click links in text for more info

Glass cockpit

A glass cockpit is an aircraft cockpit that features electronic flight instrument displays large LCD screens, rather than the traditional style of analog dials and gauges. While a traditional cockpit relies on numerous mechanical gauges to display information, a glass cockpit uses several multi-function displays driven by flight management systems, that can be adjusted to display flight information as needed; this simplifies aircraft operation and navigation and allows pilots to focus only on the most pertinent information. They are popular with airline companies as they eliminate the need for a flight engineer, saving costs. In recent years the technology has become available in small aircraft; as aircraft displays have modernized, the sensors that feed them have modernized as well. Traditional gyroscopic flight instruments have been replaced by electronic attitude and heading reference systems and air data computers, improving reliability and reducing cost and maintenance. GPS receivers are integrated into glass cockpits.

Early glass cockpits, found in the McDonnell Douglas MD-80, Boeing 737 Classic, ATR 42, ATR 72 and in the Airbus A300-600 and A310, used Electronic Flight Instrument Systems to display attitude and navigational information only, with traditional mechanical gauges retained for airspeed, vertical speed, engine performance. The 757 and 767-200/-300 introduced an electronic Engine-indicating and crew-alerting system for monitoring engine performance while retaining mechanical gauges for airspeed and vertical speed. Glass cockpits, found in the Boeing 737NG, 747-400, 767-400, 777, A320 and Airbuses, Ilyushin Il-96 and Tupolev Tu-204 have replaced the mechanical gauges and warning lights in previous generations of aircraft. While glass cockpit-equipped aircraft throughout the late 20th century still retained analog altimeters and airspeed indicators as standby instruments in case the EFIS displays failed, more modern aircraft have been using digital standby instruments as well, such as the integrated standby instrument system.

Glass cockpits originated in military early 1970s. Prior to the 1970s, air transport operations were not considered sufficiently demanding to require advanced equipment like electronic flight displays. Computer technology was not at a level where sufficiently light and powerful circuits were available; the increasing complexity of transport aircraft, the advent of digital systems and the growing air traffic congestion around airports began to change that. The Boeing 2707 was one of the earliest commercial aircraft designed with a glass cockpit. Most cockpit instruments were still analog, but CRT displays were to be used for the Attitude indicator and HSI. However, the 2707 was cancelled in 1971 after insurmountable technical difficulties and the end of project funding by the US government; the average transport aircraft in the mid-1970s had more than one hundred cockpit instruments and controls, the primary flight instruments were crowded with indicators and symbols, the growing number of cockpit elements were competing for cockpit space and pilot attention.

As a result, NASA conducted research on displays that could process the raw aircraft system and flight data into an integrated understood picture of the flight situation, culminating in a series of flights demonstrating a full glass cockpit system. The success of the NASA-led glass cockpit work is reflected in the total acceptance of electronic flight displays. Airlines and their passengers alike have benefited; the safety and efficiency of flights have been increased with improved pilot understanding of the aircraft's situation relative to its environment. By the end of the 1990s, liquid-crystal display panels were favored among aircraft manufacturers because of their efficiency and legibility. Earlier LCD panels suffered from poor legibility at some viewing angles and poor response times, making them unsuitable for aviation. Modern aircraft such as the Boeing 737 Next Generation, 777, 717, 747-400ER, 747-8F 767-400ER, 747-8, 787, Airbus A320 family, A330, A340-500/600, A340-300, A380 and A350 are fitted with glass cockpits consisting of LCD units.

The glass cockpit has become standard equipment in airliners, business jets, military aircraft. It was fitted into NASA's Space Shuttle orbiters Atlantis, Columbia and Endeavour, the current Russian Soyuz TMA model spacecraft, launched in 2002. By the end of the century glass cockpits began appearing in general aviation aircraft as well. In 2003, Cirrus Design's SR20 and SR22 became the first light aircraft equipped with glass cockpits, which they made standard on all Cirrus aircraft. By 2005 basic trainers like the Piper Cherokee and Cessna 172 were shipping with glass cockpits as options, as well as many modern utility aircraft such as the Diamond DA42; the Lockheed Martin F-35 Lightning II features a "panoramic cockpit display" touchscreen that replaces most of the switches and toggles found in an aircraft cockpit. The civilian Cirrus Vision SF50 now has the same, which they call a "Perspective Touch" glass cockpit. Unlike the previous era of glass cockpits—where designers copied the look and feel of conventional electromechanical instruments onto cathode ray tubes—the new displays represent a true departure.

They look and behave s

Leptobarbus rubripinna

Leptobarbus rubripinna known as the Sultan barb, is a species of freshwater ray-finned fish from the carp and minnow family, Cyprinidae which occurs in south-east Asia. It is a migratory species which moves from the deltas and estuaries upstream to spawn, this occurs in January and February in the Mekong with the fish returning downstream in May and June, it feeds on insects and fruits poisonous fruits and as a result of this diet its flesh sometimes becomes toxic, although this species is harvested as a food fish. Adult fish seem to prefer deeper areas in the river such as pools or slow-moving stretches, although they will occur in faster-flowing stretches when feeding, it is a common but never abundant species which occurs in Thailand, Cambodia and Vietnam in the drainages of the Mekong, Chao Praya and Mae Klong rivers where it is threatened by damming and deforestation, which destroys the seasonally flooded forest this species feeds in. It was until considered to be conspecific with Leptobarbus hoevenii but it is now considered to be a separate species, although they share English vernacular names under which both species may appear in the aquarium trade.

One of these names, "mad barb", refers to its behaviour when intoxicated after consuming some types of poisonous fruit. As an aquarium fish it is only suitable for large public displays and it grows too large for most tanks, reaching sizes of up to 1 metre in length, it is a popular quarry for sport anglers in south-east Asia

Gordon v Selico

Gordon v Selico 18 H. L. R. 219 is an English contract law on the subject of misrepresentation by action. It was held that positive actions - in this case, the concealment of dry rot - could amount to operative misrepresentations. Mr Gordon and Mrs Teixeira, contracted in November 1978 to purchase a 99-year lease of a flat owned by the defendant, Selico Ltd; the flat was in poor condition. Prior to the first inspection by the plaintiffs in about November 1978, the second defendants had instructed some painters to conceal patches of dry rot from view, by painting them; the plaintiffs obtained a detailed survey of the flat in February 1979, which concluded that no dry rot had been found. The plaintiffs moved into their flat on 1 January 1980 and subsequently discovered extensive dry rot in the front bedroom and lavatory. Ordinarily, a misrepresentation is made by a statement of supposed fact, or otherwise a statement of intent, it was held by the Court of Appeal that the painting of dry rot to conceal it amounted to a misrepresentation.

The court distinguished the set of facts from other cases, where it was held that reliance on an independent surveyor's findings defeated a claim of misrepresentation: English contract law Misrepresentation in English law

Harry Blackstone Sr.

Harry Bouton Blackstone was a famed stage magician and illusionist of the 20th century. Blackstone was born Harry Bouton in Chicago, Illinois, he began his career as a magician in his teens and was popular through World War II as a USO entertainer, he was billed as The Great Blackstone. His son Harry Blackstone Jr. became a famous magician. Blackstone Sr. was aided by his younger brother, Pete Bouton, the stage manager in all his shows. Blackstone Sr. was married three times. Blackstone Jr. was his son by his second wife. Blackstone was in the model of courtly, elegant predecessor magicians like Howard Thurston and Harry Kellar, the last of that breed in America, he customarily wore white tie and tails when performing, he traveled with large illusions and a sizable cast of uniformed male and female assistants. For a number of years he toured in the Midwest performing throughout the day between film showings. Blackstone remained silent during much of his big stage show, presented to the accompaniment of a pit orchestra and such lively tunes of the time as "Who", "I Know That You Know", "Chinatown".

Among his effective illusions was one in which a woman lay on a couch uncovered unlike the versions others performed in the day. It was called the Kellar Levitation which Blackstone called "The Dream of Princess Karnac". In another illusion, a woman stepped into a cabinet in front of many bright, tubular incandescent light bulbs; when the magician pushed the perforated front of the cabinet backward the light bulbs protruded through the holes in the front of the box. The cabinet was revolved so that the audience seemed to see the lady impaled by the blinding filaments, his "Sawing a woman in half" involved an electric circular saw some three to four feet in diameter mounted in an open frame. Blackstone's version differed from others in that the lady lay on a table, pulled by a motor through the saw blade. Blackstone demonstrated the efficacy of the device by sawing noisily through a piece of lumber. A female assistant was placed on the saw table in full view, as wide metal restraints were clamped upon her midsection.

The blade whirred and appeared to pass through her body, as ripping sounds were heard, the woman shrieked, particles were scattered by the whirring blade. When the blade stopped she, of course, rose unharmed. In a gentler turn was his "Vanishing bird cage", an effect in which a score or more of children were invited to join him on the stage and all "put their hands on" a tiny cage holding a canary. Blackstone lowered the cage and seemed to toss it into the air: bird and cage "disappearing" in the process to the astonishment and delight of the surprised children. Among his lovelier effects was "The Enchanted Garden", in which countless bouquets of brilliant feather flowers appeared from under a foulard and on tables and stands until the stage was a riot of color. "The Floating Light Bulb", was his signature piece. In a darkened theatre, Blackstone would take a lighted bulb from a lamp and float it, still glowing, through a small hoop, he would come down from the stage and the lamp would float out over the heads of the audience.

Dutch illusionist Hans Klok became the custodian of Blackstone Sr.'s famous "floating light bulb" illusion after the death of Blackstone Jr. When not on tour, Blackstone lived on an island he called Blackstone Island, it was near Colon, where he had a brief stint as co-owner of the Blackstone Magic Company. His partner in the business – which lasted only 18 months – was an Australian magician named Percy Abbott. After Blackstone and Abbott dissolved the company, five years restarted his own magic manufacturing business in Colon. Called Abbott's Magic Novelty Company, the enterprise shipped simple, inexpensive tricks to young boys and professional magicians the world over, while building large illusions. Blackstone spent the last years of his life performing at The Magic Castle, a magical attraction in Hollywood, California, he died November 16, 1965 in Hollywood at the age of 80. He was interred close to his former home in Colon, where the main street was renamed Blackstone Avenue in his honor.

In 1985, on the 100th anniversary of his father's birth, Harry Blackstone Jr. donated to the Smithsonian Institution in Washington D. C. the original floating light bulb – Thomas Edison designed and built it – and the original Casadega Cabinet, used in the "Dancing Handkerchief" illusion. This was the first donation accepted by the Smithsonian in the field of magic. Harry Blackstone Sr. is memorialized in two official Michigan Historical markers: American Museum of Magic Colon, Michigan / Harry Blackstone Both Elmer Cecil Stoner's 1941 comic series Blackstone, Master Magician and the 1948-49 radio series adaptation Blackstone, the Magic Detective, which were directly inspired by Blackstone's fame as a magician, were written by Blackstone's friend, Walter B. Gibson. Books carrying Harry Blackstone's byline were ghostwritten for him by Gibson. Fictional character Harry Dresden's second name is Blackstone, in honor of this famous magician. In the Call of Duty: Black Ops III Zombies map, Shadows of Evil, Jeff Goldblum's character, Nero Blackstone, has a similar appearance, but is portrayed as a failing magician who "accidentally" kills his wife while practicing a knife throwing act, in order to acquire insurance money to pay off a heavy debt.

He and three other characters are marked with a curse and are forced to fight off hordes of zombies. Waldron, Blackstone, a Magician's Life: The World and Magic Show of Harry Blackstone, 1885-1965

Arrondissement of Colmar

The arrondissement of Colmar is a former arrondissement of France in the Haut-Rhin department in the Alsace region. In 2015 it was merged into the new arrondissement of Colmar-Ribeauvillé, it had 62 communes, its population was 148,444. The communes of the arrondissement of Colmar, their INSEE codes, were: The arrondissement of Colmar was created in 1800, disbanded in 1871 and restored in 1934, it was disbanded in 2015. As a result of the reorganisation of the cantons of France which came into effect in 2015, the borders of the cantons are no longer related to the borders of the arrondissements; the cantons of the arrondissement of Colmar were, as of January 2015: Andolsheim Colmar-Nord Colmar-Sud Munster Neuf-Brisach Wintzenheim


Gwrtheyrnion or Gwerthrynion was a commote in medieval Wales, located in Mid Wales on the north side of the River Wye. It is said to have taken its name from the legendary king Vortigern. For most of the medieval era, it was associated with the cantref of Buellt and Elfael, small regional kingdoms whose rulers operated independently of other powers. In the Norman era, like the rest of the region between Wye and Severn it came to be dominated by Marcher Lordships. According to the 9th-century Historia Brittonum, here Latinised Guorthegirnaim, was named after Vortigern, a legendary 5th-century King of Britain. John Edward Lloyd considers this derivation accurate, its boundaries were the cantrefi of Arwystli to the north, Maelienydd to the east, Elfael to the southeast, Buellt to the southwest. It controlled the commote of Deuddwr on the west of the Wye; the Historia Brittonum provides the earliest mention of Gwrtheyrnion. According to the text, Vortigern fled to Gwrtheyrnion after Saint Germanus of Auxerre had castigated him for his various sins.

He died, his son Pascent received Gwrtheyrnion and Buellt from Ambrosius Aurelianus. One of the text's copyists, from whose copy most other surviving manuscripts are derived, took particular interest in this combined kingdom, tracing its medieval rulers back to Vortigern through Pascent; the dynasty, so these manuscripts report, ended in a certain Ffernfael ap Tewdwr, known from the genealogies from Jesus College MS 20. These Jesus College genealogies indicate that Ffernfael's cousin Brawstudd married Arthfael Hen ap Rhys, the ruler of Morgannwg, implying a floruit for Ffernfael around the early 9th century. Following Ffernfael's death, Buellt came into the possession of neighbouring Arwystli, for unclear reasons, after having temporarily been in the possession of Seisyllwg, for an unclear amount of time. At around this time, Arwystli's ruler was Iorwerth Hirflawdd. Cadwr's grandson, heir, married a granddaughter of Merfyn ap Rhodri, the king of Powys. Elystan Glodrydd conquered the adjacent land between the Wye and Severn - Ferlix and incorporated it into his own realm.

Elystan was succeeded by his son, succeeded by his eldest son, Idnerth. Due to their allegiances to the Saxon Kings, once the Normans invaded England, many Welsh princes had assisted anti-Norman revolts like that of Eadric the Wild. Hence, in 1080, when a revolt broke out in Northern England, the Normans pre-emptively occupyied Wales, to prevent any further Welsh assistance to the Saxons. In turn, this led to a Welsh revolt in 1094, but by the end of the century it was suppressed by a number of Norman magnates; the southern parts of Ferlix were conquered by Philip de Braose. Like other Welsh princes, Idnerth came to a personal agreement with the local Norman magnate. Following Idnerth's death, that of his son, the retained parts of Ferlix were divided between Madog's sons: Cadwallon received most of the northern half, which became Maelienydd, while the remainder - Elfael - went to his brother, Einion Clud. Einion Clud was succeeded by Einion o' r Porth. Einion o' r Porth married a daughter of Rhys ap Gruffydd, the ruling prince of Deheubarth.

The only named ruler of Gwrtheyrnion in historic manuscripts is an Einion ap Rhys who visited the king in 1175, was Rhys ap Gruffydd's son-in-law. In 1177, Rhayader Castle was built in Gwrtheyrnion by Rhys ap Gruffydd. Einion was murdered by Gwalter. Einion's other brother, Iorwerth Clud, was able to depose Gwalter with the aid of Reginald de Braose, in alliance with Llywelyn Fawr. Llywelyn's son, chose to repudiate the Treaty of Gwerneigron, which lead to Ralph Tosny seizing Elfael, although Tosny was expelled from Elfael by Dafydd's nephew, Llywelyn ap Gruffudd. King Henry acknowledged Llywelyn ap Gruffudd's victory, by the Treaty of Montgomery. However, when Llywelyn ap Gruffudd married Eleanor de Montfort, Henry's son, Edward I, declared Llywelyn a rebel, attacked his lands. In 1277 Llywelyn was forced to agree the Treaty of Aberconwy, which made Llywelyn a vassal of Edward, limited his authority to Gwynedd alone. In the 15th century, the Tosny lands were inherited by Margaret Beauchamp of Bletso, hence by her great-grandson, King Henry VIII.

Following the latter's Laws in Wales Acts and the rest of Ferlix became Radnorshire. In 1996, Radnorshire and the adjacent counties on either side - Montgomeryshire and Brecknockshire - became the main constituents of the modern county of Powys. Dav