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Glasgow Cathedral

Glasgow Cathedral called the High Kirk of Glasgow or St Kentigern's or St Mungo's Cathedral, is the oldest cathedral on mainland Scotland and is the oldest building in Glasgow. Since the Reformation the cathedral continues in public ownership, within the responsibility of Historic Environment Scotland; the congregation is part of the Church of Scotland's Presbytery of Glasgow and its services and associations are open to all. The cathedral and its kirkyard are at Cathedral Street. Neighbouring it are Glasgow Royal Infirmary, opened in 1794, the elevated Glasgow Necropolis, opened in 1833. Nearby are the Provand's Lordship, Glasgow's oldest house and its herbal medical gardens, the Barony Hall, University of Strathclyde, Cathedral Square, Glasgow Evangelical Church, St Mungo Museum; the history of the cathedral is linked with that of the city, is located where the patron saint of Glasgow, Saint Mungo, built his church. The tomb of the saint is in the lower crypt. Walter Scott's novel Rob Roy gives an account of the kirk.

Built before the Reformation from the late 12th century onwards and serving as the seat of the Bishop and the Archbishop of Glasgow, the building is a superb example of Scottish Gothic architecture. It is one of the few Scottish medieval churches to have survived the Reformation not unroofed. James IV ratified the treaty of Perpetual Peace with England at the high altar on 10 December 1502; the cathedral and the nearby castle played a part in the battles of Glasgow in 1544 and 1560. Twenty years after the Reformation, on 22 April 1581 James VI granted the income from a number of lands to Glasgow town for the kirk's upkeep, he traced the ownership of these lands to money left by Archbishop Gavin Dunbar as a legacy for repairing the cathedral. The town council agreed on 27 February 1583 to take responsibility for repairing the kirk, while recording they had no obligation to do so; the church survives because of this resolution. Inside, the rood screen is a rare survivor in Scottish churches; the cathedral has been host to number of congregations and continues as a place of active Christian worship, hosting a Church of Scotland congregation.

The current minister is the Rev Mark E. Johnstone DL MA BD, minister at St. Mary's Church, Kirkintilloch; the building itself is in the ownership of The Crown, is maintained by Historic Scotland, is a popular destination for tourists. The University of Glasgow originated in classes held within the precinct of the Cathedral. William Turnbull, Bishop of Glasgow was responsible for the foundation of the University around the year 1451. In 1460, the University moved out of the Cathedral to an adjacent site on the east side of the High Street, known locally as The College, moved to its current home on Gilmorehill in 1870. Glasgow Cathedral Choir is a professional adult ensemble, singing at the two regular Sunday services each week; the current Director of Music is Andrew Forbes and the Cathedral Organist is Malcolm Sim. The four-manual Father Willis organ was installed in 1879, has been maintained by Harrison & Harrison since they rebuilt the instrument in 1996. 1879 Alfred Peace 1897 Herbert Walton 1929 R H Clifford Smith 1936 Wilfred J Emery 1965 John Turner 2010 Ian Simcock 2012 Richard Pratt 2014 Andrew Forbes Other cathedrals in Glasgow are St. Andrew's Cathedral, St. Mary's Cathedral and St Luke's Cathedral.

Archibald Inglis Ralph Rodger James Brown George Campbell John Hamilton William Taylor Duncan Macfarlan John Robertson George Stewart Burns Pearson McAdam Muir James McGibbon Lauchlan Maclean Watt Nevile Davidson William Morris Laurence A. B. Whitley Mark E. Johnstone John Anderson and his son John Anderson of Douhill, both 17th century Lord Provosts of Glasgow Robert Wishart, Catholic Bishop of Glasgow James Law, Episcopal Archbishop of Glasgow Peter Lowe and medical author Charles Macintosh, inventor of the Mackintosh Peter Murdoch of Rosehill, Lord Provost 1730-1732 Rev Prof George Jardine List of tallest buildings and structures in Glasgow Official site of Glasgow Cathedral Historic Environment Scotland. "Glasgow Cathedral and graveyard". Historic Environment Scotland. "Glasgow Cathedral, excluding scheduled monument SM90150, 70 Cathedral Square, Glasgow". – History and original drawings of the Cathedral area. – from Virtual Scotland Glasgow Cathedral Photographs

Susan Hinckley Bradley

Susan Hinckley Greenough Bradley was an American painter known for her water color landscapes and portrait drawings. Bradley was born Susan Hinckley in Boston, the daughter of Samuel Lyman Hinckley and Anne Cutler Hinckley, her paternal grandparents were Sophia Lyman. Her maternal grandparents were Samuel Dunn Parker and Elizabeth Parker, the daughter of U. S. Senator Jonathan Mason, her aunt, Sally Outram Lyman, was married to agricultural writer Richard Lamb Allen. Her younger brother was painter Robert Cutler Hinckley, she began her art studies in Boston at the School of the Museum of Fine Arts, studying with Frederic Crowninshield, at the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts in Philadelphia, as well as with Abbott Thayer, William Merritt Chase,John Henry Twachtman.and Edward Darley Boit. in Rome. Her paintings can be found in Harvard University, Harvard Art Museum, Fogg Museum, in Cambridge, Massachusetts, at Smith College, Smith College Museum of Art, Massachusetts, in the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, as well as in numbers private collections.

She exhibited Mount Monadnock, at the 1893 World's Columbian Exposition. She married a minister, Leverett Bradley in 1879 and served as the editor of his Civil War memoir, Leverett Bradley: A Soldier-Boy’s Letters, 1862-1865, A Man’s Work in the Ministry printed in Boston, 1905, she died in Boston in 1929. Media related to Susan Hinckley Bradley at Wikimedia Commons

Diya Aur Toofan (1995 film)

Diya Aur Toofan is a 1995 Hindi language Indian feature film directed by K. Bapaiah, starring Mithun Chakraborty, Suresh Oberoi, Mohnish Bahl and Kader Khan; this film is a remake of the 1979 Kannada movie Seetharamu. Gajendra Singh is a wealthy contractor who, with his partner Madanlal, sells government provided building materials into the black market, exchanging them for inferior ones. A civil engineer and his supervisor find out and upon their meeting are subsequently murdered by Gajendra. While Dr. Vijay is unable to treat the two workers, he gets a letter informing himself that his friend Amar, a gold medalist engineer, is the replacement engineer for the crooked contractors. Amar, just like his predecessors, is honest and won't do with what his bosses tell him to. After an attempt to bribe Amar, the contractors get beaten up and Amar threatens to expose them. Joginder, Gajendra's son, is a rogue who sets his eyes on Amar's eventual wife-to-be. On their wedding night, Gajendra and Joginder all stab Amar, Asha, when finding out, goes crazy.

During a frenzied visit to the temple one night, she slips and falls down the stone steps leading to permanent brain damage. Vijay transplants Amar's brain into Asha's body and Asha kills the trio one by one. Before she hangs Gajendra, she is shot by the police, in a dying soliloquy, claims that she will be with Amar for eternity. Mithun Chakraborty as Amar Madhoo as Asha Suresh Oberoi as Dr. Vijay Mehra Prem Chopra as Thakur Gajendra Singh Mohnish Behl as Joginder Singh Shakti Kapoor as Madanlal Tabedaar Kader Khan as Gyaneshwar Asrani as Solanki Maya Alagh as Asha's mother Nanda "Kundi Dheere Se Khatkana" - Ila Arun "Dhoom Tara Tara Dhoom Tara Tara" - Kavita Krishnamurthy, Kumar Sanu "Sapno Me Dekha Tha" - Sudesh Bhosle "Odhe Lal Chunariya" - Kavita Krishnamurthy "Nagri Nagri Dhunda O Sajna" - Udit Narayan, Kavita Krishnamurthy "Ek Diya Aur Toofan" - Alka Yagnik Diya Aur Toofan on IMDb

Bahurada Manimaya

Bahurada Manimaya, Princess Debnariratana, was a Princess of Siam. She was a member of Siamese royal family, she was a daughter of King Rama V of Siam. Princess Bahurada Manimaya was the first daughter of King Chulalongkorn of Siam and Queen Saovabha Phongsri together, she was born on 19 December 1878 at the Grand Palace. After she was born, her father, King Chulalongkorn named her Bahurada Manimaya Prabaibannabichitra Narisarajakumari, she was called Thunkramom Ying Yai, which means the eldest daughter of the king though the king had older daughters by other mothers. In poor health all of her life, she died on 27 August 1887 at the age of only 8; this saddened her parents and all members of the royal family. A royal cremation was held for her and two younger brothers, Prince Siriraja Kakudhabhandh, the 4th son of King Chulalongkorn and Queen Saovabha Phongsri, who died on 31 May 1887, Prince Tribejrutama Dhamrong, who died 3 months later. After she died, Queen Saovabha Phongsri, her mother, gave her first daughter's properties to the government to create a road and named it after her, Bahurada road spelled as Phahurat or Pahurat road, in remembrance of her.

On 9 November 1915, in King Vajiravudh's reign, her younger brother gave her the posthumous title, the Krom rank Princess Debnariratana or Kromma Phra Debnariratana, the second level of the Krom ranks. Sakulthai – Chulalongkorn's daughters Royal Command giving title of Princess Bahurada Manimaya, the Princess Debnariratana

Henry Pollock

For the New York politician, see Henry W. Pollock. Sir Henry Edward Pollock, QC, JP was an English barrister who became a prominent politician in Hong Kong, he acted as Attorney General in Hong Kong on several occasions, was once appointed to the same post in Fiji. He served as Senior Unofficial Member of both the Legislative Council and Executive Council for many years in pre-Pacific War Hong Kong. Along with Sir Paul Chater Governor Sir Frederick Lugard and others, Sir Henry was one of the founders of the University of Hong Kong. Pollock was born to a well-known family in the law, his grandfather, Sir Frederick Pollock, 1st Baronet served as Attorney General for England and Wales between 1834 and 1835 and 1841 and 1844 in the Tory administrations of Sir Robert Peel. Pollock's father was Dr. Arthur Julius Pollock, he was the eldest son in the second marriage of Sir Frederick Pollock, though he ranked thirteenth among the twenty-four children that Sir Frederick had. Dr. Pollock was a lecturer in the Foundling Hospital and Charing Cross Hospital.

He was a Council member of the Royal College of Physicians. Pollock was the third child of Ellen Bailey, he had an elder sister, Caroline, an elder brother, Arthur Julius, a younger brother, Charles Frederick. Pollock was born in London, England on 16 December 1864, he spent his early childhood in London and was admitted to the Charterhouse School. He quit the school in 1882 at the age of 18, was promptly employed by a bank in Drury Lane. After one year of working, Pollock earned 50 pounds in total, opted for continuing his study, he was enrolled by the Inner Temple in 1883 and was called to the bar upon graduation in 1887. In April 1888, seeking for new opportunities elsewhere, Pollock left his family and departed England for the Crown Colony of Hong Kong, he was soon qualified as a barrister in Hong Kong, set up his career in the legal profession. Pollock was valued by the local society not long after his arrival to the colony. For six months from September 1888 to March 1889, he had been appointed by the government as acting Police Magistrate.

In 1891, he was appointed unofficial Justice of Peace, in 1892, he had served as acting Puisne Judge for the government for half a year. In 1894, Hong Kong was suffered from a severe plague. Pollock was noted for his work on relief during the plague and was awarded a gold medal by the government afterwards. From 1896 to 1901, Pollock was appointed by the government as acting Attorney General, thus became an ex officio member of both the Legislative Council and Executive Council. During his tenure as both an Attorney General and a councillor, his performance was regarded by his colleagues, he was appointed Queen's Counsel as a reward in 1900. In 1902, Pollock was served as Attorney General in there, he did not stay long in Fiji and returned to Hong Kong a year later. A year in Fiji did not weaken his influence in Hong Kong: he went on to serve as a member of the Sanitary Board from March 1903 to February 1906. In 1903, under the promotion of the Chamber of Commerce, Pollock had served as acting Unofficial Member of the Legislative Council for around a year.

Soon afterwards, he was again nominated by the unofficial Justices of Peace and became a full unofficial member of the council in December 1905. For nearly forty years, Pollock would continuously represent the unofficial Justices of Peace constituency in the council. In his long tenure in the Legislative Council, Pollock was active in public service and served in a number of committees as member or chairman, including the Peace Celebration and War Memorial Finance Committee, Housing Commission and the Standing Law Committee. During the First World War, Pollock sat as a Judge in the Appeal Tribunal; as early as 1911 and 1912, Pollock was provisionally appointed twice as unofficial member of the Executive Council. However, he lost the chance to be appointed a full unofficial member in November 1915 when he unsuccessfully pressured the governor, Sir Henry May in a Legislative Council meeting for replacing a vacancy for an unofficial member in the Executive Council through limited election. Pollock was one of the most prominent activists on constitutional reform in pre-war Hong Kong.

He did not give up. In January 1916, he sent a petition compiled with a few hundreds signatures to the Secretary of State for the Colonies, Bonar Law, called for reform in both the Legislative and Executive Council. According to his proposal, he suggested that more unofficial seats should be created on the two councils; these new seats should be elected by members of the Chamber of Commerce and the unofficial Justices of Peace to let them be more represented. Pollock supported the appointment of more Chinese to the two councils. Pollock's proposal was rejected by Bonar Law with no reason given; the relationship between Pollock and Sir Henry, was so badly damaged that Pollock was never again chosen to sit on the Executive Council during the governorship of Sir Henry. Pollock only became an unofficial member of the Executive Council after the retirement of Sir He

Free Trade Area of the Americas

The Free Trade Area of the Americas was a proposed agreement to eliminate or reduce the trade barriers among all countries in the Americas, excluding Cuba. In the last round of negotiations, trade ministers from 34 countries met in Miami, Florida, in the United States, in November 2003 to discuss the proposal; the proposed agreement was an extension of the North American Free Trade Agreement between Canada and the United States. Opposing the proposal were Cuba, Bolivia, Ecuador and Nicaragua, Mercosur member states. Discussions have faltered over similar points as the Doha Development Round of World Trade Organization talks. Similar to the WTO talks, Brazil took a leadership role among the less developed nations, while the United States took a similar role for the developed nations. Free Trade Area of the Americas began with the Summit of the Americas in Miami, Florida, on December 11, 1994, but the FTAA came to public attention during the Quebec City Summit of the Americas, held in Canada in 2001, a meeting targeted by massive anti-corporatization and anti-globalization protests.

The Miami negotiations in 2003 met similar protests. In previous negotiations, the United States had pushed for a single comprehensive agreement to reduce trade barriers for goods, while increasing intellectual property protection. Specific intellectual property protections could include Digital Millennium Copyright Act style copyright protections similar to the U. S.-Australia Free Trade Agreement. Another protection would have restricted the importation or cross importation of pharmaceuticals, similar to the proposed agreement between the United States and Canada. Brazil posed a three-track approach that called for a series of bilateral agreements to reduce specific tariffs on goods, a hemispheric pact on rules of origin, a dispute resolution process Brazil proposed to omit the more controversial issues from the FTA, leaving them to the WTO; the location of the FTA Secretariat was to have been determined in 2005. The contending cities were: Atlanta, Galveston, San Juan, Miami in the United States.

The U. S. city of Colorado Springs submitted its candidacy in the early days but subsequently withdrew. Miami, Panama City and Puebla served successively an interim secretariat headquarters during the negotiation process; the last summit was held at Mar del Plata, Argentina, in November 2005, but no agreement on FTA was reached. Of the 39 countries present at the negotiations, 20 pledged to meet again in 2006 to resume negotiations, but no meeting took place; the failure of the Mar del Plata summit to establish a comprehensive FTA agenda augured poorly. The FTAA missed the targeted deadline of 2005, which followed the stalling of useful negotiations of the World Trade Organization Ministerial Conference of 2005. Over the next few years, some governments, most notably the United States, not wanting to lose any chance of hemispheric trade expansion moved in the direction of establishing a series of bilateral trade deals; the leaders however, planned further discussions at the 6th Summit of the Americas in Cartagen, Colombia in 2012, although these discussions did not take place.

The following countries were planned to be part of the Free Trade Area of the Americas: A vocal critic of the FTAA was Venezuelan president Hugo Chávez, who has described it as an "annexation plan" and a "tool of imperialism" for the exploitation of Latin America. As a counterproposal to this initiative, Chávez promoted the Bolivarian Alliance for the Americas which emphasizes energy and infrastructure agreements that are extended to other areas to include the total economic and military integration of the member states. Evo Morales of Bolivia has referred to the U. S.-backed Free Trade Area of the Americas, as "an agreement to legalize the colonization of the Americas". On the other hand, the presidents of Brazil, Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva, Argentina, Néstor Kirchner, have stated that they do not oppose the FTAA but they do demand that the agreement provide for the elimination of U. S. agriculture subsidies, the provision of effective access to foreign markets and further consideration towards the needs and sensibilities of its members.

One of the most contentious issues of the treaty proposed by the United States is with concerns to patents and copyrights. Critics claim that if the measures proposed by the United States were implemented and applied this would reduce scientific research in Latin America. On the left-wing Council of Canadians web site, Barlow wrote: "This agreement sets enforceable global rules on patents and trademark, it has gone far beyond its initial scope of protecting original inventions or cultural products and now permits the practice of patenting plants and animal forms as well as seeds. It promotes the private rights of corporations over local communities and their genetic heritage and traditional medicines". On the weekend of April 20, 2001, the 3rd Summit of the Americas was a summit held in Quebec City, Canada; this international meeting was a round of negotiations regarding a proposed FTAA. There are 34 countries in the Western Hemisphere, stretching from Canada to Chile that still have the FTAA as a long term goal.

The Implementation of a full multilateral FTAA between all parties could be made possible by enlargement of existing agreeme