The goldfish is a freshwater fish in the family Cyprinidae of order Cypriniformes. It is one of the most kept aquarium fish. A small member of the carp family, the goldfish is native to East Asia, it was first selectively bred in ancient China more than 1,000 years ago, several distinct breeds have since been developed. Goldfish breeds vary in size, body shape, fin configuration and coloration. Starting in ancient China, various species of carp have been bred and reared as food fish for thousands of years; some of these gray or silver species have a tendency to produce red, orange or yellow color mutations. During the Tang dynasty, it was popular to raise carp in ornamental ponds and water gardens. A natural genetic mutation produced gold rather than silver coloration. People began to breed the gold variety instead of the silver variety, keeping them in ponds or other bodies of water. On special occasions at which guests were expected, they would be moved to a much smaller container for display.
By the Song dynasty, the selective domestic breeding of goldfish was established. In 1162, the empress of the Song Dynasty ordered the construction of a pond to collect the red and gold variety. By this time, people outside the imperial family were forbidden to keep goldfish of the gold variety, yellow being the imperial color; this is the reason why there are more orange goldfish than yellow goldfish though the latter are genetically easier to breed. The occurrence of other colors was first recorded in 1276. During the Ming dynasty, goldfish began to be raised indoors, which permitted selection for mutations that would not be able to survive in ponds; the first occurrence of fancy-tailed goldfish was recorded in the Ming Dynasty. In 1603, goldfish were introduced to Japan. In 1611, goldfish were introduced from there to other parts of Europe. During the 1620s, goldfish were regarded in southern Europe because of their metallic scales, symbolized good luck and fortune, it became a tradition for married men to give their wives a goldfish on their first anniversary, as a symbol for the prosperous years to come.
This tradition died, as goldfish became more available, losing their status. Goldfish were first introduced to North America around 1850 and became popular in the United States; as of April 2008, the largest goldfish in the world was believed by the BBC to measure 19 inches, to be living in the Netherlands. At the time, a goldfish named "Goldie", kept as a pet in a tank in Folkestone, was measured as 15 inches and over 2 pounds, named as the second largest in the world behind the Netherlands fish; the secretary of the Federation of British Aquatic Societies stated of Goldie's size, "I would think there are a few bigger goldfish that people don't think of as record holders in ornamental lakes". In July 2010, a goldfish measuring 16 inches and 5 pounds was caught in a pond in Poole, thought to have been abandoned there after outgrowing a tank. Goldfish have one of the most studied senses of vision in fishes. Goldfish have four kinds of cone cells, which are sensitive to different colours: red, green and ultraviolet.
The ability to distinguish between four different primary colours classifies them as tetrachromats. Goldfish have one of the most studied senses of hearing in fish, they have two otoliths, permitting the detection of sound particle motion, Weberian ossicles connecting the swimbladder to the otoliths, facilitating the detection of sound pressure. Goldfish have strong associative learning abilities, as well as social learning skills. In addition, their visual acuity allows them to distinguish between individual humans. Owners may notice that fish react favorably to them while hiding when other people approach the tank. Over time, goldfish learn to associate their owners and other humans with food "begging" for food whenever their owners approach. Goldfish that have constant visual contact with humans stop considering them to be a threat. After being kept in a tank for several weeks, sometimes months, it becomes possible to feed a goldfish by hand without it shying away. Goldfish have a memory-span of at least three months and can distinguish between different shapes and sounds.
By using positive reinforcement, goldfish can be trained to recognize and to react to light signals of different colors or to perform tricks. Fish respond to certain colors most evidently in relation to feeding. Fish learn to anticipate feedings provided. Goldfish are gregarious, displaying schooling behavior, as well as displaying the same types of feeding behaviors. Goldfish may display similar behaviors. Goldfish have learned behaviors, both as groups and as individuals, that stem from native carp behavior, they are a generalist species with varied feeding and predator avoidance behaviors that contribute to their success. As fish, they can be described as "friendly" towards each other. Does a goldfish harm another goldfish, nor do the males harm the females during breeding; the only real threat that goldfish present to each other is competing for food. Commons and other faster
In Ireland at the end of the sixteenth and beginning of the seventeenth century, the fortified house, along with the stronghouse, developed as a replacement for the tower house.'Fortified Houses' were rectangular, or sometimes U or L-shaped, three-storey structures with high gables and chimney stacks and large windows with hood mouldings. Some examples have square towers at the corners; the interiors were spacious with wooden partitions and numerous fireplaces. In a number of cases'Fortified Houses' were built onto pre-existing tower houses.'Fortified Houses' were protected by gun fire from the angle towers and bartizans, were provided with bawn walls with gunloops and protected gateways.'Fortified Houses' were built throughout Ireland by large landowners from a variety of backgrounds, such as the Old English Earl of Clanricarde who built Portumna Castle in County Galway. Athlumney Castle, Navan Burncourt Castle, County Tipperary Coolhull Castle, County Wexford Dromaneen Castle, County Cork The Mint, County Louth Portumna Castle, County Galway Robertstown Castle, County Meath Saint David's Castle, Naas Terryglass Castle, County Tipperary Tower house Manor house Joe Nunan "The Fortified Houses of County Cork: Origin, form and social space", The Proceedings of the 2006 Association of Young Irish Archaeologists conference, pp. 65–75.
The Fortified House: A Review
The Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Embrun was located in southeastern France, in the mountains of the Maritime Alps, on a route that led from Gap by way of Briançon to Turin. It had as suffragans the Diocese of Digne, Diocese of Antibes and Grasse, Diocese of Vence, Diocese of Glandèves, Diocese of Senez and Diocese of Nice, its see. The former French Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Embrun was suppressed after the French Revolution, it was replaced, under the Civil Constitution of the Clergy by a diocese which had the same boundaries of the civil departement in which it was located. The diocese was called'Haute-Alpes', with its center at Gap; when the Diocese of Gap was re-established in 1822 it comprised, besides the ancient Diocese of Gap, a large part of the ancient archdiocese of Embrun. The name of the metropolitan see of Embrun, had been absorbed in the title of the Archbishop of Aix-en-Provence and Arles, until 2007. In 2008, the title of Embrun was reattached to the Diocese of Gap by papal decree of Pope Benedict XVI.
Tradition ascribes the evangelization of Embrun to Saints Nazarius and Celsus, martyrs under emperor Nero. Gregory of Tours states, their bodies, were discovered in a cemetery in Milan by Saint Ambrose. They were drowned at Trier, on orders of the Emperor Nero, their entire story is without historical foundation, a mass of contradictions and improbabilities. According to another tradition, the first Bishop of Embrun, Saint Marcellus, was such a successful preacher that, by the end of his episcopacy, there was not a single pagan left in the diocese; the see became an archbishopric about 800. In 1056 Pope Victor confirmed the Archbishop of Embrun as Metropolitan of the Sees of Digne, Solliès, Glandèves, Cimiez-Nice and Antibes. Bishop Winimann was granted the pallium In 1276 the Archbishops of Embrun were made Princes of the Holy Roman Empire; the see was suppressed in the French Revolution, being transferred to the diocese of Gap, the cathedral church became a mere parish church. St. Guillaume, founder of the Abbey of Boscodon.
St. Vincent Ferrer preached several missions against the Vaudois in the Diocese of Embrun. Catholic Church in France List of Catholic dioceses in Pius Bonifatius. Series episcoporum Ecclesiae catholicae: quotquot innotuerunt a beato Petro apostolo. Ratisbon: Typis et Sumptibus Georgii Josephi Manz. pp. 548–549. Mas Latrie, Louis de. Tresor de chronologie, d'histoire et de geographie pour l'etude et emploi des documents du moyen-age. Paris: Palme. Pp. 1420–1421, 2162. Jean, Armand. Les évêques et les archevêques de France depuis 1682 jusqu'à 1801. Paris: A. Picard. Eubel, Conradus. Hierarchia catholica, Tomus 1. Münster: Libreria Regensbergiana. CS1 maint: extra text: authors list pp. 233–234. Eubel, Conradus. Hierarchia catholica, Tomus 2. Münster: Libreria Regensbergiana. CS1 maint: extra text: authors list p. 148. Eubel, Conradus. Hierarchia catholica, Tomus 3. Münster: Libreria Regensbergiana. CS1 maint: extra text: authors list p. 190. Gauchat, Patritius. Hierarchia catholica IV. Münster: Libraria Regensbergiana.
Retrieved 2016-07-06. Pp. 179. Ritzler, Remigius. Hierarchia catholica medii et recentis aevi V. Patavii: Messagero di S. Antonio. Retrieved 2016-07-06. Pp. 190–191. Ritzler, Remigius. Hierarchia catholica medii et recentis aevi VI. Patavii: Messagero di S. Antonio. Retrieved 2016-07-06. P. 203. This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Goya, Pierre-Louis-Théophile-Georges. "Diocese of Gap". In Herbermann, Charles. Catholic Encyclopedia. 6. New York: Robert Appleton. Albanés, Joseph Hyacinthe. Gallia christiana novissima: Aix, Apt, Fréjus, Riez et Sisteron. Montbéliard: Société anonyme d'imprimerie montbéliardaise. Brunel, Louis. Les Vaudois des Alpes françaises et de Freissinières en particulier: leur passé, leur présent, leur avenir. Paris: Fischbacher. Duchesne, Louis. Fastes épiscopaux de l'ancienne Gaule: I. Provinces du Sud-Est. Paris: Fontemoing. Pp. 285–286. Second edition Fisquet, Honore. La France pontificale: Metropole d'Aix: Aix, Embrun. 2nd partie. Paris: E. Repos. Pp. 793–1041.
Gaillaud, Marie-Eucher. Histoire de Notre-Dame d'Embrun ou la Vierge du Réal. Gap: Impr. Jouglard. Sainte-Marthe, Denis de. Gallia Christiana: In Provincias Ecclesiasticas Distributa, Qua Series Et Historia Archiepiscoporum, Episcoporum Et Abbatum Franciae Vicinarumque Ditionum ab origine Ecclesiarum ab nostra tempora deducitur, & probatur ex authenticis Instrumentis ad calcem appositis. Provinciae Cameracensis, Ebredunensis. Tomus tertius. Paris: Typographia Regia. Si