The Panama–Pacific International Exposition was a world's fair held in San Francisco, California, U. S. from February 20 to December 4, 1915. Its stated purpose was to celebrate the completion of the Panama Canal, but it was seen in the city as an opportunity to showcase its recovery from the 1906 earthquake; the fair was constructed on a 636 acre site along the northern shore, between the Presidio and Fort Mason, now known as the Marina District. Among the exhibits at the Exposition was the C. P. Huntington, the first steam locomotive purchased by Southern Pacific Railroad. A telephone line was established to New York City so people across the continent could hear the Pacific Ocean; the Liberty Bell traveled by train on a nationwide tour from Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, to attend the exposition. The 1915 American Grand Prize and Vanderbilt Cup auto races were held February 27 and March 6 on a 3.84-mile circuit set up around the Exposition grounds. The Smithsonian Institution had an exhibition at the Exposition.
Yumian, meaning fish-noodle in Chinese, is a noodle made with flour and fish from the Fu River in Yunmeng, China. Yunmeng Yumian was awarded silver medal of the Panama–Pacific International Exposition. Indian culture was a topic of interest during the nine-month-long exposition with multiple attractions dedicated to Indian life; the most popular attraction at the exposition that depicted Indian life is James Earle Fraser's statue, The End of the Trail. Fraser's statue, which showed a Native American man slumped over on a horse, reflected the American idea at the time, that the Native American race was doomed for extinction; the exposition not only celebrated the completion of the Panama Canal, but advances made by the American people, part of which were the conquests of indigenous people by Americans as well as Europeans. These celebrations over the Native community, can be seen through artworks such as The End of the Trail, The Pioneeror tributes to Francisco Pizarro and Hernán Cortés. In comparison to previous world fairs, the Panama–Pacific International Exposition showcased Indians more as nobles rather than savage people, but who were still destined to become extinct.
These ideas were presented in plays, known as pageants, where Native Americans played small roles such as in “Catalonian dragoons, a tribe of Carmel Indians.” While the demise of Native American people was a rhetoric created by fair organizers,scholars have argued that in reality, the Native persona was present and did not reflect the idea that it was a disappearing civilization. Indians were in fact part of the fair, but attended as visitors and workers. More scholars have focused on Native representation in San Francisco's 1915 rival world fair, San Diego's 1915 Panama-California Exposition that showed Indian life in a more anthropological light versus this American ideal. During the Panama–Pacific International Exposition women were in charge of their own board known as the Woman's Board of San Francisco's Panama–Pacific International Exposition; the board called the Boards of Lady Managers, allowed women to take part in organizing different aspects of the fair and more gave them the opportunity to have a campaigning platform for discussing women's rights and social issues.
It was argued that the fair celebrated male dominance over women by not providing a building for women. Men and women were depicted differently in artworks advertising the exposition. White women were presented as caretakers while men as strong and powerful saviors such as, in the poster “13thLabor of Hercules.” At the time, there was an idea of a “New Woman”, more progressive and advance intellectually as well as sexually. This idea of a “New Woman” related to the overarching theme of the fair and progress. In efforts to promote the fair and safety of the city, fair organizers used the “New Woman” as an advertising tactic and proof that San Francisco was an evolving and safe environment for tourists. During the fair, women could be seen posing with agriculture from around the state in celebration of California's produce. All the women were young-beautiful white women who were the highlight of many newspaper articles and events; this use of women, presented the idea that they were only useful for their beauty but failed to appreciate their intellectual capacity and physical abilities.
One of the most memorable achievements of the Women's Board was the installment of statue that celebrated women mothers known as the Pioneer Mother. The centerpiece was the Tower of Jewels, which rose to 435 feet and was covered with over 100,000 cut glass Novagems; the 3⁄4 to 2 inch colored "gems" sparkled in sunlight throughout the day and were illuminated by over 50 powerful electrical searchlights at night. In front of the Tower, the Fountain of Energy flowed at the center of the South Gardens, flanked by the Palace of Horticulture on the west and the Festival Hall to the east; the arch of the Tower served as the gateway to the Court of the Universe, leading to the Court of the Four Seasons to the west and the Court of Abundance to the east. These courts formed the primary exhibit area for the fair, which included the Food Products Palace, the Education and Social Economy Palace, the Agriculture Palace, the Liberal Arts Palace, the Transportation Palace, the Manufacturers Palace, the Mines and Metallurgy Palace, the Varied Industries Palace.
The Machinery Palace, the largest hall, dominated the east end of the central court. At the west end of central court group was the Palace of Fine Arts. Further west toward the bay down The Avenue of the Nations were nat
George Simpson was a New Zealand naturalist and botanist. He was born in the son of a master builder. He, became a builder and valuer, working as Crown Valuer from about 1943 until early 1950. However, he, together with John Scott Simpson, became interested in collecting and growing New Zealand native plants and by 1925 both were well known within the New Zealand botanical community. In 1930 he was elected a fellow of the Linnean Society, In 1945, he published his monograph on Carmichaelia. In 1949 he was elected a fellow of the Royal Society of New Zealand, FRSNZ; the standard author abbreviation G. Simpson is used to indicate this person as the author. Myosotis ramificata G. Simpson, Trans. & Proc. Roy. Soc. N. Z. lxxix. 426. Myosotis tenuis G. Simpson & J. S. Thomson, Trans. & Proc. Roy. Soc. N. Z. lxxiii. 161. Wahlenbergia laxa G. Simpson, Trans. & Proc. Roy. Soc. N. Z. lxxix. 430. Wahlenbergia ramosa G. Simpson, Trans. & Proc. Roy. Soc. N. Z. lxxv. 196. Brachyscome brevifolia G. Simpson, Trans. & Proc. Roy. Soc. N. Z. lxxix.
432. Celmisia spedeni G. Simpson, Trans. & Proc. Roy. Soc. N. Z. lxxv. 200. Carmichaelia solandri G. Simpson, Trans. & Proc. Roy. Soc. N. Z. lxxv. 253. Carmichaelia appressa G. Simpson, Trans. & Proc. Roy. Soc. N. Z. lxxv. 263. Carmichaelia astonii G. Simpson, Trans. & Proc. Roy. Soc. N. Z. lxxv. 253. Carmichaelia hollowayi G. Simpson, Trans. & Proc. Roy. Soc. N. Z. lxxv. 277. Ranunculus simpsonii Ourissia sessifolia var. simpsonii Wahlenburgia simpsonii J. A. Hay (synonym of Wahlenbergia albomarginata subsp. Flexilis J. A. Petterson
Dominic Ralph Campden Lawson is an English journalist. Lawson was born to a Jewish family, the elder son of Conservative politician Nigel Lawson and his first wife socialite Vanessa Salmon, Lawson was educated at Eton College, completing his schooling at Westminster School and proceeding to study History at Christ Church, Oxford. Lawson had three sisters: writer Nigella Lawson, their mother, an heir to the Lyons Corner House empire, died from liver cancer in 1985. Lawson's father was Chancellor of the Exchequer between 1983 and 1989. Lawson was married to Jane Whytehead from 1982 until 1991, he has been married to Rosa Monckton, a Roman Catholic, the daughter of the 2nd Viscount Monckton of Brenchley, since 1991. The Lawsons have two daughters and Savannah. Monckton is a patron of the disabled children's charity KIDS and is involved in Down Syndrome charity work. Rosa Monckton has talked to the press about how Down has affected her daughters' lives. Lawson joined the BBC as a researcher, wrote for the Financial Times.
From 1990 until 1995 he was editor of The Spectator magazine, a post his father had occupied from 1966 to 1970. In his capacity as editor of The Spectator he conducted, in June 1990, an interview with the cabinet minister Nicholas Ridley in which Ridley expressed opinions immensely hostile to Germany and the European Community, likening the initiatives of Jacques Delors and others to those of Hitler. Lawson added to the damage caused, by claiming that the opinions expressed by Ridley were shared by the Prime Minister, Margaret Thatcher. Ridley was forced to resign from the cabinet shortly after this incident. Although some senior Tories called for Lawson to be fired, his proprietor, Conrad Black, stood by him. Under Lawson's five-year editorship, the magazine's circulation grew from 30,000 to 50,000. From 1995 until 2005, Lawson was editor of The Sunday Telegraph. In 2006, he started to write columns for The Independent newspaper and in 2008, he became the main columnist for The Sunday Times.
In his article for The Independent dated 2 September 2013, he wrote that it would be his last for that newspaper, although he did not give a reason. He is a strong chess player and is the author of The Inner Game, on the inside story of the 1993 World Chess Championship, he was involved in the organisation of the 1983 World Chess championship semi-final. Lawson writes a monthly chess column in Standpoint. In 2014 he was elected president of the English Chess Federation. Richard Tomlinson alleged in 2001 that Lawson had worked with the intelligence agency MI6, but Lawson denied being an agent. Boris Johnson editor of The Spectator, wrote a pseudonymous article on the subject which Lawson found "intensely annoying" because of the potential increase in the threat to his newspaper's foreign correspondents. However, in 1998, Lawson had acknowledged that articles written in 1994, under a false name with a Sarajevo dateline while he was editor of the Spectator magazine, were "probably" written by an MI6 officer.
In 2016, Lawson attributed the result of the United Kingdom European Union membership referendum to the legalisation of same-sex marriage. Lawson, The Inner Game, Hardinge Simpole Limited, 2008, ISBN 1-84382-137-0 Diamond, Dawkins, Dominic Lawson, Snake Oil and Other Preoccupations, Vintage, 2001, ISBN 0-09-942833-4 Lawson, End Game: Kasparov vs. Short, Harmony, 1994, ISBN 0-517-59810-8