alternatives and may not necessarily conflict with other reports that Juan Diego had a son, intrinsic to the narrative is Juan Diegos uncle, Juan Bernardino, but beyond him, María Lucía, and Juan Diegos putative son, no other family members are mentioned in the tradition.
At least two 18th-century nuns claimed to be descended from Juan Diego, the date of death is given as 1548. The earliest notices of an apparition of the Virgin Mary at Tepeyac to an Indian are to be found in various annals which are regarded by Dr, others go only as far as saying that such notices are few, brief and themselves posterior by many years. After the annals, a number of publications arose, Sánchez has a few scattered sentences noting Juan Diegos uneventful life at the hermitage in the sixteen years from the apparitions to his death. Juan Diegos town of origin, place of residence at the date of the apparitions, and his heroic virtues are eulogized at pages 40 to 42. Other biographical information about Juan Diego is set out on page 50, slight and fragmented notices appear in the hearsay testimony of seven of the indigenous witnesses collected with other testimonies in the Informaciones Jurídicas de 1666. Chapter 18 of Francisco de la Florencias Estrella de el norte de México contains the first systematic account of Juan Diegos life, with attention given to some divergent strands in the tradition.
The following account is based on that given in the Nican Mopohua which was first published in Nahuatl in 1649 as part of a work known as the Huei tlamahuiçoltica. This translation, was made from a copy of the original. The precise dates in December 1531 were not recorded in the Nican Mopohua, Juan Diego, as a devout neophyte, was in the habit of regularly walking from his home to the Franciscan mission station at Tlatelolco for religious instruction and to perform his religious duties. His route passed by the hill at Tepeyac and he delivered the request, but was told by the bishop to come back another day after he had had time to reflect upon what Juan Diego had told him. Juan Diego agreed to return to the bishop to repeat his request and this he did on the morning of Sunday, December 10 when he found the bishop more compliant
Pontifical Ecclesiastical Academy
The Pontifical Ecclesiastical Academy is one of the Roman Colleges of the Catholic Church. The academy is dedicated to training priests to serve in the diplomatic corps, despite its name, the Pontifical Ecclesiastical Academy is not one of the ten Pontifical Academies of the Holy See. The patron of the Pontifical Ecclesiastical Academy is Saint Anthony the Great, the diplomatic service of the Holy See can be traced back to 325 AD when Pope Sylvester I sent legates to represent him at the First Council of Nicaea. The academy was created as the Pontifical Academy of Ecclesiastical Nobles in 1701 by Abbot Pietro Garagni, the Academy was forced to close between 1798 and 1803, the first years of the French occupation of Rome. Many leaders of the church have been alumni of the academy, including Popes Clement XIII, Leo XII, Leo XIII, Benedict XV, and Paul VI. Students spend four years at the academy, two years earning a licentiate in law from a Roman University, two years earning a doctorate in canon law.
If the students that have been recruited already have a J. C. D, their time at the PEA is shortened to two years. The courses are usually in diplomatic history and diplomatic writing and are considered not to be academic, by the end of his studies, each student has to possess a working knowledge of at least two languages in addition to his mother tongue. The President of the academy is Archbishop Giampiero Gloder, who was previously an official in the Secretariat of State of the Holy See. He succeeded Archbishop Beniamino Stella on September 21,2013, when Archbishop Stella was named by Pope Francis as the Prefect of the Congregation for the Clergy. A small number of diplomats currently represent the Holy See but have not been through the formal academic, examples of these diplomats are Michael Louis Fitzgerald, Silvano Maria Tomasi, Charles John Brown, Aldo Giordano Paul Mounged El-Hachem and Michael August Blume, S. V. D. Global organisation of the Catholic Church Index of Vatican City-related articles Pontifical Ecclesiastical Academy
Cardinal Secretary of State
The Secretariat of State performs all the political and diplomatic functions of the Holy See and the Vatican City. The Secretary of State is currently Cardinal Pietro Parolin, the Cardinal Secretary is appointed by the Pope, and serves as one of his principal advisors. As one of the offices in the Roman Catholic Church. The Cardinal Secretarys term ends when the Pope who appointed him dies or leaves office, once the new Pope is chosen, the former Secretarys role in the commission likewise expires, though he can be re-appointed as Secretary of State. At this stage the secretary was a minor functionary, the Vatican administration being led by the Cardinal Nephew. By the time of Pope Innocent X the Secretary of State was always himself a Cardinal, from onwards the Secretary of State has been the most important of the officials of the Holy See. In 1968, Pope Paul VIs apostolic constitution Regimini Ecclesiae Universae further enhanced the powers of the Secretary, in 1973 Paul further broadened the Secretaryship by abolishing the ancient office of Chancellor of the Holy Roman Church and merging its functions into those of the Secretary
Congregation for the Evangelization of Peoples
The Congregation for the Evangelization of Peoples in Rome is the congregation of the Roman Curia responsible for missionary work and related activities. It is perhaps better known by its title, the Sacred Congregation for the Propagation of the Faith. It was renamed by Pope John Paul II in 1982 and its mission continues unbroken, the early Congregation was established in the Palazzo Ferratini, donated by Juan Bautista Vives, to the south of the Piazza di Spagna. The current Prefect of the Congregation is Cardinal Fernando Filoni, the current Secretary is Archbishop Savio Hon Tai-Fai from Hong Kong. The Adjunct Secretary is Archbishop Protase Rugambwa, the Under-Secretary is Father Tadeusz Wojda, S. A. C. The Archivist of the Archives of the Congregation is Bishop Luis Manuel Cuña Ramos, monsignors Lorenzo Piva and Camillus Nimalan Johnpillai assist as Office Heads of the Congregation. The Congregation was originally housed in a palace, the Palazzo Ferratini, donated by Vives. In 1634 a small chapel was built according to designs by Bernini.
In 1642, Father Valerio, with Bernini, redesigned the façade to the Piazza di Spagna, and the development was continued along the Via Due Macelli by Gaspare de’Vecchio from 1639-1645. Initially Borromini designed an oval chapel plan but this was superseded by a rectilinear design, with the greater length parallel to the street. Construction of the chapel commenced in 1660 and although the part was built by 1665. The Re Magi chapel, dedicated to the Three Kings, has a plan with four side chapels and galleries above. On the interior, the wall and the vault are differentiated horizontally by a line but there is a vertical continuity of wall. The criss cross arrangement in the Re Magi Chapel is such that an octagon is formed at the centre and his first designs for the façade onto the Via di Propaganda Fide had five bays but he expanded this to seven. The façade is dominated by the giant pilasters that originally supported a balustrade above the narrow entablature, the central door leads into the courtyard where Borromini intended a curved arcade but this was not built.
Only the left side of the façade relates to the chapel. Other parts of the College have further minor works by Borromini, the intrinsic importance of its duties and the extraordinary extent of its authority and of the territory under its jurisdiction caused the Cardinal Prefect of Propaganda to be known as the red pope. This was the direction for the Catholic Church to look for evangelizing