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Godalming

Godalming is a historic market town, civil parish and administrative centre of the Borough of Waverley in Surrey, England, 4 miles SSW of Guildford. The town traverses the banks of the River Wey in the Greensand Ridge – a hilly wooded part of the outer London commuter belt and Green Belt. In 1881, it became the first place in the world to have a public electricity supply and electric street lighting. Godalming is 30.5 mi southwest of London and shares a three-way twinning arrangement with the towns of Joigny in France and Mayen in Germany. Friendship links are with Moscow. James Oglethorpe of Godalming was the founder of the colony of Georgia. Godalming is regarded as an expensive residential town due to its visual appeal, favourable transport links and high proportion of private housing. In 2006 it was ranked the UK's third most desirable property hotspot, in 2007 it was voted the fourth best area of the UK in which to live; the borough of Waverley, which includes Godalming, was judged in 2013 to have the highest quality of life in Great Britain, in 2016 to be the most prosperous place in the UK.

The town has existed since Saxon times, earlier. It is mentioned in the will of King Alfred the Great in 899 and the name itself has Saxon origins,'Godhelms Ingus' translated as "the family of Godhelm", referring to one of the first lords of the manor. Godalming grew in size because its location is halfway between Portsmouth and London, which encouraged traders to set up stalls and inns for travellers to buy from and rest in. Godalming Parish Church has a Norman tower. Godalming appears in Domesday Book of 1086 as Godelminge, it was held by William the Conqueror. Its domesday assets were: 2 churches worth 12s, 3 mills worth £2 1s 8d, 25 ploughs, 40 acres of meadow, woodland worth 103 hogs, it rendered £34. Its population was 400 people. At the time, its manor belonged to the King, but a few hundred years ownership transferred to the Bishop of Salisbury, under a charter granted by King Edward I of England. In the year 1300, the town was granted the right to hold an annual fair, its major industry at the time was woollen cloth, which contributed to Godalming’s prosperity over the next few centuries, until a sudden decline in the 17th century.

Instead, its people applied their skills to the latest knitting and weaving technology and began producing stockings in a variety of materials, to leatherwork. A willingness to adapt from one industry to another meant. For example, papermaking was adopted in the 17th century, paper was still manufactured there in the 20th century; the quarrying of Bargate stone provided an important source of income, as did passing trade - Godalming was a popular stopping point for stagecoaches and the Mail coach between Portsmouth and London. In 1764, trade received an additional boost when early canalisation of the river took place, linking the town to Guildford, from there to the River Thames and London on the Wey and Godalming Navigations. In 1726 a Godalming maidservant called Mary Toft hoaxed the town into believing that she had given birth to rabbits; the foremost doctors of the day came to witness the freak event and for a brief time the story caused a national sensation. Toft was found out after a porter was caught smuggling a dead rabbit into her chamber, she confessed to inserting at least 16 rabbits into herself and faking their birth.

Mary Toft died and was buried in Godalming in 1763. Court testimony of 1764 attests to how purchasing one of the mills in Godalming and dealing in corn and flour brought a substantial income. So successful was Godalming that in the early 19th century it was larger than Guildford, by 1851 the population had passed 6,500, it was becoming a popular residence for commuters, for it had been connected to London by railway in 1849 and to Portsmouth in 1859. Today the town is served by Godalming railway station on the Portsmouth Direct Line; the first mayor of Godalming was Henry Marshall. Godalming came to world attention in September 1881, when it became the first town in the world to have installed a public electricity supply, it was Calder & Barnet who installed a Siemens AC Alternator and dynamo which were powered by a waterwheel, at Westbrook Mill, on the River Wey. There were a number of supply cables, some of which were laid in the gutters, that fed seven arc lights and 34 Swan incandescent lights.

Floods in late 1881 caused problems and in the end Calder & Barnet withdrew from the contract. It was taken over by Siemens. Under Siemens the supply system grew and a number of technical problems were solved, but on in 1884 the whole town reverted to gas lighting as Siemens failed to tender for a contract to light the town. This was due to a survey they undertook in the town that failed to provide adequate support to make the business viable. Siemens had lost money on the scheme in the early years, but was prepared to stay on in order to gain experience. Electricity returned to the town in 1904. Guildford is 4 mi London is 30.5 mi northeast of Godalming. The next railway stations up and down the line are at Farncombe, which benefits from a single residential street connection to Godalming across a strip of Lammas lands, however is still part of the town and Milford, separ

Yom tov sheni shel galuyot

Yom tov sheni shel galuyot called in short yom tov sheni, means "the second festival day in the Diaspora", is an important concept in halakha. The concept refers to the observance of an extra day of Jewish holidays outside of the land of Israel. Yom tov sheni was established as a gezera by the rabbis of the Sanhedrin in the Second Temple period 2,000 years ago, is observed to this day by Orthodox and Conservative Jews. Reform Judaism abolished it in 1844, Reconstructionist Judaism largely did the same; the need for a second festival day arises from problems encountered by Jews living in the Diaspora following the Babylonian exile. The Jewish calendar is a lunar system with months of 30 days. In Temple times, the length of the month depended on witnesses who had seen the new moon coming to the Temple in Jerusalem. Following confirmation of their evidence, a new Jewish month would be proclaimed. News of this proclamation was subsequently sent out to all Jewish communities. If no witnesses arrived, the new month was proclaimed the following day.

Those communities who didn't receive word of the precise date of the beginning of the new month by the time of a festival, would keep the festival for two days, to account for the eventuality the new month wasn't proclaimed only the following day. The Jewish calendar was fixed. Instead of the new month being determined by observation of the moon in Jerusalem, the calendar was fixed so that new months could be calculated ahead of time by anyone; this eliminated the uncertainty far from Jerusalem about the dating of holidays. Rabbinic authorities decreed that Diaspora communities continue to observe two days of holidays, for two reasons: to preserve their ancestral custom; the second day is observed with exceptions. Thus, Shavuot is two days in the Diaspora. Pesach is a seven-day festival in Israel, the first and last days of which are holy days, with five days of Chol HaMoed in between. In the Diaspora, it is an eight-day festival, with a pair of holy days at the start and finish, four days Chol HaMoed.

Sukkot is a seven-day festival in Israel, the first day of, a holy day, followed by six days of Chol Hamoed. These are, in turn, followed on the eighth day by the separate-but-related holy day of Shemini Atzeret. In the Diaspora, the first two days are holy days, are followed by five days of Chol Hamoed; these are in turned followed by two holy days of Shemini Atzeret. However, in the Diaspora, the name "Shemini Atzeret" is used only to refer to the first of the two days. There are two exceptions to the rule; the fast day of Yom Kippur, one day in the Diaspora, due to the difficulty of a two-day fast. Rosh Hashanah is two days in Israel, because it falls on the first day of the month. Conservative Judaism uniformly observes two days of Rosh Hashanah as well, as do some Reform congregations. Isru chag refers to the day after each of the Three Pilgrimage Festivals. Chol HaMoed, the intermediate days of Passover and Sukkot. Mimouna, a traditional North African Jewish celebration held the day after Passover.

Pesach Sheni, is one month after 14 Nisan. Purim Katan is when during a Jewish leap year Purim is celebrated during Adar II so that the 14th of Adar I is called Purim Katan. Shushan Purim is the day on which Jews in Jerusalem celebrate Purim. Yom Kippur Katan is a practice observed by some Jews on the day preceding each Rosh Chodesh or New-Moon Day. Zimmels, Hirsch Jakob, "The Controversy about the Second Day of the Festival," in Samuel Belkin, ed. Abraham Weiss Jubilee Volume, 139-168. Jacob Katz, "The Orthodox Defense of the Second Day of the Festivals," Divine Law in Human Hands: Case Studies in Halakhic Flexibility, 255-319 David Yerachmiel Fried, Yom tov sheni kehilkhato Jerusalem 5748 יום טוב שני של גלויות. Jewish Encyclopedia Daat. Herzog College. Kaufmann Kohler & W. Wilner, "Second day of festivals" Jewish Encyclopedia, 1906

A Married Woman

A Married Woman is a 1964 French drama film directed by Jean-Luc Godard, his eighth feature film. Charlotte is a woman in her twenties, married to Pierre, an affluent man in his thirties or forties. Pierre's passion is flying, he flies his own private plane, after having been an air force pilot. Pierre has a young son, from his first marriage, which dissolved when his wife left him for another man. Pierre and Nicolas live together in a modern apartment outside Paris. Charlotte spends her days going to cafes, swimming, at the cinema, reading women's fashion magazines, or with her lover, Robert, an actor. Pierre believes that Charlotte's affair is over, having confronted her with evidence from a private investigator; as the film opens and Robert are in a Paris love nest that Robert has rented. They make love, he repeats an earlier request that Charlotte divorce Pierre to marry him. Leaving the apartment, Robert drives Charlotte to the department store Printemps, where she says she is going buy new bras.

However, instead of shopping, she cuts through the store and Charlotte takes a series to taxis to avoid a private investigator who she thinks is still following her, she goes to collect her stepson from school. They go to an airport to collect Pierre and his colleague, the filmmaker Roger Leenhardt, who have returned from Germany in Pierre's private plane. While in Germany and Roger attended sessions of the Frankfurt Auschwitz Trials, both men have an interest in the Holocaust, they go back to the couple's apartment for dinner. After dinner they discuss the Holocaust and move to the question of memory and one's relationship to the past and present. After Roger's departure and Pierre play-fight and make love; the next morning, the maid tells Charlotte a story of a ribald love-making session with her own husband. For this narrative, Godard borrowed from Louis-Ferdinand Céline's Death on Credit, which he acknowledges indirectly in the film. Charlotte attends a fashion photo-shoot at a swimming pool and eavesdrops at a nearby café as two teenage girls discuss their love lives and first sexual encounters.

Charlotte learns that she is pregnant. She does not know which man is the father and asks the doctor about contraception, leading to a discussion of the relationship between love, sexual pleasure, conception. Charlotte goes to Orly Airport for an assignation with Robert, as arranged, before he has to fly to Marseille to act in a production of Racine's Bérénice, they meet in the back of the airport's cinema, during a screening of Night and Fog, Alain Resnais's documentary about the Holocaust. Partway through the film, they leave the theater separately and rendezvous at the airport hotel to make love. During their time together, Charlotte questions Robert about love, they hold hands on the mattress of the bed. As Robert prepares to leave, they both say – one after the other – C'est fini. Whilst in Cannes in May 1964 Godard met Luigi Chiarini, the director of the 1964 Venice Film Festival, offered to make a film that would be completed in three months in time to premiere at Venice – the festival would run from August 27 to September 10.

The film would be the story of a woman, her husband, her lover, the woman would find out that she is pregnant and not know whose child it is. The situation was mirrored to a great extent in François Truffaut's La Peau Douce, a film Godard admired, based on the story of Truffaut's own infidelity. Godard wrote to Truffaut telling him he would take his film in a different direction if he thought his project too similar, yet while Truffaut's film was a'compact, classical melodrama' Godards would be'an explicitly and stringently modernist film', the melodrama subordinated'to a abstract style of filming'. Having liked André Cayatte's pair of films, Anatomy of a Marriage: My Days with Jean-Marc/Anatomy of a Marriage: My Days with Françoise – L'Amour conjugale, 1963, Godard chose Macha Méril, an actress who had featured in both in a supporting role, to play Charlotte; the Married Woman – Godard's original title for his film – was shown at the Venice Film Festival on 8 September 1964. It was well received.

Michelangelo Antonioni, whose first colour film Red Desert was being shown in competition, went up to Godard after the screening and congratulated him. And it was praised by French critics. Cahiers du cinéma, which had not praised Bande à part, greeted The Married Woman as a major artistic and intellectual work. In September however, the Commission de Controle voted 13-5, with two abstentions. Objections centred on the title, which the board said implied all married women were adulterous, on the film's devotion'to the salacious illustration of scenes of sexuality.' The commission's reasons were not made public but were relayed to the minister of information, Alain Peyrefitte. He agreed to meet Godard and months of debate and negotiation followed. Godard believed the real problem was political and that'The people of the commission have sensed that my film attacks a certain mode of life, that of air conditioning, of the prefabricated, of advertising'. Godard made a few changes, including the title, though he refused to remove references to concentration camp inmates that Peyrefitte had wanted.

The film was released on December 5. The credits are accompanied by a Beethoven string quartet – one of five that are heard in the course of the film. "Quand le film est triste", sung by Sylvie Va

Radio Sausalito

Radio Sausalito is a "Part 15" AM radio station broadcasting a Big Band Jazz format on 1610 & 1710 kHz. The station serves the Southern Marin County, California area; the station has partnerships with the local paper, the local library, local businesses which host its programs. Its programming is made available online via podcasts; the station has an agreement with the city of Sausalito to provide information to residents in the event of an emergency. In 2009 the station was selected as the audio accompaniment to the community calendar on Marin TV cable channels 26, 27, 30. For several years Radio Sausalito was broadcasting on 1710 AM in Central San Rafael so as to broadcast the first and last games of the San Rafael Pacifics baseball team. In 2015 the station began broadcasting online and boasts a worldwide audience of over 10,000 per month; the station began in 2000 as an FM station on 100.1 MHz. Following Comcast complaining of co-channel interference with their cable service frequencies, Radio Sausalito changed its transmitting frequency to 1610 kHz on the AM band in 2005.

As of June 2009, their programming is heard along with the community bulletin board throughout Marin via MarinTV on cable channels 26 and 27. According to a December 2012 story on KGO-TV, the station has its studios in the basement of a Victorian building in Sausalito. In June 2015, The Joys Of Jazz, produced by Radio Sausalito, was awarded the Bronze trophy for "Best Regularly Scheduled Music Program". Dizzy Jones: Host of The Last Dance Mitchell Field: Host of the Field Trip Jonathan Westerling: Founder of the station Though unlicensed, the station broadcasts according to the Federal Communications Commission. Title 47 CFR Part 15 allows Radio Sausalito to broadcast so long as it meets a specific power limitation and prohibit it from interfering with licensed radio stations, its top of the hour ID includes FCC certification ID of NWXAM1000

Clifton, New South Wales

Clifton is a village on the coast of New South Wales, between Sydney and Wollongong. Along with nearby Coalcliff, the village began life as a coal-mining centre, it is situated on a narrow area between the Illawarra escarpment. The electrified South Coast railway line passes through, but the station at Clifton was closed in 1915; the Sea Cliff Bridge, opened in 2005, restored the connection between Clifton and Coalcliff, broken by frequent rock falls onto this section of the Lawrence Hargrave Drive. The bridge lies parallel to the former "coal cliffs" and offers scenic views of the cliffs, the sea, surrounding coastline. In 1797, survivors of the Sydney Cove discovered coal in the'Coal Cliffs'. Clifton was created with the construction of the Coal Cliff Colliery in 1877, it was situated on the southern end of the Stanwell Park Estate owned by surveyor Sir Thomas Mitchell. A number of weatherboard cottages with galvanised iron roofs had been built; the mine opened in 1878. In 1880, the School of Arts was established.

Thomas Hale, the first mine manager, constructed a 500-foot jetty out to sea and a slide down the 120-foot cliff. This took coal to Herga, two steam colliers built in Glasgow. Hilda struck a reef near Port Hacking in 1893. In 1878 the mine employed 73 men. By 1884 there were 150 miners, coal production was 51,500 tons annually. Most of the miners lived, in Clifton. There was a post/telegraph office and James Farraher's Clifton Inn and in 1884 the press reported near 1000 residents, a large proportion of which worked at the mines. In 1879 a mail service to Bulli was established; the mine closed after storms destroyed the job losses crippled the village. In 1887 the railway line had reached Clifton from Wollongong. Before this time four-horse coaches would travel between Wollongong and Clifton, starting from Wollongong at 5 am. In 1884 an Anglican and a Roman Catholic Church were built. A public hall was built in 1885. In 1887 the railway between Wollongong and Clifton was opened. In 1890 the Coal Cliff Coal and Land Company Ltd take over the colliery.

In 1893 the Clifton School was opened. In 1910 the miners at the Coal Cliff Colliery went on strike for ten months. In 1910 the school of arts building was built; the strikers supplied some of the required labour for this project. In 1919 additions were made to the Catholic Church and it was blessed in a ceremony on the first of March. From May 8th to 10th, 1972, about sixty miners took over the mine at South Clifton in protest of its closure on May 5th, ensuring the mine was reopened for a further period. Media related to Clifton, New South Wales at Wikimedia Commons

Knud Wefald

Knud Magnus Wefald, was an American Minnesota Farmer–Labor Party politician who served as a member of the United States House of Representatives from Minnesota's 9th congressional district from 1923 to 1927. Knud Magnus Wefald was born in Yttre Vefald, Drangedal, in Kragerø, Telemark county, Norway, he attended the local schools and high school of his native land. He immigrated to the United States in 1887 and in 1896 settled in Hawley, Clay County, Minnesota where he engaged in agricultural pursuits while managing a owned lumber business; as a member of the village council of Hawley he served as council president in 1907 – 1912, 1917, 1918 before becoming a member of the Minnesota House of Representatives 1913 – 1915. Subsequently, Wefald was elected on the Farmer-Labor ticket to the 68th and 69th congresses from Minnesota's 9th congressional district. After an unsuccessful campaign for reelection in 1926 to the 70th congress he resumed his former business pursuits. Wefald edited a Norwegian language newspaper in Fargo, North Dakota, 1929 – 1931 and was executive secretary of the commission of administration and finance of Minnesota in 1931 and 1932.

He served as railroad and warehouse commissioner of Minnesota from January 1933 until his death in Saint Paul, October 25, 1936. Papers of Knud Wefald are in the collections of the Norwegian-American Historical Association Archives. Included are an account from 1903 concerning a trip to Norway, poems that he wrote in both Norwegian and English, extracts from the Congressional Record during his term in the United States House of Representatives. United States Congress. "WEFALD, Knud". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. United States Congress. "Knud Wefald". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress