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Morganatic marriage

Morganatic marriage, sometimes called a left-handed marriage, is a marriage between people of unequal social rank, which in the context of royalty prevents the passage of the husband's titles and privileges to the wife and any children born of the marriage. This is a marriage between a man of high birth and a woman of lesser status. Neither the bride nor any children of the marriage have a claim on the bridegroom's succession rights, precedence, or entailed property; the children are considered legitimate for all other purposes and the prohibition against bigamy applies. In some countries, a woman could marry a man of lower rank morganatically. After World War I, the heads of both ruling and reigning dynasties continued the practice of rejecting dynastic titles and/or rights for descendants of "morganatic" unions, but allowed them, sometimes retroactively de-morganatizing the wives and children; this was accommodated by Perthes' Almanach de Gotha by inserting the offspring of such marriages in a third section of the almanac under entries denoted by a symbol that "signifies some princely houses which, possessing no specific princely patent, have passed from the first part, A, or from the second part into the third part in virtue of special agreements."

The Fürstliche Häuser series of the Genealogisches Handbuch des Adels has followed this lead enrolling some issue of unapproved marriages in its third section, "III B", with a similar explanation: "Families in this section, although verified, received no specific decree, but have been included by special agreement in the 1st and 2nd sections". Variations of morganatic marriage were practised by non-European dynasties, such as the Royal Family of Thailand, the polygamous Mongols as to their non-principal wives, other families of Africa and Asia. Morganatic in use in English by 1727, is derived from the medieval Latin morganaticus from the Late Latin phrase matrimonium ad morganaticam and refers to the gift given by the groom to the bride on the morning after the wedding, the morning gift, i.e. dower. The Latin term, applied to a Germanic custom, was adopted from the Old High German term *morgangeba, corresponding to Early English morgengifu; the literal meaning is explained in a 16th-century passage quoted by Du Cange as, "a marriage by which the wife and the children that may be born are entitled to no share in the husband's possessions beyond the'morning-gift'".

The morning gift has been a customary property arrangement for marriage found first in early medieval German cultures and among ancient Germanic tribes, the church drove its adoption into other countries in order to improve the wife's security by this additional benefit. The bride received property from the bridegroom's clan, it was intended to ensure her livelihood in widowhood, it was to be kept separate as the wife's discrete possession. However, when a marriage contract is made wherein the bride and the children of the marriage will not receive anything else from the bridegroom or from his inheritance or clan, that sort of marriage was dubbed as "marriage with only the dower and no other inheritance", i.e. matrimonium morganaticum. Royal men who married morganatically: Genghis Khan followed the contemporary tradition by taking several morganatic wives in addition to his principal wife, whose property passed to their youngest son following tradition. King Erik XIV of Sweden married the servant Karin Månsdotter morganatically in 1567, secondly, but this time not morganatically, in 1568.

Ludwig Wilhelm, Duke in Bavaria and Henriette Mendel. She was created Baroness von Wallersee, their daughter, Marie Louise, Countess Larisch von Moennich, was a confidante of Empress Elisabeth of Austria. Archduke Ferdinand II of Austria, ruler of the Tirol, first married Philippine Welser, a bourgeoise of a wealthy family, in 1557. Victor Emmanuel II of Italy in 1869 married morganatically his principal mistress Rosa Teresa Vercellana Guerrieri. Popularly known in Piedmontese as "Bela Rosin", she was born a commoner but made Countess di Mirafiori e Fontanafredda in 1858. Late in his life, the widowed ex-king Fernando II of Portugal married the opera singer Elise Hensler, created Countess von Edla. A list of morganatic branches of the Russian Imperial Family The 1900 marriage of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria, whose subsequent assassination triggered World War I, to Countess Sophie Chotek was morganatic at the insistence of the Austrian Emperor Franz Joseph I. Royal women who married morganatically: Marie Louise, Duchess of Parma married morganatically twice after the death of her husband, the emperor Napoleon I, in 1821.

Her second husband was Count Adam Albert von Neipperg. After his death, she married Count Charles-René de Bombelles, her chamberlain, in 1834. Queen Maria Christina of Bourbon-Two Sicilies, regent of Spain after her husband's death while their daughter, the future Isabella II was a minor, she married one of her guards in a secret marriage. Princess Stéphanie of B

USS Kennebec (AO-36)

USS Kennebec was the SS Corsicana, a Kennebec class T2 tanker, built by Bethlehem Sparrows Point Shipyard in Sparrows Point, Maryland. It was delivered to Socony-Vacuum Oil Company on 8 August 1941, it was renamed Kennebec. The fleet oiler had an eventful career, in so far as it was decommissioned four times and twice stricken from the Naval Vessel Register. Kennebec was decommissioned on 4 September 1950 at San Diego and laid up in the Pacific Reserve Fleet for only four months, it was recommissioned on 11 January 1951, at Oakland, with Commander A. G. Beckman in command. On 25 September 1954 it was decommissioned, again at San Diego and laid up in the Pacific Reserve Fleet, San Diego Group; the next time it was recommissioned on 14 December Cdr. Naden F. Stimac commanding the ship, only to be decommissioned again on 31 October 1957; this time the ship was stricken from the Naval Register on 14 January 1959 and transferred to the Maritime Administration for laying up in the National Defense Reserve Fleet.

However, Kennebec was reacquired by the U. S. Navy and recommissioned on 16 December 1961, it served the Pacific Fleet during the Vietnam War up to 1970. The ship decommissioned for the last time on 29 June 1970 at the Naval Inactive Ship Maintenance Facility, Mare Island, Vallejo and transferred to the Maritime Administration for laying up in the National Defense Reserve Fleet. Kennebec was again stricken from the Naval Register on 15 July 1976. On 6 April 1982 it was sold by MARAD to Levin Metals Corporation for $180,077.00, subsequently scrapped. This article incorporates text from the public domain Dictionary of American Naval Fighting Ships; the entry can be found here. T2 Tanker site Wildenberg, Thomas. Gray Steel and Black Oil: Fast Tankers and Replenishment at Sea in the U. S. Navy, 1912-1995. Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press. Retrieved 28 April 2009. Photo gallery of USS Kennebec at NavSource Naval History


Miravirsen is an experimental drug for the treatment of hepatitis C, being developed by Santaris Pharma. As of 2017 it was in Phase II clinical trials. Miravirsen had been given by subcutaneous injection in early clinical trials as of 2017, it is antisense to a human microRNA called miR-122. MiR-122 ferries an argonaute protein to 5'-UTR region of viral RNA, where it binds, protecting the RNA from being destroyed by present nucleases. There is some evidence. Miravirsen is a modified oligonucleotide consisting of a chain of 15 nucleotides, the base sequence of, designed to selectively bind to miR-122. Seven of the 15 sugar units are deoxyriboses, the other eight are riboses with an additional bridge between the 2' oxygen and the 4' carbon atoms. Furthermore, the phosphate units have been replaced by thiophosphates; the complete base sequence is mC*-dC-A*-dT-dT-G*-mU*-dC-dA-mC*-dA-mC*-dT-mC*-mC* with 3'→5' thiophosphate linkages


Ammoniphilus is a Gram-variable aerobic, rod-shaped, haloalkalitolerant spore-forming, obligately oxalotrophic and motile bacterial genus from the family of Paenibacillaceae with peritrichous flagella. In the cell wall of Ammoniphilus is meso-diaminopimelic acid. Young, Chiu-Chung. "Ammoniphilus resinae sp. nov. an endospore-forming bacterium isolated from resin fragments". International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology. 66: 3010–3016. Doi:10.1099/ijsem.0.001137. PMID 27151144. Zaitsev, G. M.. "New aerobic ammonium-dependent obligately oxalotrophic bacteria: description of Ammoniphilus oxalaticus gen. nov. sp. nov. and Ammoniphilus oxalivorans gen. nov. sp. nov". International Journal of Systematic Bacteriology. 48: 151–163. Doi:10.1099/00207713-48-1-151. PMID 9542085

Farnborough Hill

Farnborough Hill is a Roman Catholic independent day school for 550 girls aged 11–18 located in Farnborough, Hampshire. The school was established by the Religious of Christian Education order of nuns in 1889 and moved to the current site when the order purchased the house and grounds in 1927, it is now set in an expansive park including Grade I Listed buildings. Thomas Longman, the publisher, began building the house at Farnborough Hill in 1860; the exiled Empress Eugénie, widow of Emperor Napoleon III of France bought and expanded the house in 1880. The Napoleonic bee symbol can be seen in the internal and external decor of the building and is present on the school badge; the Empress bought other land in Farnborough at around the same time and founded St Michael's Abbey as a mausoleum for her husband's body and that of her deceased son the Prince Imperial who had died while serving with the British forces during the Anglo-Zulu War. The Empress was close friends with Queen Victoria and become godmother to Victoria Eugénie of Battenberg, daughter of Princess Beatrice.

The Empress died, age 94, in 1920. The history of the school itself began in 1889 when the Religious of Christian Education established a convent boarding school in Farnborough nearby the hill on which the current school stands called Hillside Convent College and a day school called St Mary's. With the outbreak of war in 1915 the school buildings was commandeered resulting in the temporary closure of both schools; the religious community and Hillside school relocated to Sycamore House, expanded in 1916 to accommodate the reopened day school. At the end of the war the original school buildings were renovated and the school returned to Hillside Convent College in 1921, while the religious community remained at The Sycamores; the school continued to grow and Mother Roantree continued to search for alternative accommodation. Following the death in 1926 of Prince Victor Boneparte, heir to the estate, the trustees of the estate put the house and grounds for sale; the community purchased the house at Farnborough Hill in 1927, both the school and Religious community moved into the House and the Sycamores was sold.

The community commissioned Adrian Gilbert Scott to design additional school buildings which included the school chapel. Over the years there has been further expansion, all of it in keeping with this Grade One listed building. In 1994, the Religious of Christian Education transferred ownership to The Farnborough Hill Trust and the school is now under lay management and in 1996 appointed the school's first lay headmistress. 1891-1927 Mother Roantree 1927-1935 Mother Mason 1935-1958 Mother Horan 1958-1973 Mother Rosemary Alexander 1973-1983 Sister Mary Dawson 1983-1986 Sister Sylvia Cousins 1986-1996 Sister Elizabeth McCormack 1996-1997 Miss Rita McGeogh 1997-2007 Miss Jacqueline Thomas 2007-2016 Mrs Sarah Buckle 2016–present Mrs Alexandra Neil The school has a mixture of historic and modern buildings. The house, built in Victorian times is used for offices and teaching rooms; the school chapel was built in 1932, a classroom block was opened in 1953 and further extensions to teaching facilities were added in the 1960s including a gymnasium and science laboratories.

The school has continued to develop its facilities. The Alexander Sports Hall was opened in 2005 and the swimming pool refurbished, new art studios and refurbished laboratories were opened in 2009 and the gymnasium was converted to a theatre,'Theatre on the Hill'; the St Joseph's Courtyard development, incorporating a large multi-purpose building that includes a dance studio, a new geography classroom, a Sixth Form science laboratory and a new science office, was completed in 2011. A new music suite, St Cecilia's, was opened in 2014. Farnborough Hill is set in 65 acres of parkland and uses much of this for sports including tennis, netball, rounders and cross-country. In 2015 the Alex Danson Pitch, an all-weather, flood-lit hockey pitch was opened. Farnborough Hill's use of information technology has developed during this time with the adoption of electronic whiteboards in every classroom, music technology facilities and Farnborough Hill's own radio station,'F'Hill Radio'. A wide range of extracurricular activities are on offer from Sport and Drama to Sixth Form Expeditions and trips abroad.

Old girls, known as Farnborough Hillians are much a part of school life and Farnborough Hill has an active old girls' association. A reunion is held every year in September and other events are arranged during the year. Raquel Cassidy, English actress Alex Danson, England and GB hockey player, gold medallist in the 2016 Rio Olympics and bronze medallist in the 2012 London Olympics Dame Helen Ghosh, Director General of the National Trust and former British civil servant Anne Robinson, English television presenter and journalist Helene Raynsford, British rower who competed at the 2008 Summer Paralympics Juliet Aubrey, award-winning English actress Rose Keegan, English actress Mostyn, D; the Story of a House: A History of Farnborough Hill, Farnborough, St Michael's Abbey Press, ISBN 0907077560 Craven, L. and Evans-Jones, L. From Hillside to Farnborough Hill: 125 Years of the RCE in Farnborough, Third Millennium Publishing Limited, ISBN 9781908990297 School website ISI Inspection Report ISC Profile GSA Profile Good Schools Guide Profile