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Gobelins Manufactory

The Gobelins Manufactory is a historic tapestry factory in Paris, France. It is located at 42 avenue des Gobelins, near Les Gobelins métro station in the 13th arrondissement of Paris, it is best known as a royal factory supplying the court of the French monarchs since Louis XIV, it is now run by the Administration générale du Mobilier national et des Manufactures nationales de tapis et tapisseries of the French Ministry of Culture. The factory is open for guided tours several afternoons per week by appointment, as well as for casual visits every day except Mondays and some specific holidays; the Galerie des Gobelins is dedicated to temporary exhibitions of tapestries from the French manufactures and furnitures from the Mobilier National, built in the gardens by Auguste Perret in 1937. The Gobelins were a family of dyers who, in the middle of the 15th century, established themselves in the Faubourg Saint-Marcel, Paris, on the banks of the Bièvre. In 1602, Henry IV of France rented factory space from the Gobelins for his Flemish tapestry makers, Marc de Comans and François de la Planche, on the current location of the Gobelins Manufactory adjoining the Bièvre river.

In 1629, their sons Charles de Comans and Raphaël de la Planche took over their fathers' tapestry workshops, in 1633, Charles was the head of the Gobelins manufactory. Their partnership ended around 1650, the workshops were split into two. Tapestries from this early, Flemish period are sometimes called pre-gobelins. In 1662, the works in the Faubourg Saint Marcel, with the adjoining grounds, were purchased by Jean-Baptiste Colbert on behalf of Louis XIV and made into a general upholstery factory, in which designs both in tapestry and in all kinds of furniture were executed under the superintendence of the court painter, Charles Le Brun, who served as director and chief designer from 1663-1690. On account of Louis XIV's financial problems, the establishment was closed in 1694, but reopened in 1697 for the manufacture of tapestry, chiefly for royal use, it rivalled the Beauvais tapestry works until the French Revolution, when work at the factory was suspended. The factory was revived during the Bourbon Restoration and, in 1826, the manufacture of carpets was added to that of tapestry.

In 1871, the building was burned down during the Paris Commune. The factory is still in operation today as a state-run institution. Today, the manufactory consists of a set of four irregular buildings dating to the seventeenth century, plus the building on the avenue des Gobelins built by Jean-Camille Formigé in 1912 after the 1871 fire, they contain Le Brun's residence and workshops that served as foundries for most of the bronze statues in the park of Versailles, as well as looms on which tapestries are woven following seventeenth century techniques. The Gobelins still produces some limited amount of tapestries for the decoration of French governmental institutions, with contemporary subjects. A branch of the manufactory was established in London in the early 18th-century in the area, now Fulham High Street. Around 1753 it appears to have been taken over by the priest and adventurer, Pierre Parisot, but closed only a few years later. List of museums in Paris Beauvais Manufactory Moravská Gobelínová Manufaktura Wolf Burchard, The Sovereign Artist: Charles Le Brun and the Image of Louis XIV, London 2016 Lacordaire, Notice historique sur les Manufactures impériales de tapisseries des Gobelins et de tapis de la Savonnerie, précédée du catalogue des tapisseries qui y sont exposées Genspach, Répertoire détaillé des tapisseries exécutées aux Gobelins, 1662–1892 Jules Guiffrey, Histoire de la tapisserie en France.

Manufacture des Gobelins Gobelins tapestries in the Collections of the Mobilier national Museums of Paris entry Paris.org entry

Tanya Gold

Tanya Gold is an English journalist. She identifies as Jewish, she was educated at Newland House School, the independent Kingston Grammar School and Merton College and has written for British newspapers including The Guardian, the Daily Mail, The Independent, The Daily Telegraph, The Sunday Times and the Evening Standard, for the news magazine The Spectator. In 2009 she was commended in the Feature Writer of the Year category at the British Press Awards. In 2010 she won Feature Writer of the Year at the British Press Awards and was nominated for Columnist of the Year, she has written articles exploring her recovery from alcoholism, her undercover investigations into the television series Big Brother. She has written a column about giving up smoking, "The Quitter". In October 2008, she wrote an article for The Guardian about her alma mater: "Oxford is hellish, it needs to be broken apart and stuffed with state school kids – for its own good." She criticised Merton and Oxford University, for a culture she saw as privileged, stratified by socioeconomic status, repressive.

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Tátra-class destroyer

The Tátra class was a group of six destroyers built for the Austro-Hungarian Navy shortly before the First World War. By the last years of the first decade of the 20th century, Admiral Graf Rudolf Montecuccoli, head of the Austro-Hungarian Navy, recognized that the latest Huszár-class destroyers were obsolete in comparison to larger and faster foreign destroyers, his 1910 expansion plan called for six new large destroyers and their construction was awarded to a Hungarian shipyard to secure Hungarian parliamentary approval of the expansion program. The Tátra-class ships had an overall length of 83.5 meters, a beam of 7.8 meters, a maximum draft of 3 meters. They displaced 1,050 long tons at deep load; the ships enlisted men. The Tátras were powered by two AEG-Curtiss steam turbine sets, each driving a single propeller shaft using steam provided by six Yarrow boilers. Four of the boilers were oil-fired; the turbines, designed to produce 20,600 shaft horsepower, were intended to give the ships a speed of 32.5 knots.

The ships carried enough coal to give them a range of 1,600 nautical miles at 12 knots. The main armament of the Tátra-class destroyers consisted of two 50-caliber Škoda Works 10-centimeter K10 guns, one each fore and aft of the superstructure in single mounts, their secondary armament consisted of six 45-caliber 66-millimeter guns. Two of these were on anti-aircraft mountings, they were equipped with four 450-millimeter torpedo tubes in two twin rotating mountings amidships. Six further destroyers were authorised in May 1914 to increase the number of destroyers, but construction had not started at the outbreak of the war. Four units were authorised in 1916 to replace the wartime losses; these four ships were named Triglav II, Lika II, Dukla and Uzsok and classified as the Ersatz Triglav class. After the war, three vessels—Triglav and Uzsok—were ceded to Italy and one, Dukla, to France; the last vessel was scrapped in 1936. Bilzer, Franz F.. Die Torpedoschiffe und Zerstörer der k.u.k. Kriegsmarine 1867–1918.

Graz: H. Weishaupt. ISBN 3-9003-1066-1. Cernuschi, Enrico & O'Hara, Vincent. "The Naval War in the Adriatic Part 1: 1914–1916". In Jordan, John. Warship 2015. London: Conway. Pp. 161–173. ISBN 978-1-84486-276-4. Cernuschi, Enrico & O'Hara, Vincent. "The Naval War in the Adriatic, Part 2: 1917–1918". In Jordan, John. Warship 2016. London: Conway. Pp. 62–75. ISBN 978-1-84486-326-6. Greger, René. Austro-Hungarian Warships of World War I. London: Ian Allan. ISBN 0-7110-0623-7. Noppen, Ryan K.. Austro-Hungarian Cruisers and Destroyers 1914-18. New Vanguard. 241. Oxford, UK: Osprey Publishing. ISBN 978-1-4728-1470-8. O'Hara, Vincent P. & Heinz, Leonard R.. Clash of Fleets: Naval Battles of the Great War, 1914-18. Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press. ISBN 978-1-68247-008-4. Roberts, John. "Italy". In Chesneau, Roger. Conway's All the World's Fighting Ships 1922–1946. Greenwich, UK: Conway Maritime Press. ISBN 0-85177-146-7. Sieche, Erwin. "Austria-Hungary". In Gardiner, Robert & Gray, Randal. Conway's All the World's Fighting Ships: 1906–1921.

Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press. ISBN 0-85177-245-5. Sieche, Erwin F.. "Zeittafel der Vorgange rund um die Auflosung und Ubergabe der k.u.k. Kriegsmarine 1918–1923". Marine—Gestern, Heute. 12: 129–141. Vego, Milan. "The Yugoslav Nay 1918–1941". Warship International. XIX: 342–361. ISSN 0043-0374