The Gondi or Gond or Koitur are an Indian ethnic group. They speak Gondi language, a Dravidian language, they are one of the largest tribal groups in India. They are spread over the states of Madhya Pradesh, eastern Maharashtra, Uttar Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh and Odisha, they are listed as a Scheduled Tribe for the purpose of India's system of positive discrimination. They are an Adivasi group of IndiaThe Gond are known as the Raj Gond; the term was used in 1950s, but has now become obsolete because of the political eclipse of the Gond Rajas. The Gondi language is related to the Telugu, belonging to the Dravidian family of languages; the 2011 Census of India recorded about 2.98 million Gondi speakers. According to the 1971 census, their population was 5.01 million. By the 1991 census, this had increased to 9.3 million and by the 2001 census the figure was nearly 11 million. For the past few decades they have been witnesses to the Naxalite–Maoist insurgency in the central part of India. Gondi people, at the behest of the Chhattisgarh government, formed the Salwa Judum, an armed militant group to fight the Naxalite insurgency.
Scholars believe that Gonds ruled in Gondwana, now in eastern Madhya Pradesh and western Odisha, between the 13th and 19th centuries AD. Muslim writers described a rise of Gond state after the 14th century. Gonds ruled in four kingdoms in central India between the 18th centuries. Rani Durgavati rules the region from 1550 until her death in 1564, they built number of forts, temples and lakes during the rule of the Gonds dynasty. The Gondwana kingdom survived until the late 16th century, they gained control over the Malwa after the decline of the Mughals followed by the Marathas in 1690. The Maratha power swept into Gondland in the 1740s; the Marathas overthrew the Gond Rajas and seized most of their territory, while Some Gond zamindaris survived until recently. Many astronomical ideas were known to ancient Gonds. Gonds had their own local terms for the Sun, Moon and Milky Way. Most of these ideas were basis for their calendrical activities. Other than Gonds, the Banjaras and Kolams are known to have knowledge of astronomy.
Most Gond people follow folk Hinduism which retained the animist beliefs of nature and ancestor worship. Some Gonds practice Sarnaism. Gonds worship a high god known as Baradeo, whose alternate names are Bhagavan, Sri Shambu Mahadeo, Persa Pen, Baradeo oversees activities of lesser gods such as clan and village deities, as well as ancestor. Baradeo is respected but he does not receive fervent devotion, shown only to clan and village deities, as well as ancestor and totems, their typical reaction to death has been described as one of anger because they believe it is caused by magical demons. Pola, a cattle festival, Naga panchami and Dassera are their major festivals. Many Gonds worship Ravana, whom they consider to be the tenth dharmaguru of their people and the ancestor-king of one of their four lineages, they worship Kupar Lingo as their supreme deity and their ancestor before Ravana. On Dussehra, the Gondi inhabitants of Paraswadi carry an image of Ravana riding an elephant in a procession to worship him, protest the burning of Ravana's effigies.
Their worship of Ravana is a way to resist pressure from Christian missionaries and right-wing Hindu groups and preserve their own culture. They are a designated Scheduled Tribe in Andhra Pradesh, parts of Uttar Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand, Madhya Pradesh, Telangana and West Bengal; the Government of Uttar Pradesh had classified the Gondi people as a Scheduled Caste but by 2007, they were one of several groups that the Uttar Pradesh government had redesignated as Scheduled Tribes. As of 2017, that tribal designation applies only to certain districts, not the entire state; the 2011 Census of India for Uttar Pradesh showed the Scheduled Caste Gond population as 21,992. Godha Ajanbahu Jatbasha The tribal art of middle India - Verrier Elwin - 1951 Savaging the Civilized, Verrier Elwin, His Tribals & India - Ramachandra Guha - The University of Chicago Press - 1999 Beine, David m. 1994. A sociolinguistic survey of the Gondi-speaking communities of central India. M. A. thesis. San Diego State University.
516 p. Banerjee, B. G. and Kiran Bhatia. Tribal Demography of Gonds. Delhi: Gian Pub. House, 1988. ISBN 81-212-0237-X Elwin, Verrier. Phulmat of the Hills. London: J. Murray, 1937. Fürer-Haimendorf, Christoph von, Elizabeth von Fürer-Haimendorf; the Gonds of Andhra Pradesh: Tradition and Change in an Indian Tribe. London: George Allen & Unwin, 1979. ISBN 0-04-301090-3 Kaufmann, Walter. Songs and Drummings of the Hill Maria, Jhoria Muria and Bastar Muria Gonds. And, the Musical Instruments of the Murias. 1950. Mehta, B. H. Gonds of the Central Indian Highlands: A Study of the Dynamics of Gond Society. New Delhi: Concept, 1984. Museum of Mankind, Shelagh Weir, Hira Lal; the Gonds of Central India. London: British Museum, 1973. ISBN 0-7141-1537-1 Pagdi, Setumadhava Rao. Among the Gonds of Adilabad. Bombay: Popular Book Depot, 1952. Pingle and Christoph von Fürer-Haimendorf. Gonds and Their Neighbours: A Study in Genetic Diversity. Lucknow, India: Ethnographic & Folk Culture Society, 1987. Sharma, Anima. Tribe in Transition: A Study of Thakur Gonds.
India: Mittal Publications, 2005. ISBN 81-7099-989-8 Singh, Indrajit; the Gondwana and the Gonds. Lucknow, India: The Universal publishers, 1944. Kangalee, Motiram Chhabiram, Paree Kupar Lingo Gondi Punemi Darshan,Publisher
Sygynnakh is a rural locality, the only inhabited locality, the administrative center of Arbynsky Rural Okrug of Namsky District in the Sakha Republic, located 90 kilometers from Namtsy, the administrative center of the district. Its population as of the 2010 Census was 268, down from 270 recorded during the 2002 Census. Official website of the Sakha Republic. Registry of the Administrative-Territorial Divisions of the Sakha Republic. Namsky District. Государственное Собрание Республики Саха. Закон №173-З №353-III от 30 ноября 2004 г. «Об установлении границ и о наделении статусом городского и сельского поселений муниципальных образований Республики Саха », в ред. Закона №1058-З №1007-IV от 25 апреля 2012 г. «О внесении изменений в Закон Республики Саха "Об установлении границ и о наделении статусом городского и сельского поселений муниципальных образований Республики Саха"». Вступил в силу со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Якутия", №245, 31 декабря 2004 г
WildSnake is a puzzle video game inspired by Tetris. Snakes of varying colors and lengths fall from the top of the slither to the bottom; the goal is to clear out the snakes by touching two of the same color. WildSnake was presented by Alexey Pajitnov. A Game Gear version was developed by the same team who developed the Game Boy version, but it was never released; when two snakes of the same color touches they disappear. Sometimes a flashing WildSnake will appear and destroy every snake of the same color it touches. There are rare uncontrollable purple snakes that destroy everything they touch; the game include 7 grid types and 2 player mode. Reviewing the Game Boy version, GamePro commented that "WildSnake clones the Tetris concept and adds a nifty graphic twist." They praised the multiple gameplay modes and the way the snakes loop and twist to fill open spaces at the bottom of the playing field. They gave the Super NES version a positive reviewing as well, citing the same reasons, though they did remark that the snakes and their patterns are somewhat too small in this version.
Next Generation reviewed the SNES version of the game, rating it three stars out of five, stated that "WildSnake manages to entertain, if only as a watered-down version of the game that it so strives to beat."
High-motion is the characteristic of video or film footage displayed possessing a sufficiently high frame rate that moving images do not blur or strobe when tracked by the eye. The most common forms of high motion are PAL video at their native display rates. Movie film does not portray high motion when shown on television monitors. In the early 20th century when 35mm movie film was developed, producers found that 18–24 frames per second was adequate for portraying motion in a movie theater environment. Flicker was still a problem at these rates, but projectors solved this by projecting each frame twice, thus creating a refresh rate of 36–48 Hz without using excessive amounts of film. However, when television was developed, there was no corresponding way to capture a video frame and project it twice; the solution to this was interlace, which had a side effect that 50 to 60 images per second were presented to the viewer. Television producers found that these higher image rates made certain shots possible that were unacceptable on film.
Camera pans and text scrolls could be faster. Handheld camera work seemed less objectionable, most sports action was much clearer — when following a ball was critical. There are no used imaging systems that run at rates higher than 30 frame/s but lower than 48 Hz, so 48 Hz or higher is the de facto standard for high motion; the effects of high motion can be reduced or negated by converter lag when NTSC video is converted to PAL, or vice versa. Showscan's research indicates that an average of 66.7 frames per second is the upper limit of what the human eye can perceive, higher frame rates have no further effect, except in reducing flicker. Until the late 1990s, programs shot on video always possessed high motion, while programming shot on film never did; this had the result of high motion being associated with news coverage and low-budget programming such as soap operas and some sitcoms. Higher-budget programming on television was shot on film. In the 1950s, when Hollywood experimented with higher frame rates for films some objected to the more video-like look.
High motion is criticized as interfering with the suspension of disbelief, making it difficult to forget that the viewer is watching actors performing a scene. Some feel that this is an inherent advantage to lower frame rates, while others suggest that it is due to the historical availability of high motion only in programs that are least able to use the medium artistically, the evolution of acting techniques based on lack of high motion. In areas where high-motion drama is more common, such as Britain, viewers tend to tolerate the look better. In the mid and late 2000s, digital video technology had started to make it possible to shoot video at the "film look" rate of 24 frame/s at little or no additional cost; this had resulted in less high motion on television and on the internet on Video sharing applications such as YouTube in the early to mid 2010s. The future presence of digital projectors in theaters opens up the possibility that Hollywood movies could someday include high motion—perhaps in action films intercut with 24 frame/s for non-action scenes.
The MaxiVision48 3-perf film format promotes this use with its ability to switch from 24 frame/s to 48 frame/s on the fly during projection. However, 3-perf has not seen much adaptation as a projection format. Director Peter Jackson's three-part Hobbit film series was shot at 48 fps, using the Red Digital Cinema Epic video camera system. Many action cameras of the 2010s take video at High-Motion frame rates. GoPro and other action camera competitors record video at 1080p and 2.7k at 120 fps, 720p and 1080p at 240 fps, 4k at 60 fps. Although the video formats were designed for slowing down in post-production, the cameras record high frame rates in high definition with clear audio. Alongside action cameras, gaming monitors display high refresh rates as high as 240 Hz as of 2017, while the standard is 144 Hz; this means gaming displays can display videos shot at high motion and play them back at their proper frame rates in real time at up to 240 fps, achieving an authentic high motion look. The human eye can perceive anywhere from 480 fps to 4000 fps, see it as looking realistic or immersive naturally.
While 120 fps looks'realistic', the stroboscopic look can still be seen, which happens on 60 Hz monitors playing 60 fps video and sometimes excessive motion blur, depending on the camera and shutter speed, used when the video was recorded. Otherwise, videos over 200 fps are more preferred, since they look more fluid and realistic or by changing the shutter speed with an ND filter at frame rates between 50 fps and 120 fps.. YouTube in October 2014 started to allow for the beginning of High-Motion content or High Frame Rate content, as well as videos before 2014 uploaded at over 30 fps, up to 60 fps. In the context of digital video compression, "high motion" is sometimes used to describe footage in which frames change too for motion prediction techniques to be effective; this article describes only the high frame rate defin
Nidhi Chanani is an Indian-American freelance illustrator and artist. Her debut graphic novel Pashmina was released by First Second Books in October 2017. Nidhi Chanani was born in Kolkata and moved to Southern California when she was four months old, she received a degree in Literature from the University of Santa Cruz. She attended the Academy of Art University in San Francisco for a year and a half before dropping out, feeling "limited by the way art is taught." Chanani worked at non-profit organizations before entering the comics field. Chanani runs an online webseries and store titled EveryDayLoveArt.com, where she tries to capture the relevance for "ordinary everyday moments in our daily lives". Chanani explains that Pashmina is a story of a first-generation girl, "trying to understand herself", she worked as a concept artist for the 2011 Australian film and the Hasbian. She has worked with Hasbro, Paramount Pictures and Disney. Other than her novel, Chanani has illustrated Misty: the Proud Cloud by Hugh Howey.
Chanani has been commissioned by Dark Horse Comics for a graphic novel based on Walt Disney Animation Studios' 1992 animated feature Aladdin titled Disney's princess: Jasmine's new pet. The graphic novel revolves around Jasmine and her pet tiger, Raja's, relationship when they first met, it was released in October 2018. Chanani has written and Illustrated a bilingual children book titled Shubh Raatri Dost with Bharat babies, her second graphic novel, was a collaboration with her husband Nick Giordano about two Muslim American cousins and Tannaz in San Francisco who find a magical jukebox that comes to their aid when Giovanni, Shaheen's father, goes missing. It is slated for 2020 release, she illustrated the book I will be Fierce by Bea Birdsong, to be released in 2019 by Macmillan Publishers. Throughout her work Chanani has worked to represent normal problems that exist within families, as well as showcasing female characters of color dealing with issues of identity, she utilizes the visual medium of graphic novels and comics to utilize the storytelling through both written and visual mediums in order to portray aspects of her stories that cannot be demonstrated in only one medium.
In March 2019, Netflix announced it will adapt Chanani's best selling graphic novel Pashmina into a CG animated musical with Gurinder Chadha set to direct. For Pashmina, Chanani drew inspiration from various sources. According to her "My inspiration for Pashmina came from a variety of sources: my mom, growing up in the US, my first trip to India, the choices women make — all of these things are woven into the story; when I was younger my parents would travel to India often. When they returned, their suitcases had a pungent magical smell—from a place that seemed far away. I was 10 years old. Opening their suitcase made. In a way, I believe this story has been with me since then."Chanani has been influenced throughout her career by the Indian novelist, Arundhati Roy. Roy influenced Chanani in her ability to incorporate political underpinnings in the voices of the characters throughout her work. Similar to Roy, Chanani has made representing Indian people and the everyday struggles that they encounter a central element of her writing and graphic work.
Chanani, according to her own interviews, is influenced by the author Gene Luen Yang. Chanani is an instructor at the California College of the Arts, she features local Bay area backdrops, as well as images derived from her Indian heritage. She explains, "I grew up watching Bollywood films on the weekends, eating Indian breakfasts, spending time with my Indian family, it didn't feel like because I didn't live in India, India didn't live in me. If I don't draw something Indian per se, something about my "Indian-ness" will come through whether I make the characters brown or pick a setting reminiscent of India. There is something about, and who I am is Indian. I don't think, removable from what I do." Pashmina received the 2017 Virginia Library Association Graphic Diversity Award in the Youth Category, the 2018 South Asia Book Award for Children's Literature in the Grade 3-6 category. Pashmina was a Best Fiction for Older Readers selection for 2017 by the Chicago Public Library, it was released by Harper Collins in India.
In April 2012, Nidhi was honored at the White House as a Champion of Change. Chanani creates her art using digital media, wood burning, watercolors, stating: "For my illustrations I use flash and Photoshop with a heavy dose of brushes and textures I've created. For my wood burnings I use raw wood and a professional wood burning pen." Chanani uses magical realism in her work to tell her stories. 2012 White House Champion of Change 2017 Virginia Library Association Graphic novel Diversity Award in youth category 2018 South Asia Book Award Honor Chanani and her husband, Nick Giordano, live in San Francisco Bay Area with their daughter. Official website Nidhi Chanani at the Comic Book DB "Articles by Nidhi Chanani" India Currents Chanani, Nidhi. "Pashmina". Diversity in YA
Weekender Records was an Artist Management Company and an independent record label, based in London, England, it had a sister company based in Berlin Germany. The company closed in March 2010, it was established in September 2006. Started by Austrian-based club owner Justin Barwick with help from London-based band manager Grant Box and Dymphna Terzoli who had 9 years' experience in the industry including Virgin Records, Mean Fiddler, KOKO; the label took its name from the Weekender Club in Innsbruck where many artists on the label were discovered. Its first year saw the release of an album by DOGS, a multitude of single releases including Eight Legs, The Lea Shores, The Runners, Look See Proof and The Indelicates, many of whom would go on to be album artistes. During the first year the label hosted its own stage at the hugely successful Shoreditch 1234 festival in London. Further releases included Swedish band Shout Out Louds album Our Ill Wills and the debut singles by Official Secrets Act, twee Scottish casio pop band Sugar Crisis and Isolated Atoms.
In 2009 Weekender had a change of direction becoming an Artist Management Company affectionately known as WAM. As of October 2009 there were three artists signed to WAM, The Lines from Wolverhampton, An Experiment On A Bird In The Air Pump from London and Londoner Sam Beer. In 2008 and 2009 Weekender UK had its own stage at one of Europes biggest festivals, Frequency in Austria; the festival has continued to call the stage Weekender up to the current festival in 2018 and Justin Barwick was still working for the festival managing the stage until 2016. Gordon Keen has spent years in the music business, he has played guitar with BMX Bandits and has supported Nirvana as part of Captain America. Gordon is now based in Scotland where he continues his career as a session musician, was involved in setting up the Gorbals Sound recording complex and has various other media and business interests. Lesley Olivares continues as an accountant in her hometown of Brighton. Justin Barwick continues as a director of Weekender Club in Innsbruck and now has a record shop called Downtown Sound in Innsbruck.
Justin continues to DJ around Europe playing 60's and 70's garage, psych, rock, glam. He is involved with new projects to release records on vinyl such as the debut single for London band Peter Parker's Rock & Roll Club, The Hypnotic Eye, Blek Le Roc, John's Children, Boz Boorer, Paul Orwell, Lindsay Murray and MOLLY, he is a director of Austrian reissue label DIGATONE that releases rare Austrian music from the 60's & 70's. 1984 The Author Alfonzo The Bishops Butterfly Bangs The Dash The Disciplines Dogs Eight Legs Five! Fast!! Hits!!! The Hussy's Isolated Atoms Kingsize The Lea Shores The Lines Look See Proof Naked Lunch Nitasha Jackson Official Secrets Act The People's Revolutionary Choir The Puzzle The Rocks The Runners Shout Out Louds Subliminal Girls An Experiment On A Bird In The Air Pump The Lines Sam Beer Weekender Club Innsbruck Official Site