The domestic goat or goat is a subspecies of C. aegagrus domesticated from the wild goat of Southwest Asia and Eastern Europe. The goat is a member of the animal family Bovidae and the subfamily Caprinae, meaning it is related to the sheep. There are over 300 distinct breeds of goat. Goats are one of the oldest domesticated species of animal, have been used for milk, meat and skins across much of the world. Milk from goats is turned into goat cheese. Female goats are referred to as does or nannies, intact males are called bucks or billies and juvenile goats of both sexes are called kids. Castrated males are called wethers. While the words hircine and caprine both refer to anything having a goat-like quality, hircine is used most to emphasize the distinct smell of domestic goats. In 2011, there were more than 924 million goats living in the world, according to the UN Food and Agriculture Organization; the Modern English word goat comes from Old English gāt "she-goat, goat in general", which in turn derives from Proto-Germanic *gaitaz from Proto-Indo-European *ǵʰaidos meaning "young goat", itself from a root meaning "jump".

To refer to the male, Old English used bucca until ousted by hegote, hegoote in the late 12th century. Nanny goat originated in the 18th billy goat in the 19th. Goats are among the earliest animals domesticated by humans; the most recent genetic analysis confirms the archaeological evidence that the wild bezoar ibex of the Zagros Mountains is the original ancestor of all domestic goats today. Neolithic farmers began to herd wild goats for easy access to milk and meat, as well as to their dung, used as fuel, their bones and sinew for clothing and tools; the earliest remnants of domesticated goats dating 10,000 years before present are found in Ganj Dareh in Iran. Goat remains have been found at archaeological sites in Jericho, Choga Mami, Çayönü, dating the domestication of goats in Western Asia at between 8,000 and 9,000 years ago. Studies of DNA evidence suggests 10,000 years BP as the domestication date. Goat hide has been used for water and wine bottles in both traveling and transporting wine for sale.

It has been used to produce parchment. Each recognized breed of goat has specific weight ranges, which vary from over 140 kg for bucks of larger breeds such as the Boer, to 20 to 27 kg for smaller goat does. Within each breed, different strains or bloodlines may have different recognized sizes. At the bottom of the size range are miniature breeds such as the African Pygmy, which stand 41 to 58 cm at the shoulder as adults. Most goats have two horns, of various shapes and sizes depending on the breed. There have been incidents of polycerate goats, although this is a genetic rarity thought to be inherited. Unlike cattle, goats have not been bred to be reliably polled, as the genes determining sex and those determining horns are linked. Breeding together two genetically polled goats results in a high number of intersex individuals among the offspring, which are sterile, their horns are made of living bone surrounded by keratin and other proteins, are used for defense and territoriality. Goats are ruminants.

They have a four-chambered stomach consisting of the rumen, the reticulum, the omasum, the abomasum. As with other mammal ruminants, they are even-toed ungulates; the females have an udder consisting in contrast to cattle, which have four teats. An exception to this is the Boer goat. Goats have slit-shaped pupils; because goats' irises are pale, their contrasting pupils are much more noticeable than in animals such as cattle, most horses and many sheep, whose horizontal pupils blend into a dark iris and sclera. Both male and female goats have beards, many types of goat may have wattles, one dangling from each side of the neck. Goats expressing the tan pattern have coats pigmented with phaeomelanin; the allele which codes for this pattern is located at the agouti locus of the goat genome. It is dominant to all other alleles at this locus. There are multiple modifier genes which control how much tan pigment is expressed, so a tan-patterned goat can have a coat ranging from pure white to deep red. Goats reach puberty depending on breed and nutritional status.

Many breeders prefer to postpone breeding. However, this separation is possible in extensively managed, open-range herds. In temperate climates and among the Swiss breeds, the breeding season commences as the day length shortens, ends in early spring or before. In equatorial regions, goats are able to breed at any time of the year. Successful breeding in these regions depends more on available forage than on day length. Does of any breed or region come into estrus every 21 days for two to 48 hours. A doe in heat flags her tail stays near the buck if one is present, becomes more vocal, may show a decrease in appetite and milk production for the duration of the heat. Bucks of Swiss and northern breeds come into rut in the fall. Bucks of equatorial breeds may show seasonal reduced fertility, but as with

State Patty's Day

State Patty's Day is a student-led social gathering that acts as a Pennsylvania State University alternative to the traditional Saint Patrick's Day. It began on Friday, March 2, 2007, because Saint Patrick's Day fell during spring break, which would have left students unable to celebrate the holiday while at school and with friends; the first annual State Patty's Day took place on March 2, 2007. Students began flocking the streets of downtown State College, bars and restaurants in the area opened early to take advantage of the holiday. In subsequent years State Patty's Day has been scheduled for the weekend after THON, giving the event a standardized date; as of 2014, it has persisted as an annual event, attracting more tourism to downtown State College than Saint Patrick's Day itself. State Patty's Day made its debut in early 2007 after a handful of students created a Facebook group entitled "The Official Group to Move St. Patrick's Day." Their hope was to unify the student body in early celebration.

With an excess of over 4,600 members in 2008, along with an effort to get bars in downtown State College involved, the group was successful in moving the holiday to Friday March 2, a day, dubbed as State Patty's Day. The State Patty's Day Event Page has grown to nearly 12,000 followers; the holiday has grown to such an extent that it attracts a significant number of out-of-town visitors. In 2012, the number reported was just under 20%. Magisterial District Judge Carmine Prestia, who serves as president of the Centre County magisterial district judges, has instituted a policy whereby alternative adjudications, resulting in dismissal of summary offense charges, are not available for offenses occurring during State Patty's Day weekend; the effort was made in an attempt to discourage illegal activities and to try to make the event seem less appealing to out-of-town attendees. In 2013, after seeing the event continue to grow in size and popularity, the Borough of State College and Penn State University attempted to squash the notorious holiday by offering a $5,000 subsidy to all alcohol-serving establishments in the downtown area, in exchange for closing their doors or ceasing alcohol sales on the day of the event.

In total, $170,000 of revenue from parking fees earned from previous State Patty's days was spent to keep establishments from selling alcohol on the day of the event. The previous two years, State College Borough had issued a "State Patty's Day After Action Report" outlining the financial impact of the event. Bars in downtown State College opened early and welcomed revelers; the holiday sees a significant spike in law-enforcement incidents, a trend that has abated. Starting in 2012, the holiday was banned among campus sororities. In February 2013, just weeks before the event, a committee of university and student leaders created an agreement with three dozen restaurant and beer shops in the area to halt alcohol sales during the drinking holiday. In exchange each business was to receive a $5,000 subsidy to account for lost revenue. Many bar owners had voiced criticism that they had felt "extreme pressure" to close their doors and accept the terms of the deal. Although the subsidy was intended to off-set the financial loss as a result of the closures, the loss of revenue for the employees of the establishments went unaddressed, leaving upwards of 200 bar & restaurant employees without work on what would otherwise be a busy and lucrative Saturday night.

In an apparent lack of support, the State College Tavern Owners Association preemptively elected to reject any proposals made from the University or Borough of State College for the 2014 incarnation of State Patty's Day that would close their businesses. Accordingly, at the UPUA meeting on Jan. 22nd, the motions that were proposed to adopt the University's stance on State Patty's day were amended to reflect the lack of unity on the subject. Early Adulthood in a Family Context - Alan Booth - Google Books Penn State Officials Take Booze Out Of'State Patty's Day' Mix: NPR Bar Owners, Police Taking A Stand Against State Patty’s Day | State College urges toned-down "State Patty's Day" - Pittsburgh Post-Gazette


Kotcherla is a village in Guntur district of the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh. It is located in Ipur mandal of Narasaraopet revenue division. Kotcherla is situated to the south of the mandal headquarters, Ipur, at 16.05°N 79.75°E / 16.05. It is spread over an area of 2,125 ha. Kotcherlaa gram panchayat is the local self-government of the village, it is divided into wards and each ward is represented by a ward member. Kotcherla falls under Narasaraopet lok sabha constituency. Kotcherla sarpanch is Ittadi Ashok during 2013 to 2018 As per the school information report for the academic year 2018–19, the village has 7 Zilla/Mandal Parishad schools. List of villages in Guntur district