Sudan or the Sudan the Republic of the Sudan, is a country in Northeast Africa. It is bordered by Egypt to the north, the Red Sea to the northeast, Eritrea to the east, Ethiopia to the southeast, South Sudan to the south, the Central African Republic to the southwest, Chad to the west, Libya to the northwest, it has a population of 39 million people and occupies a total area of 1,886,068 square kilometres, making it the third-largest country in Africa. Sudan's predominant religion is Islam, its official languages are Arabic and English; the capital is Khartoum, located at the confluence of the White Nile. Since 2011, Sudan is the scene of ongoing military conflict in its regions South Kordofan and Blue Nile. Sudan's history goes back to the Pharaonic period, witnessing the kingdom of Kerma, the subsequent rule of the Egyptian New Kingdom and the rise of the kingdom of Kush, which would in turn control Egypt itself for nearly a century. After the fall of Kush the Nubians formed the three Christian kingdoms of Nobatia and Alodia, with the latter two lasting until around 1500.
Between the 14th and 15th centuries much of Sudan was settled by Arab nomads. From the 16th–19th centuries and eastern Sudan were dominated by the Funj sultanate, while Darfur ruled the west and the Ottomans the far north; this period saw Arabization. From 1820 to 1874 the entirety of Sudan was conquered by the Muhammad Ali dynasty. Between 1881 and 1885 the harsh Egyptian reign was met with a successful revolt led by the self-proclaimed Mahdi Muhammad Ahmad, resulting in the establishment of the Caliphate of Omdurman; this state was destroyed in 1898 by the British, who would govern Sudan together with Egypt. The 20th century saw the growth of Sudanese nationalism and in 1953 Britain granted Sudan self-government. Independence was proclaimed on January 1, 1956. Since independence, Sudan has been ruled by a series of unstable parliamentary governments and military regimes. Under Gaafar Nimeiry, Sudan instituted Islamic law in 1983; this exacerbated the rift between the Islamic north, the seat of the government and the animists and Christians in the south.
Differences in language and political power erupted in a civil war between government forces influenced by the National Islamic Front and the southern rebels, whose most influential faction was the Sudan People's Liberation Army concluding in the independence of South Sudan in 2011. In April 2019, following contentious protests that faced fierce resistance from the Omar al-Bashir regime, the Sudanese military, under the command of Ahmed Awad Ibn Auf, took control of the nation and established a Transitional Military Council; this move dissolved the constitution. The country's place name Sudan is a name given to a geographical region to the south of the Sahara, stretching from Western Africa to eastern Central Africa; the name derives from the Arabic bilād as-sūdān, or "the lands of the Blacks". The name is one of several toponyms sharing similar etymologies meaning "land of the blacks" or similar meanings, in reference to the dark skin of the inhabitants; the term "Sudanese" had a negative connotation in Sudan due to its association with black African slaves.
The idea of "Sudanese" nationalism goes back to the 1930s and 1940s, when it was popularized by young intellectuals. By the eighth millennium BC, people of a Neolithic culture had settled into a sedentary way of life there in fortified mudbrick villages, where they supplemented hunting and fishing on the Nile with grain gathering and cattle herding. During the fifth millennium BC, migrations from the drying Sahara brought neolithic people into the Nile Valley along with agriculture; the population that resulted from this cultural and genetic mixing developed a social hierarchy over the next centuries which became the Kingdom of Kush at 1700 BC. Anthropological and archaeological research indicate that during the predynastic period Nubia and Nagadan Upper Egypt were ethnically, culturally nearly identical, thus evolved systems of pharaonic kingship by 3300 BC; the Kingdom of Kush was an ancient Nubian state centered on the confluences of the Blue Nile and White Nile, the Atbarah River and the Nile River.
It was established after the Bronze Age collapse and the disintegration of the New Kingdom of Egypt, centered at Napata in its early phase. After King Kashta invaded Egypt in the eighth century BC, the Kushite kings ruled as pharaohs of the Twenty-fifth Dynasty of Egypt for a century before being defeated and driven out by the Assyrians. At the height of their glory, the Kushites conquered an empire that stretched from what is now known as South Kordofan all the way to the Sinai. Pharaoh Piye attempted to expand the empire into the Near East, but was thwarted by the Assyrian king Sargon II; the Kingdom of Kush is mentioned in the Bible as having saved the Israelites from the wrath of the Assyrians, although disease among the besiegers was the main reason for the failure to take the city. The war that took place between Pharaoh Taharqa and the Assyrian king Sennacherib was a decisive event in western history, with the Nubians being defeated in their attempts to gain a foothold in the Near East by Assyria.
Sennacherib's successor Esarhaddon went further, invaded Egypt itself, deposing Taharqa and driving the Nubians from Egypt entirely. Taharqa fled back to his homeland. Egypt became an Assyrian colony.
Church of Our Lady Mary of Zion
The Church of Our Lady Mary of Zion is an Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church in Ethiopia. It is claimed to contain the Ark of the Covenant, it is located in the town of Tigray. The original church is believed to have been built during the reign of Ezana the first Christian ruler of the Kingdom of Axum, during the 4th century AD, has been rebuilt several times since then. Since its founding during the episcopacy of Frumentius the Church of Mary of Zion has been destroyed and rebuilt at least twice, its first putative destruction occurred at the hands of Queen Gudit during the 10th century. Its second, destruction occurred in the 16th century at the hands of Ahmad ibn Ibrihim al-Ghazi, after which it was rebuilt by the Emperor Gelawdewos further rebuilt and enlarged by Fasilides during the 17th century. St. Mary of Zion was the traditional place, and indeed, if an Emperor was not crowned at Axum, or did not at least have his coronation ratified by a special service at St. Mary of Zion, he could not be referred to by the title of "Atse".
In the 1950s the Emperor Haile Selassie built a new modern Cathedral, open to both men and women next to the old Cathedral of Our Lady Mary of Zion. The old church remains accessible only to men, as Mary, symbolized by the Ark of the Covenant resting in its chapel, is the only woman allowed within its compound; the church is a significant center of pilgrimage for the Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church during the main Festival of Tsion Mariam on 30 November. St. Mary of Zion claims to contain the original Ark of the Covenant; the Ark was moved to the Chapel of the Tablet adjacent to the old church because a divine'heat' from the Tablets had cracked the stones of its previous sanctum. Emperor Haile Selassie's wife, Empress Menen, paid for the construction of the new chapel. According to tradition, the Ark came to Ethiopia with Menelik I after he visited his father King Solomon. Only the guardian monk may view the Ark, in accordance with the Biblical accounts of the dangers of doing so for non-Kohanim.
This lack of accessibility, questions about the account as a whole, has led foreign scholars to express doubt about the veracity of the claim. The guardian monk is appointed for life by his predecessor. If the incumbent guardian dies without naming a successor the monks of the monastery hold an election to select the new guardian; the guardian is confined to the chapel of the Ark of the Covenant for the rest of his life, praying before it and offering incense. The claims concerning the ark of the covenant have appeared in many documentary series such as History channel's Ancient Aliens, it has been the subject of books such as The Sign and the Seal: The Quest for the Lost Ark of the Covenant by Graham Hancock, along with two books written by Stuart Munro-Hay entitled The Ark of the Covenant: The True Story of the Greatest Relic of Antiquity and The Quest for the Ark of the Covenant: The True History of the Tablets of Moses, released in 2000 and 2006 respectively. Most A Prophetic Look at Ethiopian Jews from a Nubian Perspective: Their Connection to the Ark of the Covenant was released in 2014 by an independent author known under the pen name of "Queen of Sheba".
Tekle Giyorgis I, in the churchyard Stuart Munro-Hay, The Quest for the Ark of the Covenant, Ch. 6
Bale Province, Ethiopia
Bale is the name of two former polities located in the southeastern part of modern Ethiopia. The earlier Bale was a Muslim tributary kingdom to the Emperor of Ethiopia during the Solomonic dynasty, located between Ifat and Hadiya. Taddesse Tamrat locates Bale south of the Shebelle River, which separated the kingdom from Dawaro to the north and Adal to the northeast. Ulrich Braukämper, after discussing the evidence, states that this former dependency "occupied an area in the northeast of the province, named after it, between the mountain range of Urgoma and the eastern Wabi Bend."This kingdom's earliest surviving mention is in the Soldiers Songs of Emperor Amda Seyon I. The historian Chihab al-Umari described its size as 20 days travel by six days travel, its lands were more fertile and with a better climate than its Muslim neighbors, it had an army of "many" foot soldiers. While the Muslim Kingdom of Bale was the first territory under the Ethiopian Emperor Imam that Ahmad Gragn conquered after the Battle of Shimbra Kure, Emperor Geladewos reconquered it after the Imam's death.
However, the territory became the possession of the Oromo people, who had begun settling there as early as the Mudana gadaa. Ethiopian efforts to reconquer Bale ended when Fasil, brother of Emperor Sarsa Dengel, was killed with all of his people by the Dawe Oromo. Following a failed rebellion against his brother in 1567, Fasil had fled there believing that the southern boundaries would serve him as a power base. Sarsa Dengel, during his successful campaign against the ruler of Harar, advanced as far as the Shabelle, but the Oromo had meanwhile migrated further north into the Amhara ruled empire behind his back. Although the Royal chronicle of Emperor Susenyos reports that Dagano, the governor of Bale had paid tribute to Emperor Yaqob, Braukämper concludes that "from the entirety of the historical situation that Ethiopia's claim to sovereignty in the seventeenth century was purely theoretical." The Bale, named for the earlier one, was a province in the south-eastern part of Ethiopia, with its capital city at Bale Robe.
It was created in 1960 out of the province of Harerge south of the Shebelle. The lowlands of both Bale and Harerge encompassed Ethiopia's portion of the Ogaden. Beginning in 1963, Waqo Gutu led a rebellion; the Ethiopian military was not able to put it down until 1969. Waqo Gutu did not offer his surrender until February of the following year, afterward was granted a commission in the Ethiopian Army. With the adoption of the constitution in 1995, Bale was divided between the Oromia and Somali Regions of Ethiopia. Bale Zone
The Zemene Mesafint was a period in Ethiopian history between the mid-18th and mid-19th centuries when the country was de facto divided within itself into several regions with no effective central authority. It was a period in which the Emperors from the Solomonic dynasty were reduced to little more than figureheads confined to the capital city of Gondar; the most powerful lords during the Zemene Mesafint were of the Yejju tribe of the Oromo people and were Ras Ali I, Ras Aligaz, Ras Wolde Selassie, Ras Gugsa and Ras Ali II. These were collectively called the Wara Sheh rulers. Other regional lords included Ras Hailu Yosedeq, Dejazmach Wube Hailemariam and King Sahle Selassie of Shewa. However, the Yejju lords did have hegemony over the other lords of Ethiopia; the lords fought against each other for aggrandisement of their territory and to become the guardians of the kings of kings in Gonder, the capital of the empire at the time. The monarchy continued only in name because of its sacred character.
This nominal but divinely ordained monarchy preserved the dynasty from actual extinction. Traditionally, the beginning of this period is set on the date Ras Mikael Sehul deposed Emperor Iyoas, its end to Kassa's coronation as Emperor Tewodros II, having defeated in battle all of his rivals; some historians date the murder of Iyasu the Great, the resultant decline in the prestige of the dynasty, as the beginning of this period. Others date it to the beginning of Iyoas's reign. During the Zemene Mesafint, various lords came to abuse their positions by making Emperors and encroached upon the succession of the dynasty, by candidates among the nobility itself: for example, on the death of Emperor Tewoflos in 1711, the chief nobles of Ethiopia feared that the cycle of vengeance that had characterised the reigns of Tewoflos and Tekle Haymanot I would continue if a member of the Solomonic dynasty were picked for the throne, so they selected one of their own, Yostos, to be King of Kings. However, the tenure of Yostos from 1711 to 1716 was brief, the throne came into the hands of the Solomonic house once again.
The reign of Iyasu II had brought the empire once again to disaster. He ascended the throne as a child, allowing his mother, Empress Mentewab to play a major role as his Regent from 1723 to 1730. Mentewab had herself crowned as co-ruler in 1730, becoming the first woman to be crowned in this manner in Ethiopian history. Beyond the capital of Gondar, the Empire suffered from regional conflict between nationalities that been part of the Empire for hundreds of years—the Agaw, Amharans and Tigreans—and the Oromo newcomers. Mentewab's attempt to strengthen ties between the monarchy and the Oromo by arranging the marriage of her son to the daughter of an Oromo chieftain from Wollo backfired in the long run, her attempt to continue in this role after the death of her son into the reign of her grandson Iyoas brought her into conflict with Wubit, Iyasu's widow, who believed that it was her turn to serve as regent. When Iyoas assumed the throne upon his father's sudden death, the aristocrats of Gondar were stunned to find that he preferred to speak in the Oromo language rather than in Amharic, favored his mother's Yejju relatives over the Qwarans of his grandmothers family.
Iyoas further increased the favour given to the Oromo. On the death of the Ras of Amhara, he attempted to promote his uncle Lubo governor of that province, but the outcry led his adviser Wolde Leul to convince him to change his mind; the conflict between these two queens led to Mentewab summoning her relatives with their armed supporters from Qwara to Gondar to support her. Wubit responded by summoning their considerable forces from Yejju. Fearing that the power struggle between the Qwarans and the Yejju led by the Emperor's mother Wubit would erupt into an armed conflict, the nobility summoned the powerful Ras Mikael Sehul to mediate between the two camps, he arrived and shrewdly manoeuvred to sideline the two queens and their supporters making a bid for power for himself. Mikael settled soon as the leader of Amharic-Tigrean camp of the struggle. Iyaos' reign becomes a narrative of the struggle between the powerful Ras Mikael Sehul and the Oromo relatives of Iyoas. Iyoas had little say, as he inherited an empty Imperial treasury and depended on his Oromo relations.
As he favored Oromo leaders like Fasil, his relations with Mikael Sehul deteriorated. Mikael Sehul deposed the Emperor Iyoas. One week Mikael Sehul had him killed. From this point forward the Empire devolved more in the hands of the great nobles and military commanders. An aged and infirm imperial uncle prince was enthroned as Emperor Yohannes II. Ras Mikael soon had him murdered, underage Tekle Haymanot II was elevated to the throne. Mikael Sehul was defeated in the Three battles of Sarbakusa and the triumvirate of Fasil, Goshu of Amhara and Wand Bewossen of Begemder placed their own emperor on the throne. More emperors followed as these three fell from power and were replaced by other strongmen, who elevated and removed emperors.
The Ethiopian calendar or Eritrean calendar is the principal calendar used in Ethiopia and serves as the liturgical year for Christians in Eritrea and Ethiopia belonging to the Eritrean Orthodox Tewahedo Church, Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church, Eastern Catholic Churches, the Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria, Ethiopian-Eritrean Evangelicalism. It is a solar calendar which in turn derives from the Egyptian calendar, but like the Julian calendar, it adds a leap day every four years without exception, begins the year on August 29 or August 30 in the Julian calendar. A gap of 7–8 years between the Ethiopian and Gregorian calendars results from an alternative calculation in determining the date of the Annunciation. Like the Coptic calendar, the Ethiopic calendar has 12 months of 30 days plus 5 or 6 epagomenal days, which comprise a thirteenth month; the Ethiopian months begin on the same days as those of the Coptic calendar, but their names are in Ge'ez. A 6th epagomenal day is added every 4 years, without exception, on August 29 of the Julian calendar, 6 months before the corresponding Julian leap day.
Thus the first day of the Ethiopian year, 1 Mäskäräm, for years between 1900 and 2099, is September 11. However, it falls on September 12 in years before the Gregorian leap year. Enkutatash is the word for the Ethiopian New Year in Amharic, the official language of Ethiopia, while it is called Ri'se Awde Amet in Ge'ez, the term preferred by the Ethiopian & Eritrean Orthodox Tewahedo Churchs, it occurs on September 11th in the Gregorian Calendar. The Ethiopian Calendar Year 1998 Amätä Məhrät began on the Gregorian Calendar Year on September 11th, 2005. However, the Ethiopian Years 1992 and 1996 began on the Gregorian Dates of'September 12th 1999' and'2003' respectively; this date correspondence applies for the Gregorian years 1900 to 2099. The Ethiopian leap year is every four without exception, while Gregorian centurial years are only leap years when divisible by 400; as the Gregorian year 2000 is a leap year, the current correspondence lasts two centuries instead. The start of the Ethiopian year falls on August 30th.
This date corresponds to the Old-Style Julian Calendar. This deviation between the Julian and the Gregorian Calendar will increase with the passing of the time. You can observe the real start date in the future centuries in a Gregorian to Ethiopian Date Converter. To indicate the year and followers of the Eritrean churches today use the Incarnation Era, which dates from the Annunciation or Incarnation of Jesus on March 25, AD 9, as calculated by Annianus of Alexandria c. 400. Meanwhile, Europeans adopted the calculations made by Dionysius Exiguus in AD 525 instead, which placed the Annunciation 8 years earlier than had Annianus; this causes the Ethiopian year number to be 8 years less than the Gregorian year number from January 1 until September 10 or 11 7 years less for the remainder of the Gregorian year. In the past, a number of other eras for numbering years were widely used in Ethiopia and the Kingdom of Aksum; the most important era – once used by the Eastern Christianity, still used by the Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria – was the Era of Martyrs known as the Diocletian Era, or the era of Diocletian and the Martyrs, whose first year began on August 29, 284.
Respective to the Gregorian and Julian New Year's Days, 31⁄2 to 4 months the difference between the Era of Martyrs and the Anni Domini is 285 years. This is because in AD 525, Dionysius Exiguus decided to add 15 Metonic cycles to the existing 13 Metonic cycles of the Diocletian Era to obtain an entire 532 year medieval Easter cycle, whose first cycle ended with the year Era of Martyrs 247 equal to year DXXXI, it is because 532 is the product of the Metonic cycle of 19 years and the solar cycle of 28 years. Around AD 400, an Alexandrine monk called Panodoros fixed the Alexandrian Era, the date of creation, on 29 August 5493 BC. After the 6th century AD, the era was used by Ethiopian chronologists; the twelfth 532 year-cycle of this era began on 29 August AD 360, so 4×19 years after the Era of Martyrs. Bishop Anianos preferred the Annunciation style as 25 March, thus he shifted the Panodoros era by about six months, to begin on 25 March 5492 BC. In the Ethiopian calendar this was equivalent to 15 Magabit 5501 B.
C.. The Anno Mundi era remained in usage until the late 19th century; the 4 year leap-year cycle is associated with the four Evangelists: the first year after an Ethiopian leap year is named the John-year, followed by the Matthew-year, the Mark-year. The year with the 6th epagomenal day is traditionally designated as the Luke-year. There are no exceptions to the 4 year leap-year cycle, like the Julian calendar but unlike the Gregorian calendar; these dates are valid only from March 1900 to February 2100. This is because 1900 and 2100 are not leap years in the Gregorian calendar, while they are still leap year
Dire Dawa is one of two chartered cities in Ethiopia. It is divided administratively into two woredas, the city proper and the non-urban woreda of Gurgura. Dire Dawa lies in the eastern part of the nation, on the Dechatu River, at the foot of a ring of cliffs, described as "somewhat like a cluster of tea-leaves in the bottom of a slop-basin." The western outskirts of the city lie on a tributary of the Dechatu River. At a latitude and longitude of 9°36′N 41°52′E, Dire Dawa is the second largest city in Ethiopia; the city is an industrial centre, home to several markets and the Aba Tenna Dejazmach Yilma International Airport. The city was first founded and settled by the Afranqallo Oromo and now is home of many different people from all over Ethiopia; the region of Dire Dawa was populated by human beings in Mesolithic times, as revealed by rock paintings and Middle-Stone-Age artifacts in the cave of Porc-Épic, only a few kilometers from Dire Dawa. The city of Dire Dawa was called Dir Dhabe and used to be part of Adal Sultanate during the medieval times and was settled by the Gurgure Dir clan, a major Somali tribe and after the weakening of Adal Sultanate, the Oromos took advantage and were able to penetrate through the city and settle into these areas and assimilate some of the local Gurgura clan.
The present-day town of Dire Dawa (, however, is of recent origin. It owes its foundation to a technical problem: when it became impossible to lay the Addis Ababa-Djibouti Railway via Harar because of the steep access to the town, atse Menelik II accepted that the first part of the line might finish at a village at the foot of the mountains, which should be named Addis Harar; the railway reached this location on 24 December 1902, a date which may be considered the day of Dire Dawa's foundation. The new name, did not win recognition. In the long run, the local name Dire Dawa was accepted. Dire Dawa most derives from oromo Dire dhawa and popularly etymologizes in its Amharic form as "hill of uncultivated land". For financial and diplomatic reasons the railway was not continued until 1909 and the final inauguration of the whole line from Djibouti to Addis Ababa-again delayed by the revolution of 1916-only took place on 7 Jun 1917. During all this time, Dire Dawa was the town profited much and became a "boom city", attracting most of the trade which passed through Harar.
By 1902 the Ethiopian government, anticipating the future economic importance of Dire Dawa, had transferred the customs station for trade with the Red Sea from Gildessa to Dire Dawa. Dire Dawa developed into two settlements separated by the Dechatu River, dry for most of the year and became a torrent only when it rained; the north-western part of the town was planned and constructed regularly by the engineers of the railway company. At first, this part of the town housed the employees of the railway company, but it attracted, besides the French Greeks, other Europeans and Arabs, who opened shops and hotels and founded some industry as well. In 1909 the French Capuchin Mission settled in Dire Dawa. At that time Dire Dawa looked like a French town; the other part of the town, southeast of the river, concentrated around the market and was inhabited by Ethiopian, Somali and a few Arab traders. In September 1916 the fleeing troops of lij Iyasu took hold of the town. Though lij Iyasu's governor there, the Syrian Hasib al-Idlibi, assured their security, 400 Europeans left the town and the rail traffic had to be suspended.
After the battle of Maeso, the governmental troops from Addis Ababa re-established a regular administration. During the 1920s, the south-eastern part of the town started to develop, its inhabitants were Somali and Oromo, the other Ethiopians playing only a minor role. The population here grew to 3,000, while that of the whole town numbered 20,000. Between the two World Wars, two hospitals were established in Dire Dawa, one by the railway company and another in 1934 by the government. Education on a primary level was provided by a government school, a Catholic mission school and several schools for the different foreign communities in the town. Dire Dawa's first governor was Ato Mersha Nahusenay; the governor of the strategic village of Gildessa and its environs, Mersha was instrumental in the construction of the first railway and establishment of the railway city. The imperial railway company played a key role in the early development of the city Gezira, under the authority of the Ethiopian government.
The original failed company was reörganized as the joint-government Franco-Ethiopian Railway in 1908 and, after a period of financial negotiation and recapitalization, construction began anew, linking the city with the Ethiopian capital Addis Ababa in 1917. The Dire Dawa-Harar road was improved in 1928. In 1931, the Bank of Ethiopia opened its first branch in the city and, a generation the writer C. F. Rey described the city as the most "advanced" urban center in the area, with good roads, electric lights, piped water. On 9 May 1936 Dire Dawa was occupied by Italian troops coming from Harar, after Somali troops from Djibouti had prevented looting during the period of interregnum. Badoglio and Graziani celebrated their meeting on the railway station of Dire Daw
Dek Island is the biggest island on Lake Tana in Ethiopia. It is administratively included in the Bahir Dar Zuria woreda of the Mirab Gojjam Zone. To the southeast of Dek is the much smaller Daga Island, it is home to the best-known being Narga Selassie. Dek is accessible by the ferry. Hormuzd Rassam mentions visiting the island in February 1866, describing that at the time it contained four villages with a church attached to each one. Rassam repeats the story told to him how Dejazmach Kassa captured Dek in a single assault; when R. E. Cheesman visited Dek in 1932 and 1933, he found that it was not "monasterial", but with five churches each with a small village nearby. Cheesman continues his description: Three-quarters of the island is given up to plough, the chief crops being dagusa and teff, both dwarf millets. Plough-land is divided into plots of about an acre, separated from each other by narrow hedges of scrub forest and big trees; the base of the island is scoriaceous lava in cubes, which are exposed all around the shore and washed by the waves, identified as vesicular olivine basalt.
On the top is a thin layer of red soil derived from the decay of the basalts. The fauna consists chiefly of butterflies that can fly the 5 miles. Animals, as may be expected, are absent, though I trapped two kinds of rat. Mosquitoes on the islands were bad. Based on the 2007 national census conducted by the Central Statistical Agency of Ethiopia, the kebele which includes Dek has a total population of 4,816, of whom 2,503 are men and 2,313 women; the 1994 national census reported a total population for this woreda of 5,099 people in 1,028 households, of whom 2,683 were men and 2,416 were women