Godzilla is a fictional monster, or kaiju, originating from a series of Japanese films of the same name. The character first appeared in Ishirō Honda's 1954 film Godzilla and became a worldwide pop culture icon, appearing in various media, including 32 films produced by Toho, three Hollywood films and numerous video games, comic books and television shows. Godzilla has been dubbed the King of the Monsters, a phrase first used in Godzilla, King of the Monsters!, the Americanized version of the original film. Godzilla is depicted as an enormous, prehistoric sea monster awakened and empowered by nuclear radiation. With the nuclear bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki and the Lucky Dragon 5 incident still fresh in the Japanese consciousness, Godzilla was conceived as a metaphor for nuclear weapons; as the film series expanded, some stories took on less serious undertones, portraying Godzilla as an antihero, or a lesser threat who defends humanity. With the end of the Cold War, several post-1984 Godzilla films shifted the character's portrayal to themes including Japan's forgetfulness over its imperial past, natural disasters and the human condition.
Godzilla has been featured alongside many supporting characters. It has faced human opponents such as the JSDF, or other monsters, including King Ghidorah and Gigan. Godzilla sometimes has allies, such as Rodan and Anguirus, offspring, such as Minilla and Godzilla Junior. Godzilla has fought characters from other franchises in crossover media, such as the RKO Pictures/Universal Studios movie monster King Kong, as well as various Marvel Comics characters, including S. H. I. E. L. D; the Fantastic Four and the Avengers. Gojira is a portmanteau of the Japanese words: gorira and kujira, owing to the fact that in one planning stage, Godzilla was described as "a cross between a gorilla and a whale", due to its size and aquatic origin. One popular story is that "Gojira" was the nickname of a corpulent stagehand at Toho Studio. Kimi Honda, the widow of the director, dismissed this in a 1998 BBC documentary devoted to Godzilla, "The backstage boys at Toho loved to joke around with tall stories". Godzilla's name was written in ateji as Gojira, where the kanji are used for phonetic value and not for meaning.
The Japanese pronunciation of the name is. In the Hepburn romanization system, Godzilla's name is rendered as "Gojira", whereas in the Kunrei romanization system it is rendered as "Gozira". During the development of the American version of Godzilla Raids Again, Godzilla's name was changed to "Gigantis", a move initiated by producer Paul Schreibman, who wanted to create a character distinct from Godzilla. Within the context of the Japanese films, Godzilla's exact origins vary, but it is depicted as an enormous, prehistoric sea monster awakened and empowered by nuclear radiation. Although the specific details of Godzilla's appearance have varied over the years, the overall impression has remained consistent. Inspired by the fictional Rhedosaurus created by animator Ray Harryhausen for the film The Beast from 20,000 Fathoms, Godzilla's iconic character design was conceived as that of an amphibious reptilian monster based around the loose concept of a dinosaur with an erect standing posture, scaly skin, an anthropomorphic torso with muscular arms, lobed bony plates along its back and tail, a furrowed brow.
Art director Akira Watanabe combined attributes of a Tyrannosaurus, an Iguanodon, a Stegosaurus and an alligator to form a sort of blended chimera, inspired by illustrations from an issue of Life magazine. To emphasise the monster's relationship with the atomic bomb, its skin texture was inspired by the keloid scars seen on survivors in Hiroshima; the basic design has a reptilian visage, a robust build, an upright posture, a long tail and three rows of serrated plates along the back. In the original film, the plates were added for purely aesthetic purposes, in order to further differentiate Godzilla from any other living or extinct creature. Godzilla is sometimes depicted as green in comics and movie posters, but the costumes used in the movies were painted charcoal grey with bone-white dorsal plates up until the film Godzilla 2000: Millennium. Godzilla's signature weapon is its "atomic heat beam", nuclear energy that it generates inside of its body and unleashes from its jaws in the form of a blue or red radioactive beam.
Toho's special effects department has used various techniques to render the beam, from physical gas-powered flames to hand-drawn or computer-generated fire. Godzilla is shown to possess immense physical muscularity. Haruo Nakajima, the actor who played Godzilla in the original films, was a black belt in judo and used his expertise to choreograph the battle sequences. Godzilla can breathe underwater and is described in the original film by the character Dr. Yamane as a transitional form between a marine and a terrestrial reptile. Godzilla is shown to have great vitality: it is immune to conventional weaponry thanks to its rugged hide and ability to regenerate, as a result of surviving a nuclear explosion, it cannot be destroyed by anything less powerful. Various films, television shows and games have depicted Godzilla with additional powers, such as an atomic pulse, precognition, fireballs, an electric bite, superhuman speed, laser beams emitted from its eyes and flight. Godzilla's allegiance and motivations have changed from film to film to suit the needs of the story.
Although Godzilla does not like humans, it will
Minoru Tōjō is a Japanese association football referee who officiates in the J-League, Div. 2. Since 2007 he has been an international referee. Since becoming a professional referee in 2008, Minoru has been refereeing in the Div. 2. He has officiated the 2008 AFC President's Cup group stage game between Dordoi-Dynamo Naryn and Nagacorp FC, he has refereed in the 2008 AFC Cup, officiating 3 matches. He has covered in the 2009 AFC Champions League officiating 3 games in the 2010 AFC Champions League, he as a guest referee, officiated the final game of the Polish Ekstraklasa between Legia Warsaw and Lech Poznan. International matches To date, Minoru has officiated four full internationals, as well as being a referee in the 2008 AFC U-16 Championship, he has refereed three friendlies, a 2011 Asian Cup qualification game. He refereed the FIFA World Cup 2014 Third Round Qualifier match between Singapore and Iraq on 6 September 2011, making a controversial decision where he denied Singapore a blatant penalty.
He was the referee for the Southeast Asian Games final match between Malaysia and Indonesia on 21 November 2011 and was praised for his calm refereeing of the match between the two great rivals. List of football referees WorldReferee profile Football-Lineups profile
The 42nd Air Division was a unit of the United States Air Force. It was established as the 42 Bombardment Wing on 8 February 1943; the wing first saw combat in September 1943. It was inactivated in 1991. Activated in 1943 as the 42nd Bombardment Wing and controlled Martin B-26 Marauder groups as part of Twelfth Air Force. "The wing first saw combat in the invasion of Italy, where its units flew close support missions to stop the German counterattack on the beachhead at Salerno during September 1943. As the Allied forces progressed, the 42nd took a leading part in interdicting Axis road and rail transport, in 1944, in the attacks against the monastery at Cassino. In August 1944, it supported the Allied landings in southern France; as the war drew to a close the 42nd attacked German positions along the Siegfried Line and, in support of the Allied forces in their sweep across southern Germany, bombed enemy strong points, communications and supply facilities."Reactivated an intermediate command echelon of Strategic Air Command in March 1951, the 42nd Air Division "equipped and trained its assigned units to conduct strategic air warfare using nuclear or conventional weapons anywhere in the world.
It trained and maintained air refueling assets. Tankers from units assigned to the 42nd supported the Eielson Tanker Task Force and, over the years deployed to Spain for Spanish Area Support; the division conducted numerous staff assistance visits and simulated no notice inspections, participated in exercises such as Buy None and Global Shield."Aircraft and personnel from units assigned to the division, at various times in the late 1960s and early 1970s, deployed to Southeast Asia and took part in Operation Arc Light and Operation Young Tiger missions. Subordinate units of the 42nd deployed aircraft and personnel in support of the war in Southeast Asia. Inactivated in 1991 as part of the Cold War drawdown of USAF forces. Established as the 42nd Bombardment Wing on 8 February 1943Activated on 16 February 1943 Redesignated 42nd Bombardment Wing on 31 July 1943 Redesignated 42nd Bombardment Wing, Medium on 23 October 1944 Inactivated on 25 October 1945Redesignated 42nd Air Division on 2 March 1951Organized on 10 March 1951 Discontinued on 16 June 1952Activated on 16 June 1952Inactivated on 8 January 1958Activated on 15 July 1959.
Redesignated 42nd Strategic Aerospace Division on 1 June 1962 Redesignated 42nd Air Division on 1 July 1963 Inactivated on 2 July 1969 Activated on 1 January 1970 Inactivated on 9 July 1991 Wings 2nd Bombardment Wing: 1 July 1965 – 2 July 1969. 16 June 1952 – 8 January 1958 17th Bombardment Wing: 1 July 1973 – 30 September 1975 19th Bombardment Wing: 30 June 1971 – 16 June 1988 27th Fighter-Escort Wing: 6 August 1951 – 16 June 1952. 16 June 1952 – 8 January 1958 43rd Bombardment Wing: 1–31 January 1970 68th Bombardment Wing: 30 June 1971 – 30 September 1982 97th Bombardment Wing: 1 July 1963 – 2 July 1969. 1 January 1970 – 30 June 1971. 31 July 1951 301st Air Refueling Wing: 31 March 1970 – 1 July 1973. List of United States Air Force air divisions This article incorporates pu