Diakonissestiftelsen is a large site in the Frederiksberg district of Copenhagen, owned by the Danish Deaconess Community and used for various social and healthcare-related activities, including a home for the elderly and training of nurses. Diakonissestiftelsen was founded in 1866 at the initiative of Crown Princess Louise, consort of the king Christian IX, she instigated Louise Conring to make a study trip to Sweden, where the order had been active for ten years, to Germany where pastor Theodor Fliedner had opened the first Deaconess motherhouse in 1836 in Düsseldorf-Kaiserswerth in 1836. A building in Smallegade near their current site, contained a small hospital and residences for the Deaconess sisters, their current site was inaugurated in 1876. Their hospital in Smallegade closed in 1880; the Deaconesses' premises comprise 33,000 square meters of buildings on a four hectares of land. The original main building is a long three-winged, it was designed by Hans Jørgen Holm in a Neo-Gothic style inspired by medieval monasteries and manor houses.
The complex has been expanded by Gotfred Tvede and Harald Gad. To the rear of the main complex, facing the garden, is a couple of wash houses. Other buildings in the grounds include Søster Sophies Minde, located on Sønder Fasanvej, it was built in the 1950s to provide residences for retired Deaconess sisters. Diakonissestiftelsen owns the house Marthabo on the other side of Peter Bangsvej which houses a kindergarten; the building is from 1885 and was designed by C. Lendorff. In 2011, Diakonissestiftelsen announced plans for a DKK 500 million redevelopment of their site with the twofold ambition to integrate it more in the surrounding cityscape and creating a hub for social and healthcare-related activities. A masterplan competition for the area was settled in April 2012 with two interdisciplinary teams led by Tegnestuen Vandkunsten and Cubo Arkitekter as joint winners. A competition for the expansion and adaption of Aøster Sofies Minde was won by Arkitema in December 2013. Diakonissestiftelsen is home to an educational centre, UC Diakonissestiftelsen, which offers four courses of education: Bachelor of Science in Nursing.
Official website for Diakonissestiftelsen Official website for the redevelopment project
Christian IV of Denmark
Christian IV, sometimes colloquially referred to as Christian Den Fjerde in Denmark and Christian Kvart or Quart in Norway, was king of Denmark–Norway and Duke of Holstein and Schleswig from 1588 to 1648. His 59-year reign is the longest of Danish monarchs, of Scandinavian monarchies. A member of the house of Oldenburg, Christian began his personal rule of Denmark in 1596 at the age of 19, he is remembered as one of the most popular and proactive Danish kings, having initiated many reforms and projects. Christian IV obtained for his kingdom a level of stability and wealth, unmatched elsewhere in Europe, he engaged Denmark in numerous wars, most notably the Thirty Years' War, which devastated much of Germany, undermined the Danish economy, cost Denmark some of its conquered territories. He rebuilt and renamed the Norwegian capital Oslo as Christiania after himself, a name used until 1925. Christian was born at Frederiksborg Castle in Denmark on 12 April 1577 as the third child and eldest son of King Frederick II of Denmark–Norway and Sofie of Mecklenburg-Schwerin.
He was descended, through his mother's side, from king John of Denmark, was thus the first descendant of King John to assume the crown since the deposition of King Christian II. At the time, Denmark was still an elective monarchy, so in spite of being the eldest son Christian was not automatically heir to the throne. However, in 1580, at the age of 3, his father had him elected Prince-Elect and successor to the throne. At the death of his father on 4 April 1588, Christian was 11 years old, he succeeded to the throne, but as he was still under-age a regency council was set up to serve as the trustees of the royal power while Christian was still growing up. It was led by chancellor Niels Kaas and consisted of the Rigsraadet council members Peder Munk, Jørgen Ottesen Rosenkrantz and Christopher Walkendorf, his mother Queen Dowager Sophie, 30 years old, had wished to play a role in the government, but was denied by the Council. At the death of Niels Kaas in 1594, Jørgen Rosenkrantz took over leadership of the regency council.
Christian continued his studies at Sorø Academy where he had a reputation as a headstrong and talented student. In 1595, the Council of the Realm decided that Christian would soon be old enough to assume personal control of the reins of government. On 17 August 1596, at the age of 19, Christian signed his haandfæstning, an identical copy of his father's from 1559. Twelve days on 29 August 1596, Christian IV was crowned at the Church of Our Lady in Copenhagen by the Bishop of Zealand, Peder Jensen Vinstrup, he was crowned with a new Danish Crown Regalia, made for him by Dirich Fyring, assisted by the Nuremberg goldsmith Corvinius Saur. On 30 November 1597, he married Anne Catherine of Brandenburg, a daughter of Joachim Friedrich, Margrave of Brandenburg and Duke of Prussia. Christian took an interest in many and varied matters, including a series of domestic reforms and improving Danish national armaments. New fortresses were constructed under the direction of Dutch engineers; the Danish navy, which in 1596 had consisted of but twenty-two vessels, in 1610 rose to sixty, some of them built after Christian's own designs.
The formation of a national army proved more difficult. Christian had to depend upon hired mercenary troops as was common practice in the times—well before the establishment of standing armies—augmented by native peasant levies recruited for the most part from the peasantry on the crown domains. Up until the early 1620s, Denmark's economy profited from general boom conditions in Europe; this inspired Christian to initiate a policy of expanding Denmark's overseas trade, as part of the mercantilist wave fashionable in Europe. He founded a number of merchant cities, supported the building of factories, he built a large number of buildings in Dutch Renaissance style. His sister Anne had married King James VI of Scotland, who succeeded to the English throne in 1603. To foster friendly relations between the two kingdoms, Christian paid a state visit to England in 1606; the visit was judged to be a success, although the heavy drinking indulged in by English and Danes alike caused some unfavourable comments: both Christian and James had an ability to consume great amounts of alcohol, while remaining lucid, which most of their courtiers did not share.
The entertainment, intended to crown the visit- a masque of Solomon and the Queen of Sheba- was described by the audience as a drunken fiasco, where most of the players fell over from the effects of too much wine. Despite Christian's many efforts, the new economic projects did not return a profit, he looked abroad for new income. Christian IV's Expeditions to Greenland involved a series of voyages in the years 1605-1607 to Greenland and to Arctic waterways in order to locate the lost Eastern Norse Settlement and to assert Danish sovereignty over Greenland; the expeditions were unsuccessful due to leaders lacking experience with the difficult Arctic ice and weather conditions. The pilot on all three trips was English explorer James Hall. An expedition to North America was commissioned in 1619; the expedition was captained by Jens Munk. The ships, searching for the Northwest Passage, arrived in Hudson Bay landing at the mouth of Churchill River, settling at what is now Churchill, Manitoba. However, it was a disastrous voyage, with cold and scurvy killing most of the crew.
In 1618, Christian appointed Admiral Ove Gjedde to lead an expedition establish a Danis
Frederiksberg Campus (University of Copenhagen)
Frederiksberg Campus is one of the four main campuses of University of Copenhagen in Copenhagen, Denmark. It is located in Frederiksberg and is home to large parts of the Faculty of Science' activities within the fields of natural science and biosciences as well as part of the School of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science at the Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, including the University Hospital for Companion Animals; the main campus is located on the west side of Bülowsvej, on both sides of Thorvaldsensvej and Rolighedsvej. It occupies the former grounds of the Royal Veterinary and Agricultural University, merged into the University of Copenhagen in 2007; the main building at Bülowsvej No. 17 is from 1895. The main building at Bülowsvej 17 is a large four-winged complex surrounding a central courtyard; the original three-winged building was designed by Michael Gottlieb Bindesbøll. It was expanded by Johannes Emil Gnudtzmann in 1895; the Great Auditorium features murals by Georg Hilker depicting farm animals, legendary creatures and Flora Danica illustrations.
Most of the other historic buildings are located along the internal streets Grønnegårdsvej, Dyrlægevej and Stigbøjlen. Grønnegårdsvej, a parallel street to Bülowsvej, runs from Thorvaldsensvej in the north to Dyrlægevej in the south; the two identical buildings at Grønnegårdsvej No. 8 and 10 are part of Gottlieb Bindesbøll's original complex from 1856–58 and are listed together with the main building. Gimle, a former community centre at Grundtvigsvej 14, taken over by KVL in 1956, is used as canteen; the area was separated from the rest of the campus. The area was part of KVL's botanical gardens; the central 7-storey building is colloquially known as "The Highrise" on the otherwise flat campus. It was built between 1971 to design by Steen Eiler Rasmussen and Mogens Koch. A new building on Rolighedsvej was completed in 1995 to design my Erik Møllers Arkitekter; the Department of Food Science is basd in the building. Next to it is another modern building, completed in 2013 to design by Wiberg Arkitekter and Witraz/Rambøll, arkitekter.
It is used by the Department of Food Science. Copenhagen Plant Science Center is now under construction on the east side of the 70s building, it is designed by Lundgaard & Tranberg and will consist of four cylindrical buildings with a total area of 13,034 square metres when it is completed in 2019. The area on the north side of Rolighedsvej was part of the Rolighed estate but sold to Københavns Sygehjem in 1859, it was reacquired by KVL in 1922. The university uses the old Rolighed building and its old farm buildings, all of which are listed. Københavns Sygehjem's old main building is now home to the Department of Geosciences and Natural Resource Management; the Late Neoclassical building is the former's Section for Landscape Architecture and Urban Planning. The building was designed by Harald Conrad Stilling, it was expanded by Rørbæk & Møller Arkitekter in 2013. The Department of Food and Resource Economy is located at No. 25. The building to the right was built for Landøkonomisk Forsøgslaboratorium in 1993 to design by Ludvig Fenger.
Landbrugsøkonomisk Forsøgslaboratorium was expanded with a free-standing building designed by Hans Georg Skovgaard to the east in 1935. The two buildings are now connected by a glazed skywalk; when KVL opened in 1864, it comprised a botanical garden. It was known as Landbohøjskolens Botaniske Have but its official name is now Universitetshaverne. One of the old greenhouses has been converted into a café; the garden is located to the west of the old main building. Gartnerboligen contained residential quarters for the gardeners, it has now been converted into rooms for international students. In front of the building at Grønnegårdsvej 7 is a line of busts commemorating former professors and other people associated with the premises, they include Carl Oluf Jensen. On the opposite side of the street is a small plaza with a stone bench and a bust of Peter Christian Abildgaard, founder of the Royal Agrivultural and Veterinary College. In front of Landøkonomisk Forsøgslanoratoirum's former building at Rolighedsvej 25 stands a statue of Niels Fjord, founder of the institution.
The statue was created by Aksel Hansen and was installed in 1892. The University Gardens contain a number of statues. One of them is Vilhelm Bissen's A Milkmaid. Department of Food and Resource Economics Map Map 3
Frederiksberg Kommunale Funktionærers Boligforening
Frederiksberg Kommunale Funktionærers Boligforening known as Frederiksberg Haveby or Ved Grænsen, is an area of building society houses located off Finsensvej in Frederiksberg Municipality, Denmark, on the border with Vanløse. Frederiksberg Kommunale Funktionærers Boligforening was founded on 28 May 1913 by employees of Frederiksberg Municipality. Construction began in 1915 and was completed in 1919. On its completion the development contained a total of 220 residences: 36 double houses with four apartments in each, one triple house with six apartments and 35 single family detached homes; the area now contains 110 homes. The architecture is influenced by the Bedre Byggeskik, a Danish version of the Arts and Crafts movement. Frederiksberg Kommunale Funktionærers Boligforening
Ladegården, or Københavns Ladegård was established as a farm under Copenhagen Castle by Christian IV in 1623 and was located at the site of the present-day Radio House on Rosenørns Allé in Copenhagen, Denmark. The complex with additions served a range of different functions before it was demolished in the early 1920. Christian III built a farm referred to as Ladegården about which hardly anything is known at Nyby outside Copenhagen 1548; the building associated with the name was established by Christian IV in 1623. The estate covered all of present-day Frederiksberg Municipality, its purpose was to provide produce for the royal household, grazing for its livestock and feed for the royal mews. A building g with room for 500 pieces of cattle was destroyed in a storm in 1628 and a new, three-storey brick building was constructed in its place; the complex was surrounded by bastions and a moat, fed with water from the Ladegård Canal as well as Rosenåen, a branch which emptied into the sea at Kalvebod Beach.
The farm was never an economic success and some of the land was sold off to a group of Dutch farmers from Amager. The building was destroyed during the Swedish siege of Copenhagen in 1658-59; the ruin was purchased by Christoffer Gabel in the earlu 1660s. In 1710, it was converted into a military hospital. During the outbreak of plague 1711-13, it was used as a plague hospital alongside nearby Vodroffgård, housing one hundred patients at a time. On 27 June 1723, the director of the Military Hospital Barracks applied for permission to establish a spinning mill and weaver at Ladegården. Shortly thereafter plans arose to transform the building into a workhouse. In 1768, Ladegården was sold to the City of Copenhagen; the residents of Sankt Hans Hospital, a mental institution based in another former plague hospital, located at Kalvebod Beach, was transferred to the Ladegården site but the institution kept its name. The two facilities co-existed at Ladegården until 1816 when Sankt Hans Hospital was moved to Bistrup at Roskilde.
Ladegården was once again left unused for until it was once again used as a workhouse from 1822. In 1834, it was expanded with a penal labour facility. In 1908, the indigent residents moved to the newly established institution Sundholm on Amager; the buildings were demolished in connection with extension of Rosenørns Allé in the 1920s. The Radio House was built on the western part of the site; the gore between Åboulevard, Rosenørns Allé and Julius Thomsens Gade was transferred from Frederiksberg to Copenhagen Municipality and redeveloped with housing
The Olsen Gang is a Danish comedy film series about the eponymous fictional criminal gang. The gang's leader is the criminal genius and habitual offender Egon Olsen and his accomplices are Benny and Kjeld; the gang members are harmless rarely target ordinary citizens, never use violence. The first film came in 1968. A Norwegian version of the film series was made, in most cases based directly on the scripts for the Danish films. Starting in 1981, Sweden produced their own version: Jönssonligan; the films rose to special fame in the former DDR, where the movies were uncensored because official censorship believed them to poke fun at capitalists. However, in the public opinion, the movies poked fun at any authority and did so with ingeniosity and wit. Most of the films start with Egon coming out of jail and being enthusiastically welcomed by Benny and Kjeld; the three men will have a beer together in the living room of Kjeld's dilapidated home in a run-down Valby neighbourhood, where Egon will inform his friends of his latest plan for making them millionaires.
Plans are two-step plans, where the first heist will get the equipment for the real, second plan. The plans feature everyday artefacts such as Lego, party balloons, cigarettes etc. which are brought together in surprising ways in elaborate and well-timed plans including clever social engineering. Bennys main function in the heists, besides get-away-driver, is as keeper of "The Thing", a specially shaped metal piece used for manipulating most any machinery or opening doors. Egon serves time with lawyers or executives who provide him with the information he needs, such as duty rosters for the national public record office. Egon is a brilliant safecracker, operating manually, specializing in the fictive "Franz Jäger" brand. Egon's plans bring the gang into perilously close contact with white-collar criminals from the Danish business elite. For example, in one episode some well-connected people try to make money out of the so-called "butter mountain", a huge amount of butter bought up and stored by the EEC to keep prices up.
Egon Olsen learns about this from a lawyer, serving prison time, the gang interferes with the plan to secure the millions for themselves. But as always, Egon – after having succeeded with a genius plan – for a variety of reasons, for instance underestimating the power and unscrupulousness of these people, bad luck, Yvonne's interference or other surprising elements. For several movies the role of antagonist was filled by CEO Hallandsen of the fictive, multinational company Hallandsen Inc. - or variations thereof. Egon is arrested in the end, for various reasons: scapegoat, bad luck, some irrelevant crime, or turning himself in as a matter of honour. A recurring part of the films is making fun of Danish authorities the police. Superintendent Jensen to his younger colleague, inspector Holm: "The only thing the police can do when the real big criminals come by is offer them protection!" Jensen incredously uses the recurring exclamation "Bagmændene!" to reference the in-joke of powerful players moving outside of the law.
In the early episodes and soft-erotica were more used than in ones, where said content was somewhat watered down to suit younger viewers. Movies focused on the satirical interplay between Jensen and Holm and Egon and Kjeld, with a frequent outburst of anger from Olsen. Olsen's long list of slurs are famous, like "social democrats!", "insane woman!", "lousy amateurs!", "cowards!", "dog heads!", "porridge peasants!", "sop!", "scumbag!", to name a few. Recurring characters in the Danish version: Egon Olsen: Gang leader, expert safecracker, brilliant but short-tempered and overdramatic Benny Frandsen: Gang member, get-away driver, handles practical stuff and always seem to float Kjeld Jensen: Gang member, tool master nervous and humble, but does on a rare occasion rise to meet any challenge Yvonne: Kjeld's bossy wife with firm plans on how to use the millions from the various plans Børge: Kjeld and Yvonne's son an impeccable part of the schemes Harry: Benny's brother, explosives expert and alcoholic Jensen: Superintendent at Copenhagen Police, somewhat disillusioned and forgotten by the brass in his basement office Holm: Detective with Copenhagen Police and with high ambitions, but somewhat naïve Mortensen: An overambitious but clumsy detective with Copenhagen Police appearing in the early films Holm-Hansen/Bang-Johansen/Hallandsen: A role with the same actor playing various villains, always on top of the social hierarchy, most also with international contacts Kongen og Knægten: A confidence trickster and his violent nephew Bøffen: Enforcer and muscleman for Hallandsen and others Hansen: Rival gang leader with theme music from Bob le flambeur The Olsen Gang have been made in Norwegian and Swedish versions too.
The films differ a bit from each other, but they follow a similar formula to the Danish films. The Norwegian remakes were, with two exceptions, directed by Knut Bohwim based on Balling and Bahs's original scripts with various degrees of adaptations to Norwegian conditions. For example, some names of the main characters were changed: Kjeld became Kjell, Yvonne became Valborg, Børge became Basse; the character of Benny's brother, D
Copenhagen is the capital and most populous city of Denmark. As of July 2018, the city has a population of 777,218, it forms the core of the wider urban area of the Copenhagen metropolitan area. Copenhagen is situated on the eastern coast of the island of Zealand; the Øresund Bridge connects the two cities by road. A Viking fishing village established in the 10th century in the vicinity of what is now Gammel Strand, Copenhagen became the capital of Denmark in the early 15th century. Beginning in the 17th century it consolidated its position as a regional centre of power with its institutions and armed forces. After suffering from the effects of plague and fire in the 18th century, the city underwent a period of redevelopment; this included construction of the prestigious district of Frederiksstaden and founding of such cultural institutions as the Royal Theatre and the Royal Academy of Fine Arts. After further disasters in the early 19th century when Horatio Nelson attacked the Dano-Norwegian fleet and bombarded the city, rebuilding during the Danish Golden Age brought a Neoclassical look to Copenhagen's architecture.
Following the Second World War, the Finger Plan fostered the development of housing and businesses along the five urban railway routes stretching out from the city centre. Since the turn of the 21st century, Copenhagen has seen strong urban and cultural development, facilitated by investment in its institutions and infrastructure; the city is the cultural and governmental centre of Denmark. Copenhagen's economy has seen rapid developments in the service sector through initiatives in information technology and clean technology. Since the completion of the Øresund Bridge, Copenhagen has become integrated with the Swedish province of Scania and its largest city, Malmö, forming the Øresund Region. With a number of bridges connecting the various districts, the cityscape is characterised by parks and waterfronts. Copenhagen's landmarks such as Tivoli Gardens, The Little Mermaid statue, the Amalienborg and Christiansborg palaces, Rosenborg Castle Gardens, Frederik's Church, many museums and nightclubs are significant tourist attractions.
The largest lake of Denmark, Arresø, lies around 27 miles northwest of the City Hall Square. Copenhagen is home to the University of Copenhagen, the Technical University of Denmark, Copenhagen Business School and the IT University of Copenhagen; the University of Copenhagen, founded in 1479, is the oldest university in Denmark. Copenhagen is home to the FC Brøndby football clubs; the annual Copenhagen Marathon was established in 1980. Copenhagen is one of the most bicycle-friendly cities in the world; the Copenhagen Metro launched in 2002 serves central Copenhagen while the Copenhagen S-train, the Lokaltog and the Coast Line network serves and connects central Copenhagen to outlying boroughs. To relieve traffic congestion, the Fehmarn Belt Fixed Link road and rail construction is planned, because the narrow 9-9.5 mile isthmus between Roskilde Fjord and Køge Bugt forms a traffic bottleneck. The Copenhagen-Ringsted Line will relieve traffic congestion in the corridor between Roskilde and Copenhagen.
Serving two million passengers a month, Copenhagen Airport, Kastrup, is the busiest airport in the Nordic countries. Copenhagen's name reflects its origin as a place of commerce; the original designation in Old Norse, from which Danish descends, was Kaupmannahǫfn, meaning "merchants' harbour". By the time Old Danish was spoken, the capital was called Køpmannæhafn, with the current name deriving from centuries of subsequent regular sound change. An exact English equivalent would be "chapman's haven". However, the English term for the city was adapted from Kopenhagen. Although the earliest historical records of Copenhagen are from the end of the 12th century, recent archaeological finds in connection with work on the city's metropolitan rail system revealed the remains of a large merchant's mansion near today's Kongens Nytorv from c. 1020. Excavations in Pilestræde have led to the discovery of a well from the late 12th century; the remains of an ancient church, with graves dating to the 11th century, have been unearthed near where Strøget meets Rådhuspladsen.
These finds indicate. Substantial discoveries of flint tools in the area provide evidence of human settlements dating to the Stone Age. Many historians believe the town dates to the late Viking Age, was founded by Sweyn I Forkbeard; the natural harbour and good herring stocks seem to have attracted fishermen and merchants to the area on a seasonal basis from the 11th century and more permanently in the 13th century. The first habitations were centred on Gammel Strand in the 11thcentury or earlier; the earliest written mention of the town was in the 12th century when Saxo Grammaticus in Gesta Danorum referred to it as Portus