Gjøa was the first vessel to transit the Northwest Passage. With a crew of six, Roald Amundsen traversed the passage in a three-year journey, finishing in 1906; the 70 by 20 ft square-sterned sloop of 45 net register tonnage was built by Knut Johannesson Skaale in Rosendal, Norway in 1872, the same year Amundsen was born. She was named Gjøa after her owner's wife. For the next 28 years the vessel served as a herring fishing boat. On March 28, 1901, Amundsen bought her from Asbjørn Sexe of Ullensvang, for his forthcoming expedition to the Arctic Ocean. Gjøa was much smaller than vessels used by other Arctic expeditions, but Amundsen intended to live off the limited resources of the land and sea through which he was to travel, reasoned that the land could sustain only a tiny crew, her shallow draught would help her traverse the shoals of the Arctic straits. Most the aging ship was all that Amundsen could afford. Amundsen had little experience of Arctic sailing, so decided to undertake a training expedition before braving the Arctic ice.
He engaged Hans Christian Johannsen, her previous owner, a small crew, sailed from Tromsø in April 1901. The next five months were spent sealing on the pack ice of the Barents Sea. Following their return to Tromsø in September, Amundsen set about remedying the deficiencies in Gjøa that the trip had exposed, he had a 13 horsepower marine paraffin motor driving a single screw installed. She had proved to be sluggish. Much of the winter was spent upgrading her ice sheathing. In the spring of 1902, her refit complete, Amundsen sailed her to Christiania, the capital of Norway. At this time Norway was still in a union with Sweden, Amundsen hoped the nationalistic spirit, sweeping the country would attract sponsors willing to underwrite the expedition's growing costs. After much wrangling, a donation from King Oscar, he succeeded. By the time Amundsen returned, Norway had gained its independence, he and his crew were among the new country's first national heroes. Amundsen served as Gjøa's master, his crew were a Danish naval lieutenant and Gjøa's first officer.
Gjøa left the Oslofjord on June 16, 1903, made for the Labrador Sea west of Greenland. From there she navigated the narrow, icy straits of the Arctic Archipelago. By late September Gjøa was west of the Boothia Peninsula and began to encounter worsening weather and sea ice. Amundsen put her into a natural harbour on the south shore of King William Island. There she remained for nearly two years, with her crew undertaking sledge journeys to make measurements to determine the location of the North Magnetic Pole and learning from the local Inuit people; the harbour, known as Uqsuqtuuq in Inuktitut, has become the only settlement on the island—Gjoa Haven, which now has a population of over a thousand people. Gjøa left Gjoa Haven on August 13, 1905, motored through the treacherous straits south of Victoria Island, from there west into the Beaufort Sea. By October Gjøa was again iced-in, this time near Herschel Island in the Yukon. Amundsen left his men on board and spent much of the winter skiing 500 miles south to Eagle, Alaska to telegraph news of the expedition's success.
He returned in March, but Gjøa remained icebound until July 11. Gjøa reached Nome on August 31, 1906, she sailed on to earthquake ravaged San Francisco, where the expedition was met with a hero's welcome on October 19. Rather than sail her round Cape Horn and back to Norway, the Norwegian American community in San Francisco prevailed on Amundsen to sell her to them; the ship was donated to the city of San Francisco, the ship was dragged up the beach to the northwest corner of Golden Gate Park, surrounded by low fence and put on display. Amundsen knew that because of the notoriety that his exploits aboard Gjøa had earned, he would be able gain access to Nansen's ship Fram, custom-built for ice work and was owned by the Norwegian state. Therefore, Amundsen left Gjøa in San Francisco, he and his crew traveled back to Norway by commercial ship. Of the original expedition members, only Wiik failed to return to Norway, since he had died of illness during the third Arctic winter. Over the following decades Gjøa deteriorated, by 1939 she was in poor condition.
Refurbishment was delayed by World War II, repairs were not completed until 1949. Being displayed outdoors and having faced 66 years of high winds, ocean salt and sand, the boat once again suffered deterioration, until in 1972, with the help of Erik Krag, a Danish American shipping company owner of San Francisco, Gjøa was returned to Norway. Erik Krag was knighted by the King of Norway for his efforts in shipping home Gjøa; the Gjøa was displayed in the Norwegian Maritime Museum in Oslo. In May 2009 the Norwegian Maritime Museum and the Fram Museum signed an agreement for the Fram Museum of Bygdøy to take over the exhibit
William Lash Miller was a Canadian chemist, chemistry professor, pioneer of physical chemistry. Lash Miller studied chemistry at the University of Toronto with bachelor's degree in 1887, he studied from 1887 to 1889 under August Wilhelm von Hofmann, in 1889 under Viktor Meyer in Göttingen, in 1890 in Munich, where he received his doctorate in organic chemistry under Adolf von Baeyer. Subsequently, he studied with Wilhelm Ostwald in Leipzig, a turning point in his chemistry career. From on, he spent summers in Ostwald's laboratory in Leipzig. In 1891 Lash Miller became a demonstrator at the University of Toronto and was again in 1892 with Wilhelm Ostwald in Leipzig, where he earned a second doctorate. At the University of Toronto, Lash Miller became in 1894 a lecturer, in 1900 an associate professor, in 1908 a professor of physical chemistry in Toronto. In 1937 he retired as a professor emeritus, his greatest scientific strength lay in his mastery of the chemical thermodynamics of Willard Gibbs, learned from Ostwald at Leipzig.
His greatest weakness was his refusal to use or teach the atomic and molecular theories that formed the mainstream of 20th-century chemical thinking. Toronto became an important centre of chemical research, a roster of Miller's pupils includes a remarkable number of important chemists. Lash Miller was considered one of the most important Canadian chemists at the time of his death, he built up the teaching of physical chemistry in Canada and was one of Canada's first representatives of physical chemistry, with which he dealt from about 1915. With Ostwald he devoted much of his scientific efforts to implement Gibbs' theoretical concepts on a laboratory scale. Lash Miller did research on many areas of physical chemistry. Miller served as the doctoral advisor of biochemist Clara Benson, he was one of the main organizers of the Canadian Institute of Chemistry and was in 1926 its president. In 1926 he became the first Canadian honorary member of the American Chemical Society, he was a member of the editorial staff of the Journal of the American Chemical Society and of The Journal of Physical Chemistry A.
He was made Commander of the Order of the British Empire in 1935. The Lash Miller Chemical Laboratories building, at the University of Toronto, is named in his honor. Chemist William Lash Miller is not to be confused with lawyer William Miller Lash, his double cousin. On the Conversion of Chemical Energy into Electrical, Journal of Physical Chemistry, 10, 459–466 with F. J. Smale: Introduction to qualitative analysis, 1896 On the Second Differential Coefficients of Gibbs Function ζ; the Vapor Tensions and Boiling Points of Ternary Mixtures, Journal of Physical Chemistry, 1, 633–642 Chemical and Physical Reactions, 1902 On the Mechanism of Induced Reactions, 1907 The Theory of the Direct Method of Determining Transport Numbers, Journal of Physical Chemistry, 69, 436–441 with T. R. Rosebrugh: Mathematical Theory of Changes in Concentration at the Electrode. Brought About by Diffusion and by Chemical Reactions, Journal of Physical Chemistry, 14, 816–885 The Influence of Diffusion on Electromotive Force Produced in Solutions by Centrifugal Action, Transactions of the Electrochemical Society, 21.
209–217 Toxicity and Chemical Potential, Journal of Physical Chemistry, 24, 562–569 The Method of Willard Gibbs in Chemical Thermodynamics, Chemical Reviews, 1, 293–344 with A. R. Gordon: Numerical Evaluation of Infinite Series and Integrals Which Arise in Certain Problems of Linear Heat Flow, Electrochemical Diffusion, etc. Journal of Physical Chemistry, 35, 2785–2884
Cambridge University Handball Club was founded and registered as a club at the University of Cambridge in 2013. CUHC runs women's teams playing in national competitions, it is a member of the England Handball Association and the Association of British University Handball Clubs. The men's team is holding the Varisity Trophy against Oxford; the club has been taking part in the British University Championships. The men's team participated in 2014/15 season and 2015/16 season; the women's team played for the first time in the 2014/15 season and continued in the 2015/16 season. The first season of existence of the club saw the inaugural Handball Varsity match, which took place on 25 January 2014 at SportHouse in London. In 2019, the Cambridge Men's team won the Varsity match in the fourth subsequent year. At the same time Oxford's Women's team was able to defeat their tophy for the fifth time in a row and remains unbeaten since 2015. Cambridge University HC - Official website Cambridge University Students' Union - Societies directory England Handball Association Association of British University Handball Clubs