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Glendalough

Glendalough is a glacial valley in County Wicklow, renowned for an Early Medieval monastic settlement founded in the 6th century by St Kevin. From 1825 to 1957, the head of the Glendalough Valley was the site of a galena lead mine. Glendalough is a recreational area for picnics, for walking along networks of maintained trails of varying difficulty, for rock-climbing. Kevin, a descendant of one of the ruling families in Leinster, studied as a boy under the care of three holy men, Eoghan and Eanna. During this time, he went to Glendalough, he was to return with a small group of monks to found a monastery where the'two rivers form a confluence'. Kevin's writings discuss his fighting "knights" at Glendalough, his fame as a holy man spread and he attracted numerous followers. He died in about 618, traditionally on 3 June. For the next six centuries, Glendalough flourished and the Irish Annals contain references to the deaths of abbots and raids on the settlement. Circa 1042, oak timber from Glendalough was used to build the second-longest Viking longship recorded.

A modern replica of that ship was built in 2004 and is located in Roskilde, Denmark. At the Synod of Rath Breasail in 1111, Glendalough was designated as one of the two dioceses of North Leinster; the Book of Glendalough was written there about 1131. St. Laurence O'Toole, born in 1128, became Abbot of Glendalough and was well known for his sanctity and hospitality. After his appointment as Archbishop of Dublin in 1162, he returned to Glendalough, to the solitude of St. Kevin's Bed, he died in Eu, in Normandy in 1180. In 1176, the Annals of Tigernach report that Glendalough was'plundered by the foreigners'. In 1214, the dioceses of Glendalough and Dublin were united. From that time onwards, the cultural and ecclesiastical status of Glendalough diminished; the destruction of the settlement by English forces in 1398 left it a ruin but it continued as a church of local importance and a place of pilgrimage. Glendalough is on the 1598 map "A Modern Depiction of Ireland, One of the British Isles" by Abraham Ortelius as "Glandalag".

Descriptions of Glendalough from the 18th and 19th centuries include references to occasions of "riotous assembly" on the feast of St. Kevin on 3 June; the present remains in Glendalough tell only a small part of its story. The monastery in its heyday included workshops, areas for manuscript writing and copying, guest houses, an infirmary, farm buildings and dwellings for both the monks and a large lay population; the buildings which survive date from between the 10th and 12th centuries. Glendalough is a titular see within the Catholic Church, is used for bishops who hold no ordinary power of their own, thus are titular bishops. Raymond D'Mello Marian Przykucki Donal Murray Diarmuid Martin Guy Sansaricq See Annals of Inisfallen AI800.2 Minndenach, abbot of Glenn dá Locha, rested. AI809.2 Échtbrann, abbot of Glenn dá Locha. AI1003.6 Dúnchad Ua Mancháin, abbot of Glenn dá Locha, rested. The Gateway to the monastic city of Glendalough is one of the most important monuments, now unique in Ireland.

It was two-storeyed with two fine, granite arches. The antae or projecting walls at each end suggest. Inside the gateway, in the west wall, is a cross-inscribed stone; this denoted sanctuary, the boundary of the area of refuge. The paving of the causeway in the monastic city is still preserved in part but little remains of the enclosure wall; this fine tower, built of mica-slate interspersed with granite is about 30 metres high, with an entrance 3.5 metres from the base. The conical roof was rebuilt in 1876 using the original stones; the tower had six timber floors, connected by ladders. The four storeys above entrance level are each lit by a small window. Round towers, landmarks for approaching visitors, were built as bell towers, but served on occasion as store-houses and as places of refuge in times of attack; the largest and most imposing of the buildings at Glendalough, the cathedral had several phases of construction, the earliest, consisting of the present nave with its antae. The large mica-schist stones which can be seen up to the height of the square-headed west doorway were re-used from an earlier smaller church.

The chancel and sacristy date from the late early 13th centuries. The chancel arch and east window were finely decorated; the north doorway to the nave dates from this period. Under the southern window of the chancel, there is an ambry or wall cupboard and a piscina, a basin used for washing the sacred vessels. A few metres south of the cathedral an early cross of local granite, with an unpierced ring, is known as St. Kevin's Cross. Reconstructed from the original stones, based on a 1779 sketch made by Beranger, the Priests' House is a small Romanesque building, with a decorative arch at the east end, it gets its name from the practice of interring priests there in the 19th centuries. Its original purpose is unknown; this stone-roofed building had a nave only, with an entrance at the west end and a small round-headed window in the east gable. The upper part of the window can be seen above what became the chancel arch when the chancel and

Dispute settlement in the World Trade Organization

Dispute settlement or dispute settlement system is regarded by the World Trade Organization as the central pillar of the multilateral trading system, as the organization's "unique contribution to the stability of the global economy". A dispute arises when one member country adopts a trade policy measure or takes some action that one or more fellow members consider to be a breach of WTO agreements or to be a failure to live up to obligations. By joining the WTO, member countries have agreed that if they believe fellow members are in violation of trade rules, they will use the multilateral system of settling disputes instead of taking action unilaterally — this entails abiding by agreed procedures—Dispute Settlement Understanding—and respecting judgments of the Dispute Settlement Board, the WTO organ responsible for adjudication of disputes. A former WTO Director-General characterized the WTO dispute settlement system as "the most active international adjudicative mechanism in the world today."

Chad P. Bown of the Peterson Institute for International Economics and Petros Mavroidis of Columbia Law School remarked on the 20th anniversary of the dispute settlement system that the system is "going strong" and that "there is no sign of weakening". Prompt compliance with recommendations or rulings of the DSB is essential in order to ensure effective resolution of disputes to the benefit of all Members. In 1994, the WTO members agreed on the Understanding on Rules and Procedures Governing the Settlement of Disputes or Dispute Settlement Understanding. Pursuant to the rules detailed in the DSU, member states can engage in consultations to resolve trade disputes pertaining to a "covered agreement" or, if unsuccessful, have a WTO panel hear the case; the priority, however, is to settle disputes, through consultations if possible. By January 2008, only about 136 of the nearly 369 cases had reached the full panel process; the operation of the WTO dispute settlement process involves the parties and third parties to a case and may involve the DSB panels, the Appellate Body, the WTO Secretariat, independent experts, several specialized institutions.

The General Council discharges its responsibilities under the DSU through the Dispute Settlement Body. Like the General Council, the DSB is composed of representatives of all WTO Members; the DSB is responsible for administering the DSU, i.e. for overseeing the entire dispute settlement process. It has the authority to establish panels, adopt panel and Appellate Body reports, maintain surveillance of implementation of rulings and recommendations, authorize the suspension of obligations under the covered agreements; the DSB meets as as necessary to adhere to the timeframes provided for in the DSU. If a member state considers that a measure adopted by another member state has deprived it of a benefit accruing to it under one of the covered agreements, it may call for consultations with the other member state. If consultations fail to resolve the dispute within 60 days after receipt of the request for consultations, the complainant state may request the establishment of a Panel, it is not possible for the respondent state to prevent or delay the establishment of a Panel, unless the DSB by consensus decides otherwise.

The panel consisting of three members appointed ad hoc by the Secretariat, sits to receive written and oral submissions of the parties, on the basis of which it is expected to make findings and conclusions for presentation to the DSB. The proceedings are confidential, when private parties are directly concerned, they are not permitted to attend or make submissions separate from those of the state in question. Disputes can arise under Non-violation nullification of benefits claims; the final version of the panel's report is distributed first to the parties. In sharp contrast with other systems, the report is required to be adopted at a meeting of the DSB within 60 days of its circulation, unless the DSB by consensus decides not to adopt the report or a party to the dispute gives notice of its intention to appeal. A party may appeal a panel report to the standing Appellate Body, but only on issues of law and legal interpretations developed by the panel; each appeal is heard by three members of the permanent seven-member Appellate Body set up by the Dispute Settlement Body and broadly representing the range of WTO membership.

Members of the Appellate Body have four-year terms. They must be individuals with recognized standing in the field of law and international trade, not affiliated with any government; the Appellate Body may modify or reverse the panel's legal findings and conclusions. Appeals should not last more than 60 days, with an absolute maximum of 90 days; the possibility for appeal makes the WTO dispute resolution system unique among the judicial processes of dispute settlement in general public international law. Members may express their views on the report of the Appellate Body; the DSU states unequivocally that an Appellate Body report shall be adopted by the DSB and unconditionally accepted by the parties, unless the DSB decides by consensus within thirty days of its circulation not to adopt the report. Unless otherwise agreed by the parties to the dispute, the period from establishment of the panel to consideration of the report by the DSB shall as a general rule not exceed nine months if there is no appeal, twelve months if there is an appeal.

The WTO Appellate Body of judges was first established in 1995. While a full complement consists of seven judges, the Appellate Body can hear an appeal with a minimum of three; the full term for an Appellate Body judge's appo

Gustav M├╝tzel

Gustav Ludwig Heinrich Mützel was a German artist, famous for his mammal and bird paintings, including the illustrations for the second edition of Alfred Edmund Brehm's Thierleben and Richard Lydekker's The Royal Natural History. Gustav Mützel was the son of his wife Luise Pauline Friedrichs, he attended the French high school in his hometown. Subsequently Mützel began to study at the Academy of Art at age 18 and was, amongst others, a pupil of the painter Eduard Daege. On 1 November 1865 Mützel raised three children. Mützel and his wife settled in Königsberg in the Neumark. To keep up with the latest technical developments in photography Mützel and his family moved to Berlin in 1870. After the Franco-German War Mützel started illustrating some of the more important encyclopedias of the time, he created a large number of illustrations for the German Ornithological Society, having been a member since 1874. Mützel's diverse interests led to his membership of the German Society for Anthropology and Prehistory and the Association of Berlin artists.

The Nießen'sche Choral Society awarded him with an honorary membership. Gustav Mützel died at his home at the age of 54 years on 29 October 1893 of heart and kidney ailments, he was interred at the cemetery in Mariendorf on 1 November. Alfred Brehm: Brehm's Thierleben Alfred Brehm: Vom Nordpol zum Äquator Brockhaus Konversationslexikon Friedrich Lichterfeld: Illustrirte Tierbilder. Schilderungen und Studien nach dem Leben Adolf Bernhard Meyer: Unser Auer-, Rackel- und Birkwild und seine Abarten Joseph Meyer: Meyers Konversations-Lexikon Heinrich Nehrling: Die Nordamerikanische Vogelwelt Theodor D. Pleske: Ornithographia rossica Nikolai Michailowitsch Przewalski: Wissenschaftliche Resultate der von N. M. Przewalski nach Central-Asien unternommenen Reisen Friedrich Ratzel: Völkerkunde Anton Reichenow: Vogelbilder aus fernen Zonen Emil Adolf Roßmäßler: Das Süßwasseraquarium. Eine Anleitun und Pflege desselben Richard Schmid-Cabanis: Zoolyrische Ergüsse. Ein Album zwei-, vier- und mehrfüssiger Dichtungen Georg Schweinfurth: Im Herzen von Afrika.

Reisen und Entdeckungen im zentralen Äquatorial-Afrika während der Jahre 1868-1871 The Swedish translation of Brehm's Thierleben, with Mützel's illustrations in the first three of four volumes, has been digitized by Project Runeberg