Air Commodore Sir Frank Whittle, was a British Royal Air Force air officer. He is credited with single-handedly inventing the turbojet engine. A patent was submitted by Maxime Guillaume in 1921 for a similar invention. Whittle's jet engines were developed some years earlier than those of Germany's Hans von Ohain, the designer of the first operational turbojet engine. From an early age, Whittle demonstrated an aptitude for an interest in flying. At first he was turned down by the RAF but, determined to join the Royal Air Force, he overcame his physical limitations and was accepted and sent to No. 2 School of Technical Training to join No 1 Squadron of Cranwell Aircraft Apprentices. He was taught the theory of aircraft engines and gained practical experience in the engineering workshops, his academic and practical abilities as an Aircraft Apprentice earned him a place on the officer training course at Cranwell. He became an accomplished pilot. While writing his thesis there he formulated the fundamental concepts that led to the creation of the turbojet engine, taking out a patent on his design in 1930.
His performance on an officers' engineering course earned him a place on a further course at Peterhouse, where he graduated with a First. Without Air Ministry support, he and two retired RAF servicemen formed Power Jets Ltd to build his engine with assistance from the firm of British Thomson-Houston. Despite limited funding, a prototype was created, which first ran in 1937. Official interest was forthcoming following this success, with contracts being placed to develop further engines, but the continuing stress affected Whittle's health resulting in a nervous breakdown in 1940. In 1944 when Power Jets was nationalised he again suffered a nervous breakdown, resigned from the board in 1946. In 1948, Whittle received a knighthood, he joined BOAC as a technical advisor before working as an engineering specialist with Shell, followed by a position with Bristol Aero Engines. After emigrating to the U. S. in 1976 he accepted the position of NAVAIR Research Professor at the United States Naval Academy from 1977–1979.
In August 1996, Whittle died of lung cancer at his home in Maryland. In 2002, Whittle was ranked number 42 in the BBC poll of the 100 Greatest Britons. Whittle was born in a terraced house in Newcombe Road, Coventry, England on 1 June 1907, the eldest son of Moses Whittle and Sara Alice Garlick; when he was nine years old, the family moved to the nearby town of Royal Leamington Spa where his father, a inventive practical engineer and mechanic, purchased the Leamington Valve and Piston Ring Company, which comprised a few lathes and other tools and a single-cylinder gas engine, on which Whittle became an expert. Whittle developed a adventurous streak, together with an early interest in aviation. After two years attending Milverton School, Whittle won a scholarship to a secondary school which in due course became Leamington College for Boys, but when his father's business faltered there was not enough money to keep him there, he developed practical engineering skills while helping in his father's workshop, being an enthusiastic reader spent much of his spare time in the Leamington reference library, reading about astronomy, engineering and the theory of flight.
At the age of 15, determined to be a pilot, Whittle applied to join the RAF. In January 1923, having passed the RAF entrance examination with a high mark, Whittle reported to RAF Halton as an Aircraft Apprentice, he lasted only two days: just five feet tall and with a small chest measurement, he failed the medical. He put himself through a vigorous training programme and special diet devised by a physical training instructor at Halton to build up his physique, only to fail again six months when he was told that he could not be given a second chance, despite having added three inches to his height and chest. Undeterred, he applied again under an assumed name and presented himself as a candidate at the No 2 School of Technical Training RAF Cranwell; this time he passed the physical and, in September that year, 364365 Boy Whittle, F started his three-year training as an aircraft mechanic in No. 1 Squadron of No. 4 Apprentices Wing, RAF Cranwell, because RAF Halton No. 1 School of Technical Training was unable to accommodate all the aircraft apprentices at that time.
Whittle hated the strict discipline imposed on apprentices and, convinced there was no hope of becoming a pilot he at one time considered deserting. However, throughout his early days as an aircraft apprentice, he maintained his interest in model aircraft and joined the Model Aircraft Society, where he built working replicas; the quality of these attracted the eye of the Apprentice Wing commanding officer, who noted that Whittle was a mathematical genius. He was so impressed that in 1926 he recommended Whittle for officer training at RAF College Cranwell. For Whittle, this was the chance of a lifetime, not only to enter the commissioned ranks but because the training included flying lessons on the Avro 504. While at Cranwell he lodged in a bungalow at Dorrington. Being an ex-apprentice amongst a majority of ex-public schoolboys, life as an officer cadet was not easy for him, but he excelled in the courses and went solo in 1927 after only 13.5 hours instruction progressing to the Bristol Fighter and gaining a reputation for daredevil low flying and aerobatics.
A requirement of the course was that each student had to produce a thesis for graduation: Whittle decided to write his on potential aircraft design developments
Hawker Aircraft Limited was a British aircraft manufacturer responsible for some of the most famous products in British aviation history. Hawker had its roots in the aftermath of the First World War, which resulted in the bankruptcy of the Sopwith Aviation Company. Sopwith test pilot Harry Hawker and three others, including Thomas Sopwith, bought the assets of Sopwith and formed H. G. Hawker Engineering in 1920. In 1933 the company was renamed Hawker Aircraft Limited, it took advantage of the Great Depression and a strong financial position to purchase the Gloster Aircraft Company in 1934; the next year it merged with the engine and automotive company Armstrong Siddeley and its subsidiary, Armstrong Whitworth Aircraft, to form Hawker Siddeley Aircraft. This group encompassed A. V. Roe and Company. Hawker Aircraft continued to produce designs under its own name as part of Hawker Siddeley Aircraft, from 1955 a division of Hawker Siddeley Group; the "Hawker" brand name was dropped, along with those of the sister companies, in 1963.
The Hawker legacy was maintained by the American company Raytheon who produced business jets under the "Hawker" name. This was the result of purchasing British Aerospace's product line in 1993; the name was used by Hawker Beechcraft after Raytheon's business jet interests were acquired by investors and merged. In the interwar years, Hawker produced a successful line of bombers and fighters for the Royal Air Force, the product of Sydney Camm and his team; these included the Hawker Hind and the Hawker Hart, which became the most produced UK aeroplane in the years before the Second World War. During the Second World War, the Hawker Siddeley company was one of the United Kingdom's most important aviation concerns, producing numerous designs including the famous Hawker Hurricane fighter plane that, along with the Supermarine Spitfire, was instrumental in winning the Battle of Britain. During the battle, Hawker Hurricanes in service outnumbered all other British fighters combined, were responsible for shooting down 55 percent of all enemy aircraft destroyed.
Hawker Duiker 1923 prototype – first original design by Hawker, 1 aircraft built, J6918 Hawker Woodcock 1923 Hawker Cygnet 1924 Hawker Hedgehog 1924 prototype Hawker Horsley 1925 Hawker Heron 1925 Hawker Hornbill 1925 Hawker Danecock 1925 Hawker Harrier 1927 prototype Hawker Hawfinch 1927 Hawker Hart 1928 Operators of Hawker Hart and variants Hawker F.20/27 1928 prototype Hawker Hoopoe 1928 Hawker Tomtit 1928 Hawker Hornet 1929 Hawker Osprey 1929 Hawker Nimrod 1930 Hawker Fury 1931 Hawker Fury variants Hawker Audax 1931 Hawker Dantorp1932 Hawker Demon 1933 Hawker P. V.3 1934 prototype Hawker Hart 1934 Hawker Hind 1934 Hawker Hind variants Hawker P. V.4 1934 prototype Hawker Hartbees 1935 Hawker Hurricane 1935 Hawker Sea Hurricane Hawker Hurricane variants List of Hawker Hurricane operators List of surviving Hawker Hurricanes Hawker Hector 1936 Hawker Henley 1937 Hawker Hotspur 1938 Hawker Tornado 1939 Hawker Typhoon 1940 List of Hawker Typhoon operators Hawker Tempest 1942 List of Hawker Tempest operators Hawker F.2/43 Fury 1943 prototype Hawker Sea Fury 1944 List of Hawker Sea Fury operators Hawker P.1040 1947 prototype Hawker Sea Hawk 1947 List of Hawker Sea Hawk operators Hawker P.1052 1948 prototype Hawker P.1072 1950 prototype Hawker P.1078 prototype Hawker P.1081 1950 prototype Hawker Hunter 1951 Hawker Hunter variants List of Hawker Hunter operators Hawker Hunter in service with Swiss Air Force Hawker P.1127 1960 prototype Source: Hannah Hawker P.1000 Hawker P.1004 Hawker P.1005 Hawker P.1007 Hawker P.1008 Hawker P.1014 Hawker P.1017 Hawker P.1021 Hawker P.1025 Hawker P.1027 Hawker P.1028 Hawker P.1029 Hawker P.1030 Hawker P.1031 Hawker P.1037 Hawker P.1041 Hawker P.1044 Hawker P.1048 Hawker P.1049 Hawker P.1050 Hawker P.1051 Hawker P.1053 Hawker P.1054 Hawker P.1055 Hawker P.1056 Hawker P.1057 Hawker P.1058 Hawker P.1063 Hawker P.1064 Hawker P.1065 Hawker P.1069 Hawker P.1070 Hawker P.1071 Hawker P.1073 Hawker P.1077 Hawker P.1079 Hawker P.1082 Hawker P.1084 Hawker P.1085 Hawker P.1088 Hawker P.1089 Hawker P.1092 Hawker P.1093 Hawker P.1096 Hawker P.1098 Hawker P.1103 1950s interceptor project Hawker P.1104 Hawker P.1106 Hawker P.1107 Hawker P.1108 Hawker P.1121 late 1950s fighter project Hawker P.1124 Hawker P.1125 Hawker P.1126 Hawker P.1128 Hawker P.1129 Hawker P.1131 Hawker P.1132 Hawker P.1134 Hawker P.1136 Hawker P.1137 Hawker P.1139 Hawker P.1141 Hawker P.1143 Hawker P.1149 Hawker P.1152 Hawker P.1214 Harry Hawker Thomas Sopwith Sydney Camm Roy Chaplin Robert Lickley Richard Walker George Bulman Bill Humble Wimpy Wade Neville Duke Alfred William Bedford Aerospace industry in the United Kingdom Hawker – British Aircraft Directory
Hucclecote is a village in Gloucestershire, United Kingdom, comprising a ward in the City of Gloucester, an adjacent civil parish in the Borough of Tewkesbury. It is located on the periphery of the city, between Barnwood and Brockworth, along Ermin Way, an old Roman road connecting Gloucester with Cirencester and the Cotswolds. Hucclecote has been settled since ancient times, a Roman villa dating from the second or third century AD has been found at Hucclecote. Hucclecote was a hamlet in the ancient parish of Churchdown, is mentioned in the Domesday Book. Hucclecote was a small village until development began prior to the outbreak of World War II in 1939. Development was halted during the war and the area was bombed by the Luftwaffe due to the aircraft factories and other industrial facilities in the area, which were within the boundary of Brockworth. Due to redistricting, the airfield from which the world's first jet fighter, the Gloster Meteor, took off for test flights is now within the boundary of Hucclecote.
The area bordering Brockworth is undergoing redevelopment, with the derelict land that housed the airfield and factory having made way for Coopers Edge, a housing development of 1,900 homes, as well as shops and a school. The nearby Gloucester Business Park has a Tesco Supermarket, a Premier Inn, many office buildings, with restaurants and other retail facilities being added. Ermin Way through Hucclecote was a major trunk route until the construction of the Brockworth Bypass in 1995; until the construction of the Severn Bridge in 1966, this was a strategic route from the south of England to south Wales, as the lowest bridge crossing of the River Severn was at Gloucester. Hucclecote is split into two parts; the part to the west of the bridge, thus closest to Gloucester, is the larger part, falls under Gloucester City Council, while to the east of the bridge, the Parish of Hucclecote is part of Tewkesbury Borough Council. The Parish of Hucclecote has considered changing its name in recent times, to reflect its identity as a separate part of Hucclecote.
Possible names for this "new" village have included Whittlesfield, after Frank Whittle, who invented the jet engine that powered the aeroplane that took off from the airfield, Pineholt, used to describe a small part of the area before a housing estate more than doubled the Parish's size in the late 1990s. As of 2011, interest has started to build to change the name formally to Pineholt, to separate the area from Hucclecote. Though doubtfully, Hucclecote derives from Welsh:'Uchel'+'coed' = high wood; the Celtic meaning for the name'Hucclecote' is'tall trees, lofty woods'. A "cote" is: A small shelter for sheep or birds. Cote 2. Tr.v. cot·ed, cot·ing, cotes Obsolete. To go around by the side of. During the floods of Summer 2007, Hucclecote escaped the damage on the scale that afflicted other parts of Gloucester. However, on Friday 20 July 2007, a few roads were submerged, which prevented access to many homes, were blocked off by the Police. During the period, many homes were without water for two weeks, some were without electricity.
The Dinglewell area was badly affected, with one house receiving 18" of brook water throughout the lower floors. It was nearly a year before the damage was repaired and the house could be lived in properly again. Hucclecote has two pubs. National brands such as The Co-operative and Lloyds Pharmacy have branches in the village. There is an independent green-grocer and butcher. There are three schools in Hucclecote: Dinglewell Infants and Juniors. In 2018, over 10,000 visitors are expected to the Hucclecote Show, a fayre held in George V playing fields and run by the Hucclecote Community Association; the average household income was £27,040 in 2012. Hucclecote parish map, archived 2014 here
Gloucestershire is a county in South West England. The county comprises part of the Cotswold Hills, part of the flat fertile valley of the River Severn, the entire Forest of Dean; the county town is the city of Gloucester, other principal towns include Cheltenham, Tewkesbury and Dursley. Gloucestershire borders Herefordshire to the north west, Wiltshire to the south and Somerset to the south west, Worcestershire to the north, Oxfordshire to the east, Warwickshire to the north east, the Welsh county of Monmouthshire to the west. Gloucestershire is a historic county mentioned in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle in the 10th century, though the areas of Winchcombe and the Forest of Dean were not added until the late 11th century. Gloucestershire included Bristol a small town; the local rural community moved to the port city, Bristol's population growth accelerated during the industrial revolution. Bristol became a county in its own right, separate from Gloucestershire and Somerset in 1373, it became part of the administrative County of Avon from 1974 to 1996.
Upon the abolition of Avon in 1996, the region north of Bristol became a unitary authority area of South Gloucestershire and is now part of the ceremonial county of Gloucestershire. The official former postal county abbreviation was "Glos.", rather than the used but erroneous "Gloucs." or "Glouc". In July 2007, Gloucestershire suffered the worst flooding in recorded British history, with tens of thousands of residents affected; the RAF conducted the largest peacetime domestic operation in its history to rescue over 120 residents from flood affected areas. The damage was estimated at over £2 billion. Gloucestershire has three main landscape areas, a large part of the Cotswolds, the Royal Forest of Dean and the Severn Vale; the Cotswolds take up a large portion of the east and south of the county, The Forest of Dean taking up the west, with the Severn and its valley running between these features. The Daffodil Way in the Leadon Valley, on the border of Gloucestershire and Herefordshire surrounding the village of Dymock, is known for its many spring flowers and woodland, which attracts many walkers.
This is a chart of trend of regional gross value added of Gloucestershire at current basic prices published by Office for National Statistics with figures in millions of British Pounds Sterling. The following is a chart of Gloucestershire's gross value added total in thousands of British Pounds Sterling from 1997-2009 based upon the Office for National Statistics figures The 2009 estimation of £11,452 million GVA can be compared to the South West regional average of £7,927 million. Gloucestershire has comprehensive schools with seven selective schools. There are 42 state secondary schools, not including sixth form colleges, 12 independent schools, including the renowned Cheltenham Ladies' College, Cheltenham College and Dean Close School. All but about two schools in each district have a sixth form, but the Forest of Dean only has two schools with sixth forms. All schools in South Gloucestershire have sixth forms. Gloucestershire has two universities, the University of Gloucestershire and the Royal Agricultural University, four higher and further education colleges, Gloucestershire College, Cirencester College, South Gloucestershire and Stroud College and the Royal Forest of Dean College.
Each has campuses at multiple locations throughout the county. The University of the West of England has three locations in Gloucestershire. Gloucestershire has one city and 33 towns: Gloucester The towns in Gloucestershire are: Town in Monmouthshire with suburbs in Gloucestershire: Chepstow The county has two green belt areas, the first covers the southern area in the South Gloucestershire district, to protect outlying villages and towns between Thornbury and Chipping Sodbury from the urban sprawl of the Bristol conurbation; the second belt lies around Gloucester and Bishop's Cleeve, to afford those areas and villages in between a protection from urban sprawl and further convergence. Both belts intersect with the boundaries of the Cotswolds AONB. There are a variety of religious buildings across the county, notably the cathedral of Gloucester, the abbey church of Tewkesbury, the church of Cirencester. Of the abbey of Hailes near Winchcombe, founded by Richard, Earl of Cornwall, in 1246, little more than the foundations are left, but these have been excavated and fragments have been brought to light.
Most of the old market towns have parish churches. At Deerhurst near Tewkesbury and Bishop's Cleeve near Cheltenham, there are churches of special interest on account of the pre-Norman work they retain. There is a Perpendicular church in Lechlade, that at Fairford was built, according to tradition, to contain a series of stained-glass windows which are said to have been brought from the Netherlands; these are, adjudged to be of English workmanship. Other notable buildings include Calcot Barn in a relic of Kingswood Abbey. Thornbury Castle is a Tudor country house, the pretensio
Armstrong Whitworth Aircraft
Sir W. G. Armstrong Whitworth Aircraft Company, or Armstrong Whitworth Aircraft, was a British aircraft manufacturer. Armstrong Whitworth Aircraft was established as the Aerial Department of the Sir W. G Armstrong Whitworth & Company engineering group in Newcastle-upon-Tyne in 1912, from c. 1914 to 1917 employed the Dutch aircraft designer Frederick Koolhoven. In 1920, Armstrong Whitworth acquired the automobile manufacturer Siddeley-Deasy; the engine and automotive businesses of both companies were spun off as Armstrong Siddeley and the aircraft interests as the Sir W. G. Armstrong Whitworth Aircraft Company; when Vickers and Armstrong Whitworth merged in 1927 to form Vickers-Armstrongs, Armstrong Whitworth Aircraft and Armstrong Siddeley were bought out by J. D. Siddeley and did not join the new grouping; this left two aircraft companies with Armstrong in the name - Vickers-Armstrongs and "Armstrong-Whitworth". In 1935, J. D. Siddeley retired and Armstrong Whitworth Aircraft was purchased by Hawker Aircraft, the new group becoming Hawker Siddeley Aircraft.
The component companies of Hawker Siddeley operated as individual entities. During the 1950s Armstrong Whitworth Aircraft built many Gloster Meteor, Hawker Seahawk and Hawker Hunter jet fighters at their Bitteswell and Baginton factories for delivery to the Royal Air Force, the Royal Navy and the Royal Belgian Air Force; the company was merged with another Hawker Siddeley company, Gloster Aircraft Company, to form Whitworth Gloster Aircraft in 1961. In 1963 Hawker Siddeley dropped the names of the component companies from its products, the last Armstrong Whitworth product, the Argosy, becoming the Hawker Siddeley Argosy. Date of first flight in parenthesis. Armstrong Whitworth Aerial DepartmentArmstrong Whitworth F. K.1 – "Sissit" Armstrong Whitworth F. K.3 Armstrong Whitworth F. K.4 - gondola for SS class airship Armstrong Whitworth F. K.6 – Escort fighter triplane Armstrong Whitworth F. K.8 – "Big Ack" Armstrong Whitworth F. K.9 Armstrong Whitworth F. K.10 – "Quadriplane" Armstrong Whitworth Armadillo Armstrong Whitworth Ara Armstrong Whitworth Tadpole Armstrong Whitworth Siskin Armstrong-Siddeley AircraftArmstrong-Siddeley Siniai – Bomber Armstrong-Whitworth AircraftArmstrong Whitworth Awana Armstrong Whitworth Wolf Armstrong Whitworth Atlas Armstrong Whitworth Ajax Armstrong Whitworth A.
W.14 Starling Armstrong Whitworth Ape Armstrong Whitworth Argosy Armstrong Whitworth A. W.16 Armstrong Whitworth A. W.17 Aries Armstrong Whitworth A. W.15 Atalanta Armstrong Whitworth A. W.18 - heavy bomber project Armstrong Whitworth A. W.19 Armstrong Whitworth A. W.20 - monoplane day bomber project Armstrong Whitworth A. W.21 - monoplane fighter project Armstrong Whitworth A. W.22 - monoplane project Armstrong Whitworth A. W.23 Armstrong Whitworth A. W.24 - monoplane day bomber project Armstrong Whitworth A. W.28 - single-seat biplane fighter project Armstrong Whitworth A. W.29 - competing design for Specification P.27/32 for a day bomber Armstrong Whitworth A. W.30 - twin-engined monoplane bomber project Armstrong Whitworth A. W.31 - single-seat biplane fighter project Armstrong Whitworth A. W.32 - braced two-seat monoplane project Armstrong Whitworth A. W.33 - twin-engined two-seat monoplane turret fighter project Armstrong Whitworth A. W.34 - twin-engined fighter project Armstrong Whitworth A. W.35 Scimitar Armstrong Whitworth A.
W.36 - two-seat Army co-op biplane project Armstrong Whitworth A. W.37 - two-seat general purpose biplane project Armstrong Whitworth A. W.38 Whitley Armstrong Whitworth A. W.39 - heavy bomber project Armstrong Whitworth A. W.40 - monoplane mail carrier project Armstrong Whitworth A. W.27 Ensign Armstrong Whitworth A. W.41 Albemarle Armstrong Whitworth A. W.43 - monoplane airliner project Armstrong Whitworth A. W.44 - four-engine bomber project Armstrong Whitworth A. W.45 - monoplane medium bomber project Armstrong Whitworth A. W.48 - medium bomber project Armstrong Whitworth A. W.49 - twin-boom, laminar wing bomber project Armstrong Whitworth A. W.50 - tailless monoplane project Armstrong Whitworth A. W.51 - two-seat tailless glider project Armstrong Whitworth A. W.52 – flying wing, prototype only Armstrong Whitworth Apollo Armstrong Whitworth A. W.53 - twin-engined fast torpedo scout project Armstrong Whitworth A. W.54 - naval reconnaissance aircraft project Armstrong Whitworth A. W.56 - flying wing medium bomber project Armstrong Whitworth A.
W.57 - medium-range 4-engine passenger transport project Armstrong Whitworth A. W.58 - advanced 59° swept wing Mach 1.2 research aircraft project Armstrong Whitworth A. W.59 - variable wing-sweep research aircraft proposal Armstrong Whitworth Argosy Armstrong Whitworth AW.681 – proposed STOL military transport aircraft design Armstrong Whitworth A. W.690 - proposed VTOL version of Nord Noratlas transport Armstrong Whitworth A. W.168 - proposed tactical bomber design Armstrong Whitworth AW.169 – proposed design for Operational Requirement F.155 high altitude supersonic interceptor Armstrong Whitworth AW.171 – supersonic VTOL flying wing Hawker Sea Hawk – produced as part of Hawker Siddeley Aircraft Armstrong Whitworth Meteor NF.11 – redesign of the Gloster Meteor produced as part of Hawker Siddeley Aircraft R25r airship R29 – airship R33 – airship Sea Slug missile Aerospace industry in the United Kingdom The History of Sir W. G. Armstrong Whitworth Aircraft Limited
Bristol F.2 Fighter
The Bristol F.2 Fighter was a British two-seat biplane fighter and reconnaissance aircraft of the First World War developed by Frank Barnwell at the Bristol Aeroplane Company. It is simply called the Bristol Fighter, other popular names include the "Brisfit" or "Biff". Although the type was intended as a replacement for the pre-war Royal Aircraft Factory B. E.2c reconnaissance aircraft, the newly-available Rolls-Royce Falcon V12 engine gave it the performance of a two-seat fighter. Despite a disastrous start to its career, the definitive F.2B version proved to be an agile aircraft, able to hold its own against opposing single-seat fighters. Many surplus aircraft were registered for civilian use, dedicated civilian versions proved popular. By Autumn 1915, the Royal Flying Corps had identified the need for a new aerial reconnaissance and artillery spotting aircraft to replace the pre-war Royal Aircraft Factory B. E.2c. Among other attributes and performance requirements, emphasis was placed upon the ability to defend itself in aerial combat.
Several new types were developed. E.8 design, while the Armstrong Whitworth Company produced the design that emerged as the F. K.8. In March 1916, Frank Barnwell of the Bristol Aeroplane Company, commenced work on a new design intended to serve as a replacement for the ageing B. E.2. This took two forms, the Type 9 R.2A, to be powered by the 120 hp Beardmore engine, the similar Type 9A R.2B, powered by the 150 hp Hispano-Suiza. Both designs featured the mounting of the fuselage between the wings, with a gap between the lower longerons and the wing, along with a substantial part of the vertical tail surfaces being located beneath the fuselage; these features were intended to optimize the field of fire for the observer. The crew positions were placed as close together as possible, to optimise communication between the pilot and observer. Before either the R.2A or R.2B could be constructed, the new 190 hp Rolls-Royce Falcon inline engine became available. The anticipated improvement in performance changed the emphasis in its intended operational use.
E.2d and Sopwith 1½ Strutter two-seat fighters rather than a competitor with the pedestrian reconnaissance designs that were to replace the B. E.2. The resulting Type 12 F.2A, was a two-bay equal-span biplane based on the R.2A and R.2B designs. In July 1916, work commenced on the construction of a pair of prototypes. On 9 September 1916, the first prototype performed its maiden flight, powered by a Falcon I engine, it was fitted with B. E.2d wings to save time. On 25 October 1916, the second prototype was completed, powered by a Hispano-Suiza engine, otherwise differing from the first prototype in its tail-skid, integrated into the base of the rudder, it was found that the prototype's radiator arrangement obscured the pilot's field of view, the nose was redesigned around a new circular-shaped frontal radiator housed within the cowling. Other changes made to the first prototype during flight testing included the elimination of the end-plates from the lower wing roots and the addition of a shallow coaming around the cockpits.
Between 16 and 18 October 1916, the type underwent its official trials at the Central Flying School, during which it was tried with both a four-bladed 9 ft 2 in propeller and a two-bladed 9 ft 8 in propeller. By the time of its arrival at the experimental armament station at Orfordness it had been fitted with a Scarff ring mounting over the rear cockpit and an Aldis optical sight. Only 52 F.2A aircraft were manufactured before production was switched to the definitive model, the Bristol Type 14 F.2B, which first flew on 25 October 1916. The first 150 or so F.2Bs were powered by either the Falcon I or Falcon II engine, but the remainder were equipped with the 275 hp Falcon III engine. The additional power gave the F.2B a 10 mph advantage in level speed over the F.2A, while it was three minutes faster in a climb to 10,000 ft. The Bristol F.2 Fighter was armed in what had by become the standard weapons configuration for a British two-seater military aircraft: one synchronised fixed, forward-firing.303 in Vickers machine gun and a single flexible.303 in Lewis Gun on a Scarff ring over the observer's rear cockpit.
The F.2B variant carried a second Lewis gun on the rear cockpit mounting, although observers found the weight of the twin Lewis gun mounting difficult to handle in the high altitudes at which combat took place in the last year of the war, many preferring to retain a single gun. Attempts were made to add a forward-firing Lewis gun on a Foster mounting or similar on the upper wing either instead of, or in addition to, the Vickers gun. Among other problems this caused interference with the pilot's compass, mounted on the trailing edge of the upper wing: to minimise this effect the Lewis gun was offset to starboard. Rolls-Royce aero engines of all types were in chronic short supply at this time, the Falcon was no exception; this shortage of engines frustrated plans to increase production so that the Bristol Fighter could b
No. 1 Squadron RAAF
No. 1 Squadron is a Royal Australian Air Force squadron headquartered at RAAF Base Amberley, Queensland. Controlled by No. 82 Wing, it is equipped with Boeing F/A-18F Super Hornet multi-role fighters. The squadron was formed under the Australian Flying Corps in 1916 and saw action in the Sinai and Palestine Campaigns during World War I, it flew obsolete Royal Aircraft Factory B. E.2s, B. E.12s, Martinsyde G.100s and G.102s, as well as Airco DH.6s, Bristol Scouts and Nieuport 17s, before re-equipping with the R. E.8 in October 1917 and the Bristol Fighter in December. Its commanding officer in 1917–18 was Major Richard Williams known as the "Father of the RAAF". Disbanded in 1919, No. 1 Squadron was re-formed on paper as part of the RAAF in 1922, re-established as an operational unit three years later. During World War II, the squadron flew Lockheed Hudson bombers in the Malayan and Dutch East Indies campaigns, suffering severe losses before being reduced to cadre in 1942, it was re-formed with Bristol Beauforts the following year, re-equipped with de Havilland Mosquitos in 1945 for further operations in the Dutch East Indies.
Reduced to cadre once more after the war ended, No. 1 Squadron was re-established at Amberley in 1948 as an Avro Lincoln heavy bomber unit. From 1950 to 1958 it was based in Singapore, flying missions during the Malayan Emergency, where it bore the brunt of the Commonwealth air campaign against communist guerillas; when it returned to Australia it re-equipped with English Electric Canberra jet bombers. It operated McDonald Douglas F-4E Phantom IIs leased from the USAF from 1970 to 1973, as a stop-gap pending delivery of the General Dynamics F-111C swing-wing bomber; the F-111 remained in service for 37 years until replaced by the Super Hornet in 2010. In 2014–15, again in 2017, a detachment of Super Hornets was deployed to the Middle East as part of Australia's contribution to the military intervention against ISIL. No. 1 Squadron is located at RAAF Base Amberley and controlled by No. 82 Wing, part of Air Combat Group. Its mission responsibilities include air-to-surface combat; the squadron is nicknamed the "Fighting First".
The blazon of its crest is "the Australian Kookaburra in a diving position superimposed on the cross of Jerusalem", which symbolises the Victoria Cross-winning action of No. 1 Squadron pilot Frank McNamara in Palestine during World War I. The unit motto is Videmus Agamus; the squadron operates Boeing F/A-18F Super Hornet multi-role fighters, the first of which entered service in March 2010. Nicknamed the "Rhino", its missions include air superiority, fighter escort, land strike, maritime strike, close air support, reconnaissance; the Super Hornet is larger than the "classic" McDonnell Douglas F/A-18 Hornet operated by the RAAF, carries more ordnance, has a greater fuel capacity. It is fitted with a 20 mm cannon and can be armed with air-to-air and anti-shipping missiles, as well as a variety of air-to-ground bombs and missiles. Flown by a crew of two, a pilot and an air combat officer, it is capable of engaging targets in the air and on the surface simultaneously, it can be refuelled in flight by the RAAF's Airbus KC-30A Multi Role Tanker Transports.
The Super Hornets are serviced at the operating level by No. 1 Squadron technical staff. No. 1 Squadron was established as a unit of the Australian Flying Corps at Point Cook, Victoria, in January 1916 under the command of Lieutenant Colonel E. H. Reynolds. With a complement of 28 officers, 195 airmen, no aircraft and little training, it sailed for Egypt in mid-March 1916, arriving at Suez a month later. There it came under the control of the 5th Wing of the Royal Flying Corps. After training in England and Egypt, the unit was declared operational at its new headquarters in Heliopolis on 12 June, when it took over aircraft belonging to No. 17 Squadron RFC. Its three flights were, operating in isolation at different bases in the Sinai Desert, the squadron did not reunite until December. Flying primitive and poorly armed Royal Aircraft Factory B. E.2 two-seat biplanes, its primary roles during this period of the Sinai Campaign were reconnaissance—including aerial photography—and artillery spotting for the British Army.
No. 1 Squadron pilots attached to No. 14 Squadron RFC took part in the Battle of Romani in July and August. In September and October, B and C Flights, led by Captains Oswald Watt and Richard Williams undertook bombing and reconnaissance missions in support of the Australian Light Horse in northern Sinai. On 12 September 1916, the British began to refer to No. 1 Squadron as No. 67 Squadron RFC. This practice continued until January 1918, when the unit became known as No. 1 Squadron AFC. The relationship between airmen and ground crew was less formal than in British units; the unit received the first of several Martinsyde G.100 single-seat fighters to augment the B. E.2s on 16 October. E.2, armed with forward-firing machine guns. Shortly before the squadron took part in a bombing raid against Beersheba on 11 November, Lieutenant Lawrence Wackett managed to fix a machine gun to the top plane of one of the B. E.2s, using a mount he designed himself. Each flight was assigned a Bristol Scout beginning in December, but it too was obsolete and under-powered, the squadron ceased operating the type within three months.
Other older models issued to the unit included the Airco DH.6, Martinsyde G