Diego María de la Concepción Juan Nepomuceno Estanislao de la Rivera y Barrientos Acosta y Rodríguez, known as Diego Rivera was a prominent Mexican painter. His large frescoes helped establish the Mexican mural movement in Mexican art, between 1922 and 1953, Rivera painted murals among others in Mexico City, Cuernavaca, San Francisco and New York City. In 1931, a exhibition of his works was held at the Museum of Modern Art in New York. Rivera had a marriage with fellow Mexican artist Frida Kahlo. Rivera was born in Guanajuato, Mexico, to a well-to-do family, Diego had a twin brother named Carlos, who died two years after they were born. Rivera was said to have Converso ancestry, Rivera wrote in 1935, My Jewishness is the dominant element in my life. Rivera began drawing at the age of three, a year after his brothers death. He had been drawing on the walls. His parents, rather than punishing him, installed chalkboards and canvas on the walls, as an adult, he married Angelina Beloff in 1911, and she gave birth to a son, Diego.
Maria Vorobieff-Stebelska gave birth to a daughter named Marika in 1918 or 1919 when Rivera was married to Angelina and he married his second wife, Guadalupe Marín, in June 1922, with whom he had two daughters and Guadalupe. He was still married when he met art student Frida Kahlo and they married on August 21,1929 when he was 42 and she was 22. Their mutual infidelities and his violent temper led to divorce in 1939, Rivera married Emma Hurtado, his agent since 1946, on July 29,1955, one year after Kahlos death. His mural Dreams of a Sunday in the Alameda depicted Ignacio Ramírez holding a sign which read and this work caused a furor, but Rivera refused to remove the inscription. The painting was not shown for nine years – until Rivera agreed to remove the inscription. He stated, To affirm God does not exist, I do not have to hide behind Don Ignacio Ramírez, I am an atheist, from the age of ten, Rivera studied art at the Academy of San Carlos in Mexico City. He was sponsored to study in Europe by Teodoro A.
Dehesa Méndez. In those years, Paris was witnessing the beginning of Cubism in paintings by such eminent painters as Pablo Picasso, Georges Braque, from 1913 to 1917, Rivera enthusiastically embraced this new school of art. Around 1917, inspired by Paul Cézannes paintings, Rivera shifted toward Post-Impressionism with simple forms and his paintings began to attract attention, and he was able to display them at several exhibitions
San Francisco City Hall
San Francisco City Hall is the seat of government for the City and County of San Francisco, California. The structures dome is taller than that of the United States Capitol by 42 feet, the present building replaced an earlier City Hall that was destroyed during the 1906 earthquake, which was two blocks from the present one. It was bounded by Larkin Street, McAllister Street, and City Hall Avenue, largely where the current Public Library and U. N. Plaza stand today. The principal architect was Arthur Brown, Jr. of Bakewell & Brown, whose attention to the finishing details extended to the doorknobs, browns blueprints of the building are preserved at the Bancroft Library at the University of California, Berkeley. Brown designed the San Francisco War Memorial Opera House, Veterans Building, Temple Emanuel, Coit Tower, the buildings vast open space is more than 500,000 square feet and occupying two full city blocks. It is 390 ft between Van Ness Avenue and Polk Street, and 273 ft between Grove and McAllister Streets and its dome, which owes much to Mansarts Baroque domes of the Val-de-Grâce and Les Invalides in Paris, rises 307.5 ft above the Civic Center Historic District.
It is 19 ft higher than the United States Capitol, and has a diameter of 112 ft, resting upon 4 x 50 ton and 4 x 20 ton girders, each 9 ft deep and 60 ft. The building as a whole contains 7,900 tons of steel from the American Bridge Company of Ambridge. It is faced with Madera County granite on the exterior, and Indiana sandstone within, together with finish marbles from Alabama, Vermont, much of the statuary is by Henri Crenier. The Rotunda is a space and the upper levels are public. Opposite the grand staircase, on the floor, is the office of the Mayor. A bust of former county supervisor Harvey Milk, who was assassinated in the building was unveiled on May 22,2008, MAYOR1931 The words were written by the previous Mayor Edward Robeson Taylor, and dedicated by Mayor James Rolph. The medallions in the vaults of the Rotunda are of Equality, Strength, Learning and, as memorialized in the South Light Court display, Progress. The current City Hall building is a replacement for a building which was completed in 1899 after 27 years of planning.
The original city hall was a larger building which contained a smaller extension which contained the citys Hall of Records. The building was destroyed in the 1906 San Francisco earthquake, after Arthur Brown Juniors design was selected, construction started in 1913 and was completed by 1915, in time for the Exposition. The main rotunda had served as the location of prominent state funerals. General Fredrick Funston, hero of the Spanish–American War, Philippine–American War, joe DiMaggio and Marilyn Monroe were married at City Hall in 1954
A train is a form of rail transport consisting of a series of vehicles that usually runs along a rail track to transport cargo or passengers. Motive power is provided by a locomotive or individual motors in self-propelled multiple units. Although historically steam propulsion dominated, the most common forms are diesel and electric locomotives. Other energy sources include horses, engine or water-driven rope or wire winch, pneumatics, the word train comes from the Old French trahiner, from the Latin trahere pull, draw. There are various types of trains that are designed for particular purposes, a train may consist of a combination of one or more locomotives and attached railroad cars, or a self-propelled multiple unit. The first trains were rope-hauled, gravity powered or pulled by horses, from the early 19th century almost all were powered by steam locomotives. A passenger train is one which includes passenger-carrying vehicles which can often be very long, one notable and growing long-distance train category is high-speed rail.
In order to much faster operation over 500 km/h, innovative Maglev technology has been researched for years. In most countries, such as the United Kingdom, the distinction between a tramway and a railway is precise and defined in law, a freight train uses freight cars to transport goods or materials. Freight and passengers may be carried in the train in a mixed consist. Rail cars and machinery used for maintenance and repair of tracks, etc. are termed maintenance of way equipment, dedicated trains may be used to provide support services to stations along a train line, such as garbage or revenue collection. There are various types of trains that are designed for particular purposes, a train can consist of a combination of one or more locomotives and attached railroad cars, or a self-propelled multiple unit. Trains can be hauled by horses, pulled by a cable, special kinds of trains running on corresponding special railways are atmospheric railways, high-speed railways, rubber-tired underground and cog railways. A passenger train may consist of one or several locomotives and coaches, alternatively, a train may consist entirely of passenger carrying coaches, some or all of which are powered as a multiple unit.
In many parts of the world, particularly the Far East and Europe, freight trains are composed of wagons or trucks rather than carriages, though some parcel and mail trains are outwardly more like passenger trains. Trains can be mixed, comprising both passenger accommodation and freight vehicles, special trains are used for track maintenance, in some places, this is called maintenance of way. A train with a locomotive attached at each end is described as top and tailed, where a second locomotive is attached temporarily to assist a train up steep banks or grades it is referred to as banking in the UK, or helper service in North America. Recently, many loaded trains in the United States have been made up one or more locomotives in the middle or at the rear of the train
The Pacific Ocean is the largest and deepest of the Earths oceanic divisions. It extends from the Arctic Ocean in the north to the Southern Ocean in the south and is bounded by Asia and Australia in the west, the Mariana Trench in the western North Pacific is the deepest point in the world, reaching a depth of 10,911 metres. Both the center of the Water Hemisphere and the Western Hemisphere are in the Pacific Ocean, the oceans current name was coined by Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan during the Spanish circumnavigation of the world in 1521, as he encountered favourable winds on reaching the ocean. He called it Mar Pacífico, which in both Portuguese and Spanish means peaceful sea, important human migrations occurred in the Pacific in prehistoric times. Long-distance trade developed all along the coast from Mozambique to Japan and therefore knowledge, extended to the Indonesian islands but apparently not Australia. By at least 878 when there was a significant Islamic settlement in Canton much of trade was controlled by Arabs or Muslims.
In 219 BC Xu Fu sailed out into the Pacific searching for the elixir of immortality, from 1404 to 1433 Zheng He led expeditions into the Indian Ocean. The east side of the ocean was discovered by Spanish explorer Vasco Núñez de Balboa in 1513 after his expedition crossed the Isthmus of Panama and he named it Mar del Sur because the ocean was to the south of the coast of the isthmus where he first observed the Pacific. Later, Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan sailed the Pacific East to West on a Castilian expedition of world circumnavigation starting in 1519, Magellan called the ocean Pacífico because, after sailing through the stormy seas off Cape Horn, the expedition found calm waters. The ocean was often called the Sea of Magellan in his honor until the eighteenth century, sailing around and east of the Moluccas, between 1525 and 1527, Portuguese expeditions discovered the Caroline Islands, the Aru Islands, and Papua New Guinea. In 1542–43 the Portuguese reached Japan, in 1564, five Spanish ships consisting of 379 explorers crossed the ocean from Mexico led by Miguel López de Legazpi and sailed to the Philippines and Mariana Islands.
The Manila galleons operated for two and a half centuries linking Manila and Acapulco, in one of the longest trade routes in history, Spanish expeditions discovered Tuvalu, the Marquesas, the Cook Islands, the Solomon Islands, and the Admiralty Islands in the South Pacific. In the 16th and 17th century Spain considered the Pacific Ocean a Mare clausum—a sea closed to other naval powers, as the only known entrance from the Atlantic the Strait of Magellan was at times patrolled by fleets sent to prevent entrance of non-Spanish ships. On the western end of the Pacific Ocean the Dutch threatened the Spanish Philippines, Spain sent expeditions to the Pacific Northwest reaching Vancouver Island in southern Canada, and Alaska. The French explored and settled Polynesia, and the British made three voyages with James Cook to the South Pacific and Australia and the North American Pacific Northwest, one of the earliest voyages of scientific exploration was organized by Spain in the Malaspina Expedition of 1789–1794.
It sailed vast areas of the Pacific, from Cape Horn to Alaska and the Philippines, New Zealand and the South Pacific. Growing imperialism during the 19th century resulted in the occupation of much of Oceania by other European powers, and later, Japan, in Oceania, France got a leading position as imperial power after making Tahiti and New Caledonia protectorates in 1842 and 1853 respectively. After navy visits to Easter Island in 1875 and 1887, Chilean navy officer Policarpo Toro managed to negotiate an incorporation of the island into Chile with native Rapanui in 1888, by occupying Easter Island, Chile joined the imperial nations
1939 New York World's Fair
Many countries around the world participated in it, and over 44 million people attended its exhibits in two seasons. The NYWF of 1939–1940 was the first exposition to be based on the future, with a slogan of Dawn of a New Day. To its visitors the Fair will say, Here are the materials and these are the tools with which the World of Tomorrow must be made. They are all interesting and much effort has been expended to lay them before you in an interesting way, familiarity with today is the best preparation for the future. Within six months of the Fairs opening, the Second World War would begin, in 1935, at the height of the Great Depression, a group of New York City businessmen decided to create an international exposition to lift the city and the country out of depression. Not long after, these men formed the New York Worlds Fair Corporation, the NYWFC elected former chief of police Grover Whalen as the president of their committee. This event turned the area into a City park after the exposition closed, edward Bernays directed public relations of the fair in 1939, which he called democricity.
Promotion of this event took many forms. Howard Hughes flew a special Worlds Fair flight around the world to promote the fair in 1938, on April 30,1939, a very hot Sunday, the fair had its grand opening, with 206,000 people in attendance. The April 30 date coincided with the 150th anniversary of George Washingtons inauguration, in Lower Manhattan, although many of the pavilions and other facilities were not quite ready for this opening, it was put on with pomp and great celebration. David Sarnoff, president of RCA and an advocate of television. On April 30,1939, the ceremony and President Roosevelts speech were seen on black. NBC used the event to inaugurate regularly scheduled broadcasts in New York City over their station W2XBS. An estimated 1,000 people viewed the Roosevelt telecast on about 200 television sets scattered throughout the New York metropolitan area. In order to convince visitors that the television sets were not a trick. As part of the exhibit at the RCA pavilion, visitors could see themselves on television, there were television demonstrations at the General Electric and Westinghouse pavilions.
During this formal introduction at the fair, television became available for public purchase at various stores in the New York City area. After Albert Einstein gave a speech that discussed cosmic rays, the lights were ceremonially lit
Franklin D. Roosevelt
Franklin Delano Roosevelt, commonly known as FDR, was an American statesman and political leader who served as the 32nd President of the United States from 1933 until his death in 1945. A Democrat, he won a record four presidential elections and emerged as a figure in world events during the mid-20th century. He directed the United States government during most of the Great Depression and he is often rated by scholars as one of the three greatest U. S. Presidents, along with George Washington and Abraham Lincoln. Roosevelt was born in 1882 to an old, prominent Dutch family from Dutchess County and he attended the elite educational institutions of Groton School, Harvard College, and Columbia Law School. At age 23 in 1905, he married Eleanor Roosevelt, and he entered politics in 1910, serving in the New York State Senate, and as Assistant Secretary of the Navy under President Woodrow Wilson. In 1920, Roosevelt was presidential candidate James M. Coxs running mate and he was in office from 1929 to 1933 and served as a reform governor, promoting the enactment of programs to combat the depression besetting the United States at the time.
In the 1932 presidential election, Roosevelt defeated incumbent Republican president Herbert Hoover in a landslide to win the presidency, Roosevelt took office while in the United States was in the midst of the worst economic crisis in its history. Energized by his victory over polio, FDR relied on his persistent optimism and activism to renew the national spirit. He created numerous programs to support the unemployed and farmers, and to labor union growth while more closely regulating business. His support for the repeal of Prohibition in 1933 added to his popularity, the economy improved rapidly from 1933–37, but relapsed into a deep recession in 1937–38. The bipartisan Conservative Coalition that formed in 1937 prevented his packing the Supreme Court, when the war began and unemployment ended, conservatives in Congress repealed the two major relief programs, the WPA and CCC. However, they kept most of the regulations on business, along with several smaller programs, major surviving programs include the Securities and Exchange Commission, the Wagner Act, the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation and Social Security.
His goal was to make America the Arsenal of Democracy, which would supply munitions to the Allies, in March 1941, with Congressional approval, provided Lend-Lease aid to Britain and China. He supervised the mobilization of the U. S. economy to support the war effort, as an active military leader, Roosevelt implemented a war strategy on two fronts that ended in the defeat of the Axis Powers and initiate the development of the worlds first atomic bomb. His work influenced the creation of the United Nations. Roosevelts physical health declined during the war years, and he died 11 weeks into his fourth term. One of the oldest Dutch families in New York State, the Roosevelts distinguished themselves in other than politics. One ancestor, Isaac Roosevelt, had served with the New York militia during the American Revolution, Roosevelt attended events of the New York society Sons of the American Revolution, and joined the organization while he was president
Arthur Brown Jr.
Arthur Brown Jr. was a prominent American architect, based in San Francisco and designer of many of its landmarks. Brown went to Paris and graduated from the École des Beaux-Arts in 1901, attending the atelier of Victor Laloux, Brown designed the citys War Memorial Opera House and Veterans Building, the former in collaboration with G. Albert Lansburgh. Brown was meticulously trained in the rigorous Beaux-Arts tradition, and in the City Hall project his attention extended to the smallest details of fixtures, floor patterning. In addition to their well-known monumental works and Brown designed several homes in the Arts and Crafts style championed by Maybeck. Early among them were two redwood framed double houses for Stanford University in 1908, and the fraternity house they designed de novo. They designed additions to Ernest Coxheads 1893 Beta Theta Pi house they had lived in as undergraduates, the firm went on to design a series of familiar San Francisco landmarks, and many buildings at Stanford University, before Brown dissolved the partnership in 1927.
For contractual reasons many buildings at Stanford through the 1930s continued to be credited to both and Brown designed the Byzantine-inspired Temple Emmanuel at Lake St. and Arguello Blvd. in San Francisco, and the Pasadena City Hall. Most of Browns San Francisco works employed a stripped-down classicism, the poured-concrete Art Moderne Coit Tower, that crowns Telegraph Hill is an important Modernist landmark in the Bay Area. Coit Tower was the site of some of the first public works murals executed under the Public Works Administration, the primitive nature of Coit Tower would lend itself better to that sort of thing than other public buildings, was Arthur Browns first reaction to the project. Diego Rivera included Brown among the designers and craftsmen in his mural of The Making of a Fresco Showing the Building of a City. In Washington, D. C. Brown designed the Interstate Commerce Commission Building, its near-twin the Customs Department building, all three form part of the Federal Triangle, the largest construction project undertaken by the US Federal government prior to The Pentagon.
Preliminary designs were begun in 1927, with construction in the Depression years between 1932 and 1934, the new buildings were to be designed to reflect the dignity and power of the nation. Browns last works were primarily at UC Berkeley, where Brown served as campus planner and his principal buildings there include Sproul Hall, the Bancroft Library, and the Cyclotron Building, commissioned by Ernest Lawrence and J. Robert Oppenheimer. Brown was elected a Fellow in the American Institute of Architects in 1930, among the draftsmen in his office was Clarence W. W. Mayhew. In 1943, Brown was elected into the National Academy of Design as an Associate member, online guide to the Arthur Brown Jr. Papers, The Bancroft Library Diego Riveras mural at the SFAI Coit tower Arthur Brown Papers
A worlds fair, world fair, world exposition, or universal exposition is a large international exhibition designed to showcase achievements of nations. These exhibitions vary in character and are held in varying parts of the world, the next world Expo is Expo 2020 and is to be held in Dubai, UAE. Since the 1928 Convention Relating to International Exhibitions came into force, bIE-approved fairs are of three types, universal and horticultural. They usually last from three weeks to six months, Worlds fairs originated in the French tradition of national exhibitions, a tradition that culminated with the French Industrial Exposition of 1844 held in Paris. This fair was followed by other exhibitions in continental Europe. The best-known first World Expo was held in The Crystal Palace in Hyde Park, United Kingdom, in 1851, under the title Great Exhibition of the Works of Industry of All Nations. The Great Exhibition, as it is called, was an idea of Prince Albert, Queen Victorias husband. It influenced the development of aspects of society, including art-and-design education, international trade and relations.
This expo was the most obvious precedent for the international exhibitions, called worlds fairs. Since their inception in 1851, the character of world expositions has evolved, three eras can be distinguished, the era of industrialization, the era of cultural exchange, and the era of nation branding. The first era could be called the era of industrialization and covered, roughly, in these days, world expositions were especially focused on trade, and were famous for the display of technological inventions and advancements. World expositions were the platforms where the state-of-the-art in science and technology from around the world were brought together, inventions such as the telephone were first presented during this era. An important part of the image of worlds fairs stems from this first era, the 1939–40 New York Worlds Fair diverged from the original focus of the worlds fair expositions. From on, worlds fairs adopted specific cultural themes, they forecasted a future for society. Technological innovations were no longer the primary exhibits at fairs, the fairs encouraged effective intercultural communication for the exchange of innovation.
The 1967 International and Universal Exposition in Montreal was promoted under the name Expo 67, event organizers retired the term worlds fair in favor of expo. From Expo 88 in Brisbane onwards, countries started to use world expositions more widely, Japan, Canada and Spain are cases in point. A large study by Tjaco Walvis called Expo 2000 Hanover in Numbers showed that improving national image was the primary goal for 73% of the countries at Expo 2000
Lake Merced is a freshwater lake in the southwest corner of San Francisco, in the U. S. state of California. The San Francisco Police Department shooting range, as well as a shooting club. The lake is home of the Pacific Rowing Club and St. Ignatius College Prep Rowing Team, Lake Merced was originally christened Laguna de Nuestra Señora de la Merced by Captain Don Bruno de Heceta in 1775. The most probable cause of the shock was attributed to heavy rains forcing a passage through the sandbank at the north-west, the Lake is reported to have lost 30 feet of water. A map from 1881 shows that the Lake still had a passage to sea,29 years later, by purchasing all local supply, the company created a monopoly on San Franciscos water. It was not until 1908, when the city approved construction of OShaughnessy Dam creating the Hetch Hetchy Reservoir in the Sierra Nevada mountain range, that the city gained municipal control. Prior to the construction of the dam, Lake Merced was to serve as the main reservoir.
Around this time, Spring Valley sold off some of its land on Lake Merced, in 1940, Metropolitan Life bought the last of Spring Valleys land to build the Parkmerced apartment complex. Lake Merced at one time directly flowed into the ocean, the lake is fed by an underground spring, and at one time it did have an outlet to the ocean as shown on an 1869 United States Coast and Geodetic Survey Map. The salt level was always fluctuating, and therefore some species of fish inhabit the lake are salt. There is active recreational fishing at the lake, the lakes water level had been shrinking for decades, endangering the historic role of Lake Merced to support a healthy ecosystem. Due to better management of the aquifer and occasional additions of water, on September 13,1859, Chief Justice of the California Supreme Court David S. Terry killed United States Senator David C. Broderick in a duel at the lake
Pan American World Airways
It was a founding member of the International Air Transport Association, the global airline industry association. Identified by its blue logo, the use of the word Clipper in aircraft names and call signs, and the white pilot uniform caps. In an era dominated by flag carriers that were wholly or majority government-owned, during most of the jet era, Pan Ams flagship terminal was the Worldport located at John F. Kennedy International Airport in New York City. Arnold and Spaatz drew up the prospectus for Pan American when SCADTA hired a company in Delaware to obtain air mail contracts from the U. S. government. Pan American was able to obtain the U. S. mail delivery contract to Cuba and their operation had the all-important landing rights for Havana, having acquired American International Airways, a small airline established in 1926 by John K. Bevier as a service from Key West, Florida, to Havana. ACA met its deadline of having an air service operating by October 19,1927 by chartering a Fairchild FC-2 floatplane from a small Dominican Republic carrier.
The Atlantic and Caribbean Airways company was established on October 11,1927 by New York City investment banker Richard Hoyt and this company merged with PAA and ACA on June 23,1928. Richard Hoyt was named as president of the new Aviation Corporation of the Americas, Trippe became operational head of Pan American Airways, the new companys principal operating subsidiary. The government further helped Pan Am by insulating it from its U. S. competitors, the airline expanded internationally, benefiting from a virtual monopoly on foreign routes. Trippe and his associates planned to extend Pan Ams network through all of Central, by the end of the year, Pan Am offered flights along the west coast of South America to Peru. Its Brazilian subsidiary NYRBA do Brasil was renamed as Panair do Brasil, Pan Am partnered with Grace Shipping Company in 1929 to form Pan American-Grace Airways, better known as Panagra, to gain a foothold to destinations in South America. The Aviation Corporation of the Americas changed its name to Pan American Airways Corporation in 1931, during the day, use of the compass while judging drift from sea currents was normal procedure, at night, all flight crews were trained to use celestial navigation.
In bad weather, pilots used dead reckoning and timed turns, making landings at fogged-in harbors by landing out to sea. Many pilots had merchant marine certifications and radio licenses as well as pilot certificates, before World War II it was not unusual for a captain to make engine repairs at remote locations. Pan Ams mechanics and support staff were similarly trained, newly hired applicants were frequently paired with experienced flight mechanics in several areas of the company until they had achieved proficiency in all aircraft types. Many crews supported repair operations by flying in spare parts to planes stranded overseas, Pan Am started its South American routes with Consolidated Commodore and Sikorsky S-38 flying boats. The S-40, larger than the eight-passenger S-38, began flying for Pan Am in 1931, carrying the nicknames American Clipper, Southern Clipper, and Caribbean Clipper, they were the first of the series of 28 Clippers that symbolized Pan Am between 1931 and 1946