Glorious Revolution

The Glorious Revolution, or Revolution of 1688, was the November 1688 deposition and subsequent replacement of James II and VII as ruler of England and Ireland by his daughter Mary II and his Dutch nephew and Mary's husband, William III of Orange. The outcome of events in all three kingdoms and Europe, the Revolution was quick and bloodless, though establishing the new regime took much longer and led to significant casualties; the term was first used by John Hampden in late 1689. Despite his Catholicism, James became king in February 1685 with widespread support because many feared excluding him would lead to a repetition of the 1638–1651 Wars of the Three Kingdoms, his religion was seen as a short-term issue because his Protestant daughter Mary was heir presumptive, he was 52 and his second marriage remained childless after 11 years. The birth of his son, James Francis Edward, on 10 June 1688 changed this by the male-preference, automatic change of that heir presumptive, thus raising the prospect of a Catholic dynasty.

James suspended the Scottish and English Parliaments when they refused to repeal the anti-Catholic Test Acts and efforts to rule without them caused the instability his supporters wanted to avoid. His primary support base in England were Tory members of the Church of England, who remained loyal until actions like the prosecution of seven Anglican bishops seemed to go beyond tolerance and into an assault on the church. News that their prosecution had gone to full trial on 30 June 1688 led to widespread anti-Catholic riots throughout England and Scotland and destroyed James' political authority; as stadtholder of Holland, William was de facto ruler of the Dutch Republic. With political support from allies in England and Europe, a fleet of 463 ships landed William and 14,000 men in Torbay on 5 November; as he advanced on London, desertions reduced the 30,000 strong Royal Army to 4,000. A Convention Parliament met in April 1689, making Mary joint monarchs of England; the Revolution was followed by pro-Stuart revolts in Scotland and Ireland, while Jacobitism persisted into the late 18th century.

However, it ended a century of political dispute by confirming the primacy of Parliament over the Crown, a principle established in the Bill of Rights 1689. Restrictions on Catholics contained in the 1678 and 1681 English and Scottish Test Acts remained in force until 1828. Despite his Catholicism, when James became king in 1685 his position seemed secure, as demonstrated by the rapid defeat of the Argyll and Monmouth Rebellions. Portrayed as an English event, modern historians argue it was the result of events in all three kingdoms, it is suggested that hostility to James was due to Charles II, whose policies were seen as being pro-France, pro-Catholic and absolutist. Prior to the 1638-1651 Wars of the Three Kingdoms, the vast majority of the English supported monarchy and belonged to the Church of England if they disagreed with aspects of doctrine. In 1649, Charles I was executed and replaced with the Commonwealth, a republic dominated by religious Independents such as Oliver Cromwell, who opposed any state-ordered religion.

After the church was restored in 1660, the 1662 Act of Uniformity enforced greater consistency and expelled more than 2,000 Dissenting clergy. Radicals such as Algernon Sidney and Henry Neville ensured that republican ideas retained visibility out of proportion to their numbers and increased fears of'disorder'; the 1679-1681 Exclusion Crisis broadly split the English political class into those who wanted to'exclude' James from the throne, or Whigs, their opponents, or Tories. Many Whigs feared the consequences of bypassing James, while Tory support was conditional on preserving the primacy of the Church of England. Both saw it as a short-term issue; these distinctions were absent in Scotland, where support was more broadly based. In 1681 the Parliament of Scotland passed the Succession Act, which confirmed the duty of all to support the natural heir,'regardless of religion.' The Act explicitly stated that one aim was to make James' exclusion from the English throne impossible without'...the fatall and dreadfull consequences of a civil war.'Over 95 percent of Scots belonged to the Church of Scotland or kirk, apart from 1653–1660, other Protestant sects like Congregationalists were barred.'Episcopalian' and'Presbyterian' now imply differences in doctrine, but in the 17th century, the terms related to structure.'Episcopalian' meant governance by bishops appointed by the monarch, while Presbyterian meant rule by Elders, nominated by congregations.

Conflict concerned the exercise of authority, but doctrine remained broadly similar, regardless of changes in governance. Unlike the Church of England, the kirk was Calvinist in doctrine, his Catholicism made James more popular in Ireland. A bigger concern was the percentage of Irish lands owned by Catholics, which fell from 90 percent in


Idestrup is a town some 7 kilometres southeast of Nykobing Falster on the Danish island of Falster. As of 2019, it has a population of 1,197. Idestrup Church built in the Romanesque style dates from the 12th century. With its whitewashed walls, rounded windows and a red tiled roof it stands in the middle of the town. Other buildings of interest include the dairy from the late 19th century, the foramlingshus from 1901 and the old people's home with a history going back to 1924; the town's development owes much to Edward Tesdorph a farmer, who built a pump station to drain the area after a flood in 1872. He was behind the local high tension power station as well as the sugar refinery in Nykøbing. Various iron age and bronze age finds have been made in and around Idestrup indicating that it has been inhabited for much longer than thought; the town has a sports association, Idestrup-Væggerløse Idrætsforening, Idestrup Hallen, a sports hall suitable for football, gymnastics and tennis. There is a library, food store and, since 2011, a new private school.

Idestrup, site from Guldborgsund Municipality

Royal Victoria Park, Bath

Royal Victoria Park is located in Bath, England. It was opened in 1830 by the 11-year-old Princess Victoria seven years before her ascension to the throne and was the first park to carry her name, with an obelisk dedicated to her, it was run as part of the Victorian public park movement until 1921 when it was taken over by the Bath Corporation. The park is overlooked by the Royal Crescent and consists of 57 acres with attractions that include a skateboard ramp, tennis and putting green and 12 and 18 hole golf course, open-air concerts, a large children's play area and a 9-acre botanical garden, it has received a Green Flag award, the national standard for parks and green spaces in England and Wales and is Grade I registered by Historic England on the National Register of Historic Parks and Gardens. The Botanical Gardens were formed in the north-west area of the park in 1887, it contain one of the finest collections of plants on limestone in the West country. The replica of a Roman Temple in the gardens was used at the British Empire Exhibition at Wembley in 1924.

To the north of the Botanical Gardens is the Great Dell, a sunken wooded area alongside Weston Road. It is a former stone quarry planted out in the 1840s with a collection of unusual trees, including some large North American conifers. In 2007 a programme of reconstruction and restoration was undertaken by Bath and North East Somerset Council and supported by the Heritage Lottery Fund; this included the renovation of two Medici lion statues on plinths each side of the Queen’s Gate entrance to the park, replacing the original iron armatures inside the limbs, returning them to their bronze colour, giving each a gilt ball under its front paw. Further work will add two 8 feet cast iron replicas of the original lanterns and the replacement of the decorative iron gates to the three main entrances to the park; the original gates were removed, along with all the railings around the park, as part of a Second World War national scrap metal campaign. Further works involved the reinstatement of over a mile of perimeter railings, the restoration of the bandstand, the reforming of three sets of park gates, work to the Royal Crescent Ha-ha, the extension of the Temple of Minerva to form a small interpretation centre.

These works coincided with significant works to the planting throughout the park. Royal Victoria Park and North East Somerset Council